An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

   Homepage   
   


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.)
  راژمان ِ استریوی ِ مه‌ کاروژ   
râžmân-e estereyo-ye meh kâruž (H.E.S.S.)

Fr.: Système stéréoscopique de haute énergie (H.E.S.S.)   

An array of → IACT telescopes for studying cosmic → gamma rays in the 100 GeV to 100 TeV energy range. The HESS observatory is located in Namibia, southern Africa, at an altitude of 1800 m, and the project is an international collaboration of more than 100 scientists from nine countries. In its Phase I, HESS used four telescopes each consisting of a light collector with a diameter of 13 m and a focal length of 15 m placed at the corners of a square 120 m apart. Each telescope is segmented into 380 round mirror facets of 60 cm diameter and uses a camera consisting of 960 closely packed → photomultiplier tubes. The first of the telescopes went into operation in Summer 2002. Phase II includes a fifth telescope, called Large Cherenkov Telescope (LCT), of 27 m diameter, located in the centre of the initial array. This upgrade lowers the triggering threshold of the HESS array to about 20 GeV, thus broadening the energy window in which gamma-ray astronomy can be done, opening up more opportunities in astrophysical research (see, e.g., Bernlöhr et al. 2003, Astroparticle Physics 20, 111).

H.E.S.S., short for High Energy Stereoscopic System, is also intended to pay homage to Victor F. Hess (1883-1964), an Austrian-American physicist who received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1936 for his discovery of → cosmic rays.

high latitudes
  وَروناهای ِ بالا   
varunâhâ-ye bâlâ

Fr.: hautes latitudes   

The latitude belt roughly between 60 and 90 degrees North and South. Also referred to as the polar region.

high; → latitude.

high redshift object
  بر‌آخت ِ مه-سرخ‌کیب   
barâxt-e meh-sorxkib

Fr.: objet à grand décalage vers le rouge   

A galaxy or quasar having a → redshift larger than about 0.8, corresponding to a → look-back time half the present age of the Universe. The qualifier "high" is, however, relative and depends on context and authors' assessment.

high; → redshift; → object.

high tide
  اوپیش، کشند، مد   
owpiš (#), kešand (#), madd (#)

Fr.: marée haute   

The state of the → tide when at its highest level.

high; → tide.

Owpiš, from Persian Gulf dialects, literally "forward water," from ow, variant of âb, → water, + piš "→ forward."
Madd, loan from Ar.

high water
  اوپیش، برکشند، مد   
owpiš (#), barkešand (#), madd(#)

Fr.: marée haute   

Also known as → high tide.

high; → water.

high-energy astrophysics
  اخترفیزیک ِ مه‌کاروژ   
axtarfizik-e meh-kâruž

Fr.: astrophysique des hautes énergies   

A branch of astrophysics that deals with objects emitting highly energetic radiation, such as X-ray astronomy, gamma-ray astronomy, and extreme ultraviolet astronomy, as well as neutrinos and cosmic rays.

high; → energy; → astrophysics.

high-energy cosmic rays
  پرتوهای ِ کیهانی ِ مه‌کاروژ، ~ ~ پرکاروژ   
partowhâ-ye keyhâni-ye meh-kâruž, ~ ~ por-kâruž

Fr.: rayons cosmiques de hautes énergies   

Cosmic rays which typically have energies in the range 1015 to 1020 electron volts. For the most part, they are protons and other atomic nuclei, and come from distant cosmos, perhaps even from outside our own Galaxy.

high; → energy; → cosmic; → ray.

high-energy neutrino
  نوترینو‌ی ِ مه‌کاروژ   
notrino-ye meh-kâruž

Fr.: neutrino haute énergie   

A neutrino produced in high-energy particle collisions, such as those occurring when → cosmic rays strike atoms in the Earth's → atmosphere. Their energy range expands from a few → MeVs up to tenths of a → peta- (P) → electron-volts.

high; → energy; → neutrino.

high-excitation blob (HEB)
  ژیگ ِ پر-بر‌انگیزش   
žig-e por-barangizeš

Fr.:   

A rare class of → H II regions in the → Magellanic Clouds. In contrast to the typical H II regions of the Magellanic Clouds, which are extended structures (sizes of several arc minutes corresponding to more than 50 pc, powered by a large number of exciting stars), HEBs are very dense and small regions (~ 4" to 10" in diameter corresponding to ~ 1-3 pc). They have a higher degree of → excitation ([O III] 5007Å /Hβ) with respect to the typical H II regions, and are, in general, heavily affected by local → dust. They are powered by a relatively smaller number of → massive stars.

high; → excitation; → blob.

high-mass star
  ستاره‌ی ِ مِه‌جرم، ~ پُرجرم   
setâre-ye meh-jerm (#), ~ por-jerm (#)

Fr.: étoile massive   

A star whose mass exceeds 8 solar masses. Same as → massive star. → intermediate-mass star; → low-mass star.

high; → mass; → star.

high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB)
  درین ِ پرتو ایکس ِ پرجرم   
dorin-e partow-e iks-e por-jerm

Fr.: binaire X de forte masse   

A member of one of the two main classes of → X-ray binary systems where one of the components is a neutron star or a black hole and the other one a → massive star. HMXBs emit relatively → hard X-rays and usually show regular pulsations, no X-ray bursts, and often X-ray eclipses. Their X-ray luminosity is much larger than their optical luminosity. In our Galaxy HMXBs are found predominantly in the → spiral arms and within the → Galactic disk in young → stellar populations less than 107 years old. One of the most famous HMXB is Cygnus X-1 which was the first stellar-mass black hole discovered. See also: → low-mass X-ray binary.

high; → mass; → X-ray; → binary.

high-power laser
  لیزر ِ پُرتوان   
leyzer-e por-tavân (#)

Fr.: laser de puissance   

A laser beam with the output power in the range 1012-1015 watts/cm2, capable of depositing kilo-joule order energies during nano-second time intervals in small volumes (about 1 mm3). High power lasers, which can produce temperatures of 10-50 million degrees and pressures of 10-100 million bars, are used to simulate astrophysical conditions in laboratories.

high; → power;, → laser.

leyzer, → laser; por "much, many, full," → full; tavân, → power.

high-resolution observation
  نپاهش ِ مه-واگشود   
nepâheš-e mehvâgošud

Fr.: observation à haute résolution   

An observation that provides a particularly narrow, peaked image of a point source. → point spread function.

high; → resolution; → observation.

high-velocity clouds (HVCs)
  ابرهای ِ تندرو   
abrhâ-ye tondrow

Fr.: nuages à grande vitesse   

A population of neutral or partly ionized gas clouds in the → Galactic halo which are seen as high-altitude structures in the atomic hydrogen 21 cm emission at high radial velocities (vLSR> 100 km/sec). They have substantial neutral column densities (> 1019 cm-2) and their metallicities range from 0.1 to about 1.0 times solar. The distances to the majority of them remain unknown. They may represent the continuing infall of matter onto the → Local Group. See also → compact high-velocity clouds.

high; → velocity; → cloud.

Abr, → cloud; tondrow "fast moving," from tond "fast," → speed; row, present stem of raftan "to go, walk; to flow" (Mid.Pers. raftan, raw-, Proto-Iranian *rab/f- "to go; to attack").

highland
  کوهسار   
kuhsâr (#)

Fr.: région montagneuse, hauts plateaux   

A mountainous or elevated region; → plateau.

high; → land.

Kuhsâr "mountainous, hilly area," from kuh, → mountain, + -sâr suffix denoting profusion, abundance, variant -zâr, → catastrophe.

highly siderophile element (HSE)
  بن‌پار ِ بسیار آهندوست   
bonpâr-e besyâr âhandust

Fr.: élément hautement sidérophile   

A → chemical element that is → geochemically characterized as having a strong → affinity to partition into → metals relative to → silicates. The highly siderophile elements, → ruthenium (Ru), → rhodium (Rh), → palladium (Pd), → rhenium (Re), → osmium (Os), → iridium (Ir), → platinum (Pt), and → gold (Au), are of interest to planetary scientists because they give insights into the early history of → accretion and → differentiation. HSEs prefer to reside in the metal of planetary cores. Therefore, the HSEs found in planetary → mantles are considered to be overabundant relative to their known preferences for metal over silicate. Therefore, it has been inferred that processes other than → equilibrium partitioning have been responsible for establishing the abundances of → mantle siderophiles. A detailed understanding of the absolute → concentrations and relative abundances of the HSEs may therefore give important insights into the earliest history of a planet (Jones et al., 2003, Chemical Geology 196, 21).

From Gk. sidero-, from sideros "iron" + → -phile.

Âhandust, from âhan, → iron, + -dust, → -phile.

hike
  ۱) ونیژ؛ ۲) ونیژیدن   
1) vaniž 2) vanižidan

Fr.: 1) randonnée; 2) marcher à pied   

1) A long walk or march for recreational activity, military training, or the like.
2) To walk or march a great distance, especially through rural areas, for pleasure, exercise, military training, or the like (Dictionary.com).

From E. dialectal hyke "to walk vigorously," maybe a Northern form of hitch "to move or draw (something) with a jerk," of unknown origin.

Vaniž, from Sangesari wəniž-/wəništ "to walk about, go round;" cf. Shughni näγ-, Roshani niγ-, naγên- "to turn round;" Book Pahlavi/Zoroastrian Mid.Pers. nâz-, nâž- "to roll, turn;" Mid.Pers. nâys- "be proud, delicate."

Hilbert space
  فضا‌ی ِ هیلبرت   
fazâ-ye Hilbert (#)

Fr.: espace de Hilbert, espace hilbertien   

A generalization of Euclidean space in a way that extends methods of vector algebra from the two- and three-dimensional spaces to infinite-dimensional spaces.
Multi-dimensional space in which the eigenfunctions of quantum mechanics are represented by orthogonal unit vectors.

Named after the German mathematician David Hilbert (1862-1943), recognized as one of the most influential mathematicians of the 19th and early 20th centuries for his numerous contributions to various areas of mathematics; → space.

Hilda asteroids
  سیارک‌های ِ هیلدا   
sayyârakhâ-ye Hilda (#)

Fr.: astéroides Hida   

The asteroids found on the outer edge of the main asteroid belt in a 2:3 orbital resonance with Jupiter. The group is not an asteroid family since the members are not physically related. The group consists of asteroids with semi-major axes between 3.70 AU and 4.20 AU, eccentricities less than 0.30, and inclinations less than 20°. It is dominated by D- and P-type asteroids.

Named for the prototype 153 Hilda, discovered by Johann Palisa (1848-1925) on November 2, 1875, and named Hilda after a daughter of his teacher, the astronomer Theodor von Oppolzer (1841-1886); → asteroid.

hill
  تپه   
tappé (#)

Fr.: colline   

A natural elevation of the earth's surface, smaller than a mountain.

M.E.; O.E. hyll, from P.Gmc. *khulnis (cf. M.Du. hille, Low Ger. hull "hill," O.N. hallr "stone," Goth. hallus "rock," O.E. holm "rising land, island"), from PIE base *kel- "to rise, to be prominent" (cf. Skt. kuta- "summit, peak;" Mod.Pers. kutal, kotal high hill, the skirts of a hill;" Tabari dialect keti "hill; top of the head; L. collis "hill," culmen "top, summit," cellere "raise," celsus "high;" Gk. kolonos "hill," kolophon "summit;" Lith. kalnas "mountain," kalnelis "hill").

Tappé "hill."

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>