An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
anticenter
  پادمرکز   
pâdmarkaz

Fr.: anticentre   

The point in the → Galactic plane that lies directly opposite the → Galactic center. It lies in → Auriga at approximately R.A. 5h 46m, Dec. +28° 56'; the nearest bright star to it is → Alnath in → Taurus.

Anticenter, from → anti- + → center.

Pâdmarkaz, from pâd-, → anti-, + markaz, → center.

anticorona
  پاد‌افسر، شکوه   
pâdafsar, šokuh

Fr.: gloire   

Meteorology: Small, faintly colored rings of light surrounding the → antisolar point, seen when looking down at a water cloud. Same as glory.

Anticorona, from → anti- + → corona.

Pâdafsar, from pâd-, → anti- + afsar "corona."
Šokuh "glory."

anticorrelation
  پادهم‌باز‌آنش   
pâdhambâzâneš

Fr.: anticorrelation   

Statistics: The correlation coefficient of two random variables X and Y is in general defined as the ratio of the Cov(X,Y) to the two standard deviations of X and Y. It varies between 1 and -1 corresponding to complete correlation or anticorrelation.

Anticorrelation, from → anti- + → correlation.

Pâdhambâzâneš, from pâd-, → anti-, + hambâzâneš, → correlation.

anticrepuscular rays
  پرتوهای ِ پاد نیمتابی   
partowhâ-ye pâdnimtâbi

Fr.: rayons anticrépusculaires   

Rays of → sunlight that appear to converge at the → antisolar point. Like → crepuscular rays, they are parallel beams of sunlight from holes in the clouds, and their apparently odd directions are a perspective effect.

anti-; → crepuscular rays.

anticyclone
  پادچرخند   
pâdcarxand

Fr.: anticyclone   

Meteo.: A weather phenomenon associated with atmospheric high pressure. In the Northern Hemisphere an anticyclone rotates in the clockwise direction. The rotation is caused by the movement of colder higher pressure air that is moving away from the poles toward the equator being affected by the rotation of the Earth.

anti-; → cyclone.

anticyclonic
  پادچرخندی   
pâdcarxandi

Fr.: anticyclonique   

Having a sense of rotation about the local vertical opposite to that of the Earth's rotation. In other words, → clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, → counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere, and undefined at the equator. The opposite of → cyclonic (Meteorology Glossary, American Meteorological Society).

anticyclone; → -ic.

antiderivative
  کریای ِ نخستین   
karyâ-ye noxostin

Fr.: primitive   

The function F(x) is called the antiderivative of the function f(x) on the interval [a,b] if at all points of this interval F'(x) = f(x). Same as primitive.

anti- + → derivative.

Karyâ, → function; noxostin "primitive," → first.

antiferromagnetism
  پاد‌آهن‌مغنات‌مندی   
pâd-âhanmeqnâtmandi

Fr.: antiferromagnétisme   

A property possessed by some → metals, → alloys, and salts of transition elements in which there is a lack of → magnetic moment due to the antiparallel or spiral arrangement of atomic → magnetic moments.

anti- + → ferromagnetism.

antihydrogen
  پادهیدروژن   
pâdhidrožen

Fr.: antihydrogène   

An atom made from an → antiproton and a → positron. In 2010 a research collaboration at CERN combined decelerated antiprotons with positrons to produce antihydrogen atoms. They managed 38 times to confine single antihydrogen atoms in a magnetic trap for more than 170 milliseconds (Andersen et al. 2010, Nature, 17 Nov.).

anti- + → hydrogen.

Antikythera mechanism
  ساز-و-کار ِ آنتیکوترا   
sâzokâr-e Antikythera

Fr.: machine d'Anticythère   

A unique Greek geared device, constructed around the end of the second century BC to display the movement of the Sun, the Moon, and possibly the planets around the Earth, and predict the dates of future eclipses. It measures about 32 by 16 by 10 cm and contains at least 30 interlocking gear-wheels, all of them having triangular teeth, from 15 to 223 in number. This device is one of the most stunning artefacts remained from antiquity, revealing an unexpected degree of technical creativity for the period. Nothing close to its technological sophistication appears again for well over a millennium, when astronomical clocks appear in the medieval Europe. It was discovered in 1901 in a sunken ship just off the coast of Antikythera, an island between Crete and the Greek mainland. Its significance and complexity were not understood until decades later. After lots of study involving several research fields, a copy of the device has recently been constructed. See, e.g., Freeth et al. 2006, Nature 444, 587.

Named after the Greek island in the Ionia Sea from which the fragments of the device were discovered in 1901 by sponge divers, who found a sunken Roman ship. Several pieces of evidence indicate that the Roman ship carrying the device wrecked sometime shortly after 85 BC. The ship also contained an enormous booty of bronzes, glassware, jewelry and pottery; → mechanism.

antimatter
  پادماده   
pâdmâddé (#)

Fr.: antimatière   

Matter composed entirely of → antiparticles. See also → antihydrogen.

Antimatter from Gk. → anti- "opposite, opposing, against" + → matter.

Pâdmâddé from pâd-, → anti-, + mâddé, → matter.

antimony
  آنتیمو‌آن   
ântimuân (#)

Fr.: antimoine   

A silver white metallic element of a flaky nature, extremely brittle, occurring in nature free or combined, symbol Sb. → Atomic number 51; → atomic weight 121.75; → meting point 630.74°C; → boiling point 1,750°C; → specific gravity (metallic form) 6.69 at 20°C. Antimony is recognized in compounds from antiquity, and as a metal since the 17th century. The minerals stibnite (Sb2S3) and stibine (SbH3) are two of a multitude of mineral species which were known in the ancient world. Antimony is a poor conductor of heat and electricity. It greatly increases the hardness of metals with which it makes → alloys. Its various unstable isotopes have a half-life of 16 min (Sb120) to 2.7 years (Sb125).

From M.E. antimonie, from M.L. antimonium, an alchemist's term, of obscure origin, maybe a Latinization of Gk. stimmi or stibi, probably ultimately from Egyptian stm "cosmetic powder" used to paint the eyelids. The chemical symbol, Sb, comes from the original name, stibium, which is derived from Gk. stibi for "mark," since it was used for blackening eyebrows and eyelashes. The name was changed from stibium to antimonium to antimony.

Ântimuân, loan from Fr. antimoine.

antineutrino
  پادنوترینو   
pâdnotrino

Fr.: antineutrino   

The → antiparticle counterpart of the → neutrino.

anti-; → neutrino.

antineutron
  پادنوترون   
pâdnotron

Fr.: antineutron   

The → antiparticle of the → neutron. It has the same mass, → spin, and → electric charge (zero) as the neutron but has opposite → baryon number (+1 for neutron, -1 for the antineutron). This is because the antineutron is composed of → antiquarks, while neutrons are composed of → quarks. The antineutron consists of one up antiquark and two down antiquarks.

anti-; → neutron.

antinode
  پاد-گره، شکم   
pâdgereh (#), šekam (#)

Fr.: anti-nœud   

The position of maximum → amplitude midway between two adjacent → nodes in a → standing wave.

anti-; → node.

Antiope
  آنتیوپه   
Antiope

Fr.: Antiope   

A unique → binary asteroid (90) which has two similar-sized components. The components, 91 and 86 km in diameter respectively, are separated by 171 km, and circle each other every 16.5 hours. Belonging to the main → asteroid belt, Antiope was discovered in 1866 by the German Robert Luther. Its binarity was discovered in 2000 by W. Merline and collaborators.

Antiope, from Gk. mythology, but it is not clear whether Antiope the Amazon or Antiope the mother of Amphion and Zethus.

antiparallel
  پاد-پراسو   
pâd-parâsu

Fr.: antiparallèle   

A → pair of → vectors whose directions are parallel but having the opposite sense.

anti-; → parallel.

antiparticle
  پادذره   
pâdzarré

Fr.: antiparticule   

Any → elementary particle with a → charge of opposite sign to the same particle in normal matter.

anti- "opposite, opposing, against" + → particle.

antipodal
  پادپایی   
pâdpâyi

Fr.: antipodal   

1) Of or relating to the → antipodes.
2) Describing two points when a line drawn from one to the other does not pass through the geometric centre of the Earth.

antipode; → -al.

antipode
  پادپای   
pâdpây

Fr.: antipode   

1) The exact or direct opposite.
2) Either or both of two points, places, or regions that are situated diametrically opposite to one another on the Earth's surface (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from L., from Gk. antipod-, antipous, literally "with feet opposite," from → anti- "against," + pod-, pous, → foot.

Pâdpây, from pâd-, → anti-, + pây, → foot.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>