An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- a p abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi ads aes Age Alb Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app app arb are ari art ass ast ast ast Atl ato ato Aug aut awa azi bac bal Bar Bar Bay bea Bep Bet BIC bij bin bio bir bla bla blu blu bol Boo bou Bq bre bri bub B[e cal cal can car car Cas cat cau cel cen Cer cha cha cha che chi CI cir cir cla cle clo clu co- cob coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos cou cov cra cri cro cry cum cur cyc d'A dar dat DC dea dec dec dec def def deh Del den dep des det deu dia dif dif dif dim dip Dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom dos dou dri Dum dus dyn dyn ear eas ecl Edd eff Ein eje ele ele ele ele eli emb emi Enc ene ens eph epo equ equ eru eth Eul eve evo exc exc exi exo exp exp ext ext Fab fai Fan fea fem fer fie fil fir fir fla flo flu foc For for fos fra fre fre fro fun g m Gal gal gal gas gau gel gen geo geo geo gho gla gno gra gra gra gra Gre Gre gro gyr had hal har Har HD hea hel hel Her Her Hic hig hip hol hor hos hov Hub hun hyd hyd Hyd hyp IC ide ill ima imp imp inc inc ind ind inf inf inf inf inj ins ins int int int int int int int int inv inv ion iro Isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur kel Kep kil Kle Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Mei Mer Mer met met Met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per pet pha Pho pho pho pho Pic Pis Pla pla pla pla Ple poa pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pra pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul puz qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea Rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret Rhe rid rig ris Roe Ros rot rub rut Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci sea sec sec see sel sem sen ser Sgr sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli smo soc sol sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spl spu sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str Str sub sub sub sul sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn sys Tam Tay tel ten Ter Tha the the the thi thr tib tid tim tok Tor tot tra tra tra tra Tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ ufo ult unc uni uni uni upl ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vil vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yea You zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 13009 Search : far
IC 1613
     
IC 1613

Fr.: IC 1613   

A → dwarf irregular galaxy (also called Caldwell 51) located in the constellation → Cetus. IC 1613 is a member of the → Local Group of galaxies and has a → morphological classification of IBm (Irregular Barred, → Magellanic type galaxy). IC 1613 has a very → low surface brightness and a very low → dust content. It lies just over 2.38 ± 0.07 million → light-years away from us. IC 1613's distance is known to a remarkably high precision, partly due to the unusually low levels of dust lying both within the galaxy and along the line of sight from the → Milky Way. Moreover, the galaxy hosts a number of → Cepheid variables and → RR Lyrae variables which can be used to precisely determine distances. It was discovered by Max Wolf in 1906.

IC, short for → Index Catalogue.

IC 434
     
IC 434

Fr.: IC 434   

A bright → emission nebula running north to south near → Alnitak, the eastern star of → Orion's Belt. It is the bright background nebula against which the famous dark region called the → Horsehead Nebula stands out.

IC, → Index Catalogue.

ice
  یخ   
yax (#)

Fr.: glace   

1) The solid form of water; it is found in the atmosphere as snow crystals, hail, ice pellets, etc., and on the Earth's surface in forms such as frost, rime, glaze, glacier ice, etc.
2) The solid, frozen form of gases in cold astronomical objects.

Ice, from O.E. is "ice," from P.Gmc. *isa-; cf. O.N. iss, O.Fris. is, Du. ijs, Ger. Eis. Cognate with Pers. yax, as below.

Yax, from Av. aexa- "ice, frost," isav-, isu- "icy, chilly;" cf. Sarikoli (Pamir dialect) īš "cold;" P.Gmc. *isa-, as above.

ice accretion
  فربال ِ یخ   
farbâl-e yax

Fr.: accrétion de glace   

Meteo.: The process by which a layer of ice builds up on solid objects that are exposed to freezing precipitation or to supercooled fog or cloud droplets.

ice; → accretion.

ice age
  عصر ِ یخ   
asr-e yax (#)

Fr.: âge de glace   

A major interval of geologic time during which extensive ice sheets (continental → glaciers) formed over many parts of the world. There have been at least five significant ice ages in Earth's history, with approximately a dozen epochs of glacial expansion occurring in the past 1 million years. The last one ran from about 75,000 to 15,000 years ago.

ice; → age.

ice crystal
  بلور یخ   
bolur-e yax

Fr.: cristal de glace   

A tiny particle of ice within which → water molecules are all lined up in a precise → crystalline structure. Ice crystals come in various shapes including needles, → dendrites, hexagonal columns, and → platelet. If the temperature decreases the water molecules can crystallize, arranging themselves around the suspended impurities such as dust particles. See also → snow crystal.

ice; → crystal.

ice giant
  غولپیکر ِ یخی   
qulpeykar-e yaxi

Fr.: géante de glace   

A member of the lesser mass group of → gas giants. Ice giants contain a higher quantity of materials that form ices at low temperatures, such as → water, → methane, and → ammonia. There are two ice giants in the Solar System, → Uranus and → Neptune.

ice; → giant.

ice house
  یخچال   
yaxcâl (#)

Fr.: glacière   

A building for storing ice throughout the year, mainly used prior to the invention of the refrigerator.

ice; → house.

Yaxcâl, literally "a pit of ice," but "any place or vessel in which ice is kept," from yax, → ice, + câl "pit, → hole."

ice point
  نقطه‌ی ِ یخ   
noqte-ye yax (#)

Fr.: point de congélation   

The temperature at which a mixture of air-saturated pure water and pure ice may exist in equilibrium at a pressure of one standard atmosphere.

ice; → point.

iceberg
  یخ‌بِرگ، کوه ِ یخ   
yaxberg, kuh-e yax (#)

Fr.: iceberg   

A large mass of floating or stranded ice that has broken away from a glacier; usually more than 5 m above sea level.

Iceberg, half Anglicization, half adoption of Du. ijsberg "ice mountain," from ijs, → ice, + berg "mountain" (cf. Ger. Eisberg, Sw. isberg), from P.Gmc. *bergaz; cf. M.H.G. berc, O.H.G. berg "mountain;" cognate with Pers. boland, borz, berg, as below; PIE base *bheregh- "high, elevated."

Yaxberg, from yax, → ice, + berg "mountain, hill," in Laki dialect, related to Pers. boland "high," variants bâlâ "up, above, high, elevated, height," borz "height, magnitude" (it occurs also in the name of the mountain chain Alborz), Laki dialect berg "hill, mountain;" Mid.Pers. buland "high;" O.Pers. baršan- "height;" Av. barəz- "high, mount," barezan- "height;" cf. Skt. bhrant- "high;" L. fortis "strong" (Fr. & E. force); O.E. burg, burh "castle, fortified place," from P.Gmc. *burgs "fortress;" Ger. Burg "castle," Goth. baurgs "city," E. burg, borough, Fr. bourgeois, bourgeoisie, faubourg); PIE base *bhergh- "high."

icon
  زدیش   
zodiš

Fr.: icone   

1) An image; a representation.
2) A representation or picture of a sacred or sanctified Christian personage, traditionally used and venerated in the Eastern Church.
3) A person or thing regarded as a symbol of a belief, nation, community, or cultural movement.
4) Computers: A pictorial representation of a facility available on a computer system, that enables the facility to be activated by means of a screen cursor rather than by a textual instruction (TheFreeDictionary.com).

From Gk. eikon "likeness, image, portrait; a semblance;" in philosophy, "an image in the mind," related to eikenai "be like, look like," from PIE *weik- "to be like."

Zodiš, variant of Mid.Pers. uzdês "icon; image; idol," from uz-, → ex-, + dês, Av. daēs- "to show;" cognate with Gk. deiknumai "to show;" L. dicere "to utter, say, proclaim;" N.H.G. zeigen "to say;" O.E. têon "to annoince;" PIE *deik- "to show, point out; announce."

icy
  یخی، یخزده   
yaxi, yaxzade

Fr.: glacé, glacial   

Made of, covered with, or containing → ice.

ice + an English suffix of adjectives denoting "characterized by or inclined to."

idea
  مینه   
miné

Fr.: idée   

A thought, conception, or notion existing in the mind as a result of mental understanding, awareness, or activity. See also → thought, → concept.

Idea, from L. idea "idea," pre-Platonic Gk. idea "form, semblance, nature, fashion," in Plato "a timeless, universal archetype of existents; ideal prototype," literally "look, form," from idein "to see," from PIE *wid-es-ya-, suffixed form of base *weid- "to know, to see;" cf. Pers. bin- "to see" (present stem of didan); Mid.Pers. wyn-; O.Pers. vain- "to see;" Av. vaēn- "to see;" Skt. veda "I know."

Miné "idea," related to Pers. man "disposition, temperament, greatness of soul," minu "heaven, paradise," also equivalent to Ger. Geist in recent philosophical translations, došman "enemy," pašimân "penitent, regretful," pežmân "sad, mournful," šâdmân "joyful, cheerful, pleased," ârmân "desire; → ideal;" dialectal (Šuštar) mana "(he) thinks, imagines," (Tarq-e Natanz) môna "to imagine, suppose;" Mid.Pers. mênidan "to think, consider," mên "thought, idea," mênišn "thought, thinking, mind, disposition," mênitâr "thinker," mênôg "spiritual, immaterial, heavenly," from Av. man- "to think," mainyeite "he thinks," manah- "mind, thinking, thought; purpose, intention," mainyu- "mind, mentality, mental force, inspiration," traditionally translated as "spirit," Angra Mainyu "hostile mentality" (Mod.Pers. Ahriman); O.Pers. maniyaiy "I think," Ardumaniš- (proper noun) "upright-minded," Haxāmaniš- (proper noun, Hellenized Achaemenes, founder of the Achaemenian dynasty) "having the mind of a friend;" cf. Sogdian mân "mind;" Skt. man- "to think," mánye "I think," manyate "he thinks," mánas- "intelligence, understanding, conscience;" Gk. mainomai "to be angry," mania "madness," mantis "one who divines, prophet;" L. mens "mind, understanding, reason," memini "I remember," mentio "remembrance;" Lith. mintis "thought, idea;" Goth. muns "thought," munan "to think;" Ger. Minne "love," originally "loving memory;" O.E. gemynd "memory, thinking, intention;" PIE base *men- "to think, mind; spiritual activity."

ideal
  ۱) آرمان، مینه‌وار؛ ۲) آرمانی، مینه‌ای، مینه‌وار   
1) (n.) ârmân (#), minevâr; 2) (adj.) ârmâni (#), mineyi, minevâr

Fr.: idéal   

1) (n.) A standard of perfection, beauty, or excellence.
Math.: A subset of a ring that is closed under addition and multiplication by any element of the ring.
2) (adj.) Existing only in the imagination; not real or actual.
Conforming exactly to an ideal, law, or standard; perfect. → ideal gas.

M.E. ydeall, from L.L. idealis "existing in idea," from L. → idea.

Ârmân "ideal" in Mod.Pers., traditionally "desire; hope; grief," variants armân, urmân, prefixed from mân, "thought, mind," → idea. The first element may be related to Av. armaē- "in peace, still; quietly;" PIE base *er[ə]- "to be still" (cf. Skt. īrmā (adv.) "quiet, still, being in the same place;" Gk. erôé "calm, peace;" O.H.G. rouwa "rest"), as in Av. armaē.šad- "sitting quietly," armaē.štā- "standing still, stagnant." Therefore, Pers. ârmân may be related to Av. *armaē.manah- (PIE *ermen-) "thought in peace, quiet mind."
Mineyi, minevâr, adj. from miné, → idea.

ideal fluid
  شاره‌ی ِ آرمانی، ~ مینه‌وار   
šâre-ye ârmâni, ~ minevâr

Fr.: fluide idéal   

An fluid which has no internal friction or → viscosity, and no → resistivity as well if the fluid is a plasma.

ideal; → fluid.

ideal gas
  گاز ِ آرمانی، ~ ِ مینه‌وار   
gâz-e ârmâni, ~-e minevâr

Fr.: gaz idéal   

Theoretical gas assumed to consist of perfectly elastic molecules of negligible volume and mutual attraction force. Also called → perfect gas.

ideal; → gas.

ideal gas law
  قانون ِ گاز ِ آرمانی، ~ ~ مینه‌وار   
qânun-e gâz-e ârmâni, ~ ~ minevâr

Fr.: loi des gaz parfaits   

An → equation of state that relates pressure (P), temperature (T), and volume (V) of an ideal or → perfect gas: PV = nRT, where n is the number of → moles of gas present and R is the → universal gas constant. Equivalently: PV = NkT, where N is the number of atoms of gas present and k is → Boltzmann's constant.

ideal; → gas; → law.

ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD)
  مغنات-و-هیدروتوانیک ِ آرمانی، ~ مینه‌وار   
meqnâtohidrotavânik-e ârmâni, ~ minevâr

Fr.: magnétohydrodynamique idéale   

Magnetohydrodynamics of a → plasma with very large (infinite) → conductivity. In this condition, → Ohm's law reduces to E = -v × B, where E represents → electric field, B → magnetic field, and v the → fluid velocity. Ideal MHD is the simplest model to describe the dynamics of plasmas immersed in a magnetic field. It is concerned with → one-fluid magnetohydrodynamics and neglects → resistivity. This theory treats the plasma composed of many charged particles with locally neutral charge as a continuous single → fluid. Ideal MHD does not provide information on the velocity distribution and neglects the physics relating to wave-particle interactions, as does the two-fluid theory as well. It does have the advantage that the macroscopic dynamics of the → magnetized plasma can be analyzed in realistic three-dimensional geometries (K. Nishikawa & M. Wakatani, 2000, Plasma Physics, Springer). See also → non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics.

ideal; → magnetohydrodynamics.

idealism
  مینه‌باوری   
minebâvari

Fr.: idéalisme   

Any one of a variety of systems of philosophical thought, which would make the ultimate reality of the Universe expressible or intangible only in terms of idea in mind, rather than in terms of matter in space.

From → ideal, see also → idea, + → -ism.

identical
  یکسان، همیدان   
yeksân (#), hamidân

Fr.: identique   

Similar or alike in every way; being the very same; agreeing exactly.

From M.L. identicus "the same," from L.L. identitas "identity," from idem "the same," from id "it, that one" + demonstrative suffix -dem.

Yeksân "the same, similar," from yek, → one, + -sân "manner, semblance" (variant sun, Mid.Pers. sân "manner, kind," Sogdian šôné "career").
Hamidân, from Mid.Pers. hamêtôn "identical."

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- a p abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi ads aes Age Alb Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app app arb are ari art ass ast ast ast Atl ato ato Aug aut awa azi bac bal Bar Bar Bay bea Bep Bet BIC bij bin bio bir bla bla blu blu bol Boo bou Bq bre bri bub B[e cal cal can car car Cas cat cau cel cen Cer cha cha cha che chi CI cir cir cla cle clo clu co- cob coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos cou cov cra cri cro cry cum cur cyc d'A dar dat DC dea dec dec dec def def deh Del den dep des det deu dia dif dif dif dim dip Dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom dos dou dri Dum dus dyn dyn ear eas ecl Edd eff Ein eje ele ele ele ele eli emb emi Enc ene ens eph epo equ equ eru eth Eul eve evo exc exc exi exo exp exp ext ext Fab fai Fan fea fem fer fie fil fir fir fla flo flu foc For for fos fra fre fre fro fun g m Gal gal gal gas gau gel gen geo geo geo gho gla gno gra gra gra gra Gre Gre gro gyr had hal har Har HD hea hel hel Her Her Hic hig hip hol hor hos hov Hub hun hyd hyd Hyd hyp IC ide ill ima imp imp inc inc ind ind inf inf inf inf inj ins ins int int int int int int int int inv inv ion iro Isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur kel Kep kil Kle Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Mei Mer Mer met met Met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per pet pha Pho pho pho pho Pic Pis Pla pla pla pla Ple poa pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pra pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul puz qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea Rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret Rhe rid rig ris Roe Ros rot rub rut Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci sea sec sec see sel sem sen ser Sgr sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli smo soc sol sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spl spu sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str Str sub sub sub sul sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn sys Tam Tay tel ten Ter Tha the the the thi thr tib tid tim tok Tor tot tra tra tra tra Tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ ufo ult unc uni uni uni upl ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vil vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yea You zer zod > >>