An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
GW170817
     
GW170817

Fr.: GW170817   

The first → gravitational wave event detected in association with an → electromagnetic counterpart. On 2017 August (12h 41m 04s UTC) the gravitational event GW170817 was observed by → Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and the → Virgo interferometer. 1.7 seconds later the Earth-orbiting Fermi and INTEGRAL observatories detected a → gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A). The gravitational wave data were used to attribute the event to the → merger of → neutron stars in a → neutron star binary system. The component masses range 1.17-1.60 → solar masses (Abbott et al., 2017, Physical Review Letters 119, 161101). The source was rapidly localized to a region of 31 deg2 using data from all three detectors. The analysis of the gravitational wave data suggested a distance of 40 (± 8) Mpc for the event. 45 min after sunset in Chile and 10 hours after the GW trigger, astronomers (Coulter et al. 2017, GCN 21529) located the → electromagnetic counterpart of the gravitational wave event in the → lenticular galaxy (S0) → NGC 4993 offset 10.6 arcseconds north-east from center (corresponding to 2.0 kpc). Follow-up observations revealed an optical-infrared → transient known as → kilonova that lasted a few days, as predicted by models of neutron star merger. Kilonova is powered by the synthesis of large amounts of very heavy elements via rapid neutron capture (the → r-process). The merger ejected 0.03-0.05 → solar masses, including high opacity → lanthanides. Kilonovae are believed to be cradles of production of rare → chemical elements like → gold and → platinum (Pian et al., 2017, Nature doi:10.1038/nature24298).

GW, short for → gravitational wave; 170817 detection date, 2017 August 17.

gyrate
  لِریدن   
leridan

Fr.: tournoyer   

To move in a circle or spiral, or around a fixed point; to revolve in or as if in a spiral course. Close concepts: → revolve; → rotate; → spin. See also: → gyro-.

From L. gyratus, p.p. of gyrare "to turn around," from L. gyrus "circle," from Gk. gyros "circle, ring;" PIE base *geu- "to bend, curve."

Leridan, from Lori, Laki lerr "revolving, whirling, turning" (lerr dâye "to make rotate, to stir a liquid," lerese "to rotate, turn"), variant xer "circular, round" (xer dâyen "to make turn"), maybe cognate with Gk. gyros "circle, ring," as above; variants in Mod.Pers. lulé "rolled-up, wound-up; tube," lulé kardan "to roll up, wind up;" Hamadâni lul "spiral, twisted;" Kurd. lûl "curly (of hair)," garda-lûl, ~ lûlân "wind that whirls dust."

GYRE
     
GYRE

Fr.: GYRE   

An open-source (adiabatic/non-adiabatic) pulsation code that calculates the oscillation frequencies of an input stellar model. The code is based on a "Magnus Multiple Shooting" scheme, which is a numerical technique to solve boundary value problems. This is done by subdividing the possible solution space into sub-intervals and solving the pulsation equation in these sub-intervals, assuming continuity conditions. GYRE is integrated into → Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA)'s → asteroseismologic module (Townsend & Teitler, 2013, MNRAS 435, 3406).

GYRE, of unknown origin.

gyro-
  لر-   
ler-

Fr.: gyro-   

A combining form meaning "ring, circle, spiral," used in the formation of compound words: → gyroscope, → gyrofrequency, → gyroradius, → gyrate.

From Gk. gyros "circle, ring;" PIE base *geu- "to bend, curve."

From leridan, → gyrate.

gyrofrequency
  لِربسامد   
lerbasâmad

Fr.: fréquence gyromagnétique   

The frequency with which an electron or other charged particle executes spiral gyrations in moving across a magnetic field.

gyro-; → frequency.

gyroradius
  لرشعاع   
leršo'â'

Fr.: gyrorayon   

Same as → Larmor radius.

gyro-; → radius.

gyroscope
  لِرنما، چرخش‌نما   
lernemâ, carxešnemâ

Fr.: gyroscope   

A device for measuring or maintaining orientation. Consisting of a rotating wheel so mounted that its axis can turn freely in certain or all directions, it is based on the principle of conservation of angular momentum. In physics this is also known as gyroscopic inertia or rigidity in space.

Gyroscope, from gyro-, → gyrate + → -scope.

Lernemâ, from ler, → gyrate, + -nemâ-scope; carxešnemâ, from carxešrotation + -nemâ.

GZK cutoff
  بره‌ی ِ گریسن-زاتسپین-کوزمین   
bore-ye Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin

Fr.: limite de Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin   

Same as → Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cutoff.

Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cutoff.

H and K lines
  خطهای ِ H و K   
xatthâ-ye H o K

Fr.: raies H et K   

Two prominent → absorption lines, at 3968.5 Å and 3933.7 Å respectively, in the spectra of stars like the → Sun and cooler due to → singly ionized → calcium (Ca II). The strength of H and K lines can be an indication of considerable magnetic activity in the → chromosphere of these stars. The Ca II H and K lines are also common in some kinds of → eruptive variable stars. These lines are not seen in → hot stars, and start to become visible in → A-type stars.

H and K, letters of alphabet, conventionally chosen; → line.

H I
  H I   
H I

Fr.: H I   

Atomic or → neutral hydrogen.

From H, abbreviation of hydrogen + I "one" in Roman number system, nomenclature convention representing neutral atoms.

H I region
  ناحیه‌ی ِ H I   
nâhiye-ye H I

Fr.: région H I   

A region of neutral (atomic) hydrogen in interstellar space. At least 95 percent of interstellar hydrogen is H I. It emits radio waves that are 21 cm long.

H I; → region

H II
  H II   
H II

Fr.: H II   

Ionized → hydrogen, that is a proton nucleus that has lost its unique electron.

From H, abbreviation of hydrogen + II "two" in Roman number system, nomenclature convention representing singly ionized atoms.

H II galaxy
  کهکشان ِ H II   
kahkešân-e H II

Fr.: galaxie H II   

A low-mass and → metal-poor galaxy (1/30-1/3 Zsun), experiencing strong episodes of → star formation, characterized by the presence of bright → emission lines on a faint → blue continuum. The fact that H II galaxies are metal poor and very blue objects seems to suggest that they are young. Nevertheless, several studies show the existence of an → old stellar population underlying the present → star burst in most of these galaxies. This fact indicates that these objects are not young systems forming their first generation of stars. Same as → blue compact dwarf galaxy.
Spectroscopically, H II galaxies are essentially identical to the → giant H II regions found in nearby → irregular and → late-type galaxies. The correlation among structural parameters (→ H-beta → luminosity, → velocity dispersion, → linewidths) and between these parameters and the → chemical composition favors the interpretation of H II galaxies as giant H II regions in distant → dwarf irregular galaxies similar to the ones found nearby. Some examples of H II galaxies are: I Zw 18, SBS 0335-052, II Zw 33, UM 408.

H II; → galaxy.

H II region
  ناحیه‌ی ِ H II   
nâhiye-ye H II

Fr.: région H II   

A type of → emission nebulae composed of very hot gas (about 104 K), mainly ionized hydrogen, created by the ultraviolet radiation of → massive stars. H II regions originate when O or early-type stars, born in → giant molecular clouds, start heating up the cold gas, causing it to become → ionized and "glow". The effective temperatures of the → exciting stars are in the range 3 x 104 to 5 x 104 K, and throughout the nebula hydrogen is ionized. Helium is → singly ionized, and other elements are mostly singly or → doubly ionized. Typical densities in the H II region are of the order 10 to 102 cm-3, ranging as high as 104 cm-3. Internal motions occur in the gas with velocities of order 10 km s-1. The spectra of H II regions are mainly composed of strong → H Irecombination lines and → forbidden lines such as [O III], [O II], [N II]. See also → ionization-bounded H II region; → density-bounded H II region; → compact H II region; → ultracompact H II region.

H II; → region

H II region luminosity
  تابندگی ِ ناحیه‌ی ِ H II   
tâbandegi-ye nâhiye-ye H II

Fr.: luminosité de région H II   

The total number of → Lyman continuum photons emitted by an → H II region. It is usually derived using → radio continuum observations which are less affected by → interstellar extinction. The measured value is often a lower limit because of photon leakage from the H II region and absorption. See also → density-bounded H II region.

H II; → region; → luminosity.

H-alpha
   H-آلفا   
H-âlfâ (#)

Fr.: H-alpha (Hα)   

The → Balmer series spectral line of hydrogen which results from → atomic transition between the → energy levels 2 and 3. It has a wavelength of 656.4 nm and falls in the red region of the visible spectrum.

H, symbol of → hydrogen; alpha (α), the first letter of Gk. alphabet.

H-beta
   H-بتا   
H-betâ (#)

Fr.: H-beta (Hβ)   

The → Balmer series spectral line of hydrogen which results from → atomic transition between the → energy levels 2 and 4. It has a wavelength of 486.1 nm and falls in the → blue region of the → visible spectrum.

H, symbol of → hydrogen; beta (β), the second letter of Gk. alphabet.

H-R diagram
  نمودار ِ H-R   
nemudâr-e H-R

Fr.: diagramme H-R   

Same as → Hertzsprung-Russell diagram.

Short for → Hertzsprung-Russell diagram.

Habing field
  میدان ِ هابینگ   
meydân-e Habing

Fr.: champ de Habing   

A unit used to express the strength of average → far ultraviolet (FUV) intensity in the → interstellar radiation field. It is equal to 1.2 × 10-4 erg cm-2 s-1 sr-1 = 1.6 × 10-3 cm-2 s-1 = 108 photons cm-2 s-1.

Named after Harm Habing, a pioneer in this field (Habing, H. J., 1968, Bull. Astr. Netherlands 19, 421).

habitable
  زیست‌پذیر   
zistpazir

Fr.: habitable   

In → exobiology, having a → temperature range within which → liquid water can exist on the surface of a → planet.

M.E., from O.Fr. habitation, from L. habitare "to live, dwell," frequentative of habere "to have, to hold, possess," from PIE base *ghrebh- "to seize, take, hold, have, give, receive" (cf. Mod.Pers. gereftan "to take, seize;" Mid.Pers. griftan; O.Pers./Av. grab- "to take, seize;" Skt. grah-, grabh- "to seize, take," graha "seizing, holding, perceiving;" M.L.G. grabben "to grab," from P.Gmc. *grab, E. grab "to take or grasp suddenly"); → zone.

Zistpazir, from zist, → life, + pazir "admitting, accepting, having," → -able.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>