An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
Malmquist bias
  ورک ِ مالمکوییست   
varak-e Malmquist

Fr.: biais de Malmquist   

A selection effect in observational astronomy. If a sample of objects (galaxies, quasars, stars, etc.) is flux-limited, then the observer will see an increase in average luminosity with distance, because the less luminous sources at large distances will not be detected.

Named after the Swedish astronomer Gunnar Malmquist (1893-1982); → bias.

Malmquist correction
  ارشایش ِ مالمکوییست   
aršâyeš-e Malmquist

Fr.: correction de Malmquist   

A correction introduced into star counts distributed by apparent magnitude.

Malmquist bias; → correction.

Malus' law
  قانون ِ مالوس   
qânun-e Malus (#)

Fr.: loi de Malus   

If the light wave entering an → analyzer is → linearly polarized, the intensity of the wave emerging from the analyzer is I = k I0 cos2φ, where k is the coefficient of transmission of the analyzer, I0 is the intensity of the incident light, and φ is the angle between the planes of → polarization of the incident light and the light emerging from the analyzer.

Named after Etienne Louis Malus (1775-1812), French physicist who also discovered polarization by reflection at a glass surface (1808); → law.

Mamun's method
  روش ِ مأمون   
raveš-e M'amun

Fr.: méthod de Mamun   

A method for deriving the Earth's size based on measuring a length of meridian between two points corresponding to the difference between the respective latitudes. The Abbasid caliph al-Ma'mun (ruling from 813 to 833 A.D.), appointed two teams of surveyors to this task. They departed from a place in the desert of Sinjad (nineteen farsangs from Mosul and forty-three from Samarra), heading north and south, respectively. They proceeded until they found that the height of the Sun at noon had increased (or decreased) by one degree compared to that for the starting point. Knowing the variation of the Sun's → declination due to its apparent → annual motion, they could relate the length of the arc of meridian to the difference between the latitudes of the two places. They repeated the measurement a second time, and so found that the length of one degree of latitude is somewhat between 56 and 57 Arabic miles (Biruni, Tahdid). 360 times this number yielded the Earth's circumference, and from it the radius was deduced.
See also: → Eratosthenes' method, → Biruni's method.

The seventh Abbasid caliph Abu Ja'far Abdullâh al-Ma'mûn, son of Hârûn al-Rashîd (786-833 A.D.); → method.

man
  ۱) مرد؛ ۲) مرتو، انسان   
1) mard; 2) martu, ensân

Fr.: homme   

1) An adult male person.
2) A member of the species Homo sapiens. See also → human, → anthropo-.

M.E., from O.E. man, mann "human being, person" (O.S., O.H.G. man, Ger. Mann, O.N. maðr, Goth. manna "man"), from PIE base *man-; cf. Skt. mánu-, más- "man, person, husband;" Av. manu- in proper noun Manus-ciθra- (Pers. Manucehr); O.C.S. moži, Russ. muž "man, male."

(Mid.Pers./Mod.Pers.) mard "man," mardom "mankind, people," cognate with mordan "to die," → death; Sogd. martu, marti "man, human;" O.Pers. martiya-; Av. marəta- "mortal, man," maša- "mortal;" cf. Skt. márta- "mortal, man;" Gk. emorten "died;" L. mortalis "subject to death;" PIE base *merto-, *morto-. Ensân, loan from Ar.

manage
  گناردن   
gonârdan

Fr.: gérer   

To direct or control the use of; to exercise executive, administrative, and supervisory direction of.

Probably from It. maneggiare "to handle, train (a horse)," from L. manus "hand."

Gonârdan, from Mid.Pers vinârtan, variant vinâristan "to organize, arrange, put in order," from vi- "apart, away from" (Av. vi- "apart, away from, out;" O.Pers. viy- "apart, away;" cf. Skt. vi- "apart, asunder, away, out;" L. vitare "to avoid, turn aside") + âristan, ârâstan "to arrange, adorn;" O.Pers. râs- "to be right, straight, true," râsta- "straight, true" (Mod.Pers. râst "straight, true"), râd- "to prepare," Av. râz- "to direct, put in line, set," Av. razan- "order," Gk. oregein "to stretch out," L. regere "to lead straight, guide, rule," p.p. rectus "right, straight," Skt. rji- "to make straight or right, arrange, decorate," PIE base *reg- "move in a straight line."

management
  گنارش   
gonâreš

Fr.: gestion   

The act or manner of managing; handling, direction, or control.

Verbal noun of → manage.

manager
  گنارگر، گنارنده   
gonârgar, gonârandé

Fr.: gestionnaire   

A person who manages; a person who has controls or directs an institution, a team, a division, or part it.

Agent noun of → manage.

Mandelbrot set
  هنگرد ِ ماندلبروت   
hangard-e Mandelbrot

Fr.: ensemble de Mandelbrot   

A set of points in the complex plane, the boundary of which forms a fractal with varying shapes at different magnifications. Mathematically, it is the set of all C values for which the iteration zn+1 = zn2 + C, starting from z0 = 0, does not diverge to infinity.

Discovered by Benoît Mandelbrot (1924-) a Polish-born French mathematician, best known as the "father of fractal geometry;" → set.

maneuver
  مانوور   
mânovr (#)

Fr.: mainoeuvre   

A movement or action to accomplish a change of position.

From Fr. manoeuvre "manipulation, maneuver," from O.Fr. manovre "manual work," from M.L. manuopera, from manuoperare "work with the hands," from L. manu operari, from manu ablative of manus "hand" + operari "to work," → operate.

manganese
  منگنز   
manganez (#)

Fr.: manganèse   

Metallic chemical element; symbol Mn. Atomic number 25; atomic weight 54.938; melting point about 1,244°C; boiling point about 1,962°C.

The name derives from the Latin magnes for "magnet" since pyrolusite (MnO2) has magnetic properties. It was discovered by the Swedish pharmacist and chemist Carl-Wilhelm Scheele in 1774.

Manganez, loan from Fr.

manifest
  ۱) نموسار؛ ۲) نموساردن   
1) nemusâr; 2) nemusârdan

Fr.: 1) manifeste; 2) manifester   

1) Readily perceived by the eye or the understanding; evident; obvious; apparent; plain.
2) To make clear or evident to the eye or the understanding; show plainly (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from O.Fr. manifest "evident, palpable," or from L. manifestus "plainly apprehensible, clear, apparent, evident;" "proved by direct evidence;" "caught in the act," probably from manus "hand," + -festus "struck; (able to be) seized."

From Torbat-Heydariye-yi nemusâr "evident, conspicuous, visible," from nemu-, nemudan "to show, display" from Mid.Pers. nimūdan, from ne- "down; into;" O.Pers./Av. ni- "down; below; into," → ni-, + mu- (as in âz-mu-dan, â-mu-dan, far-mu-dan, pey-mu-dan, etc.); Av. mā(y)- "to measure," → display, + -sâr a suffix of state, position, similarity.

manifestation
  نموسارش   
nemusâreš

Fr.: manifestation   

1) An act of manifesting.
2) The state of being manifested.
3) Outward or perceptible indication; materialization.
4. A public demonstration, as for political effect (Dictionary.com).

Verbal noun of → manifest; → -tion.

manifold
  بسلا   
baslâ (#)

Fr.: variété   

A → topological space in which every point has a → neighborhood which resembles → Euclidean space (Rn), but in which the global structure may be different. An example of a one-dimensional manifold would be a circle; if you zoom around a point the circle looks locally like a line (R1). An example of a two-dimensional manifold would be a sphere; a small portion looks locally like a plane (R2). See also → flat manifold.

O.E. monigfald (Anglian), manigfeald (W.Saxon) "varied in appearance," from manig "many" + -feald "fold."

Baslâ, from bas "many, much" (Mid.Pers. vas "many, much;" O.Pers. vasiy "at will, greatly, utterly;" Av. varəmi "I wish," vasô, vasə "at one's pleasure or will," from vas- "to will, desire, wish") + "fold."

mantle
  ۱) روپوش؛ ۲) گوشته   
1) rupuš (#); 2) gušté (#)

Fr.: manteau   

1) General: Something that covers, envelops, or conceals. → grain mantle; → plasma mantle.
2) Geology: → Earth's mantle.

O.E. mentel "loose, sleeveless cloak," from L. mantellum "cloak," perhaps from a Celtic source.

1) Rupuš "over-garment, cloak," from ru "surface, face; aspect; appearance" (Mid.Pers. rôy, rôdh "face;" Av. raoδa- "growth," in plural form "appearance," from raod- "to grow, sprout, shoot;" cf. Skt. róha- "rising, height") + puš "covering, mantle," from pušidan "to cover; to put on" (Mid.Pers. pôšidan, pôš- "to cover; to wear;" cf. Mid.Pers. pôst; Mod.Pers. pust "skin, hide;" O.Pers. pavastā- "thin clay envelope used to protect unbaked clay tablets;" Skt. pavásta- "cover," Proto-Indo-Iranian *pauastā- "cloth").
2) Gušté, from gušt "flesh, meat, pulp of fruit;" Mid.Pers. gôšt "meat;" Av. gah- "to eat;" cf. Skt. ghas- "to eat, devour," ghásati "eats" + nuance suffix .

many-body problem
  پراسه‌ی ِ N جسم   
parâse-ye N jesm

Fr.: problème à N corps   

The mathematical problem of solving the equations of motions of any number of bodies which interact gravitationally. More specifically, to find their positions and velocities at any point in the future or the past, given their present positions, masses, and velocities.

Many, from M.E. mani, meni, O.E. monig, manig; → body; → problem.

map
  ۱) نقشه؛ ۲) نقشه برداری کردن   
1) naqšé; 2) naqšé bardâri kardan

Fr.: 1) carte, plan; 2) cartographier   

1a) A representation usually on a flat surface of an area of the Earth or a portion of the sky, showing them in their respective forms, sizes, and relationships.
1b) Math.: Same as → mapping.
2) To make a map of; show or establish the features of, details of.

Shortening of M.E. mapemounde "map of the world," from M.L. mappa mundi "map of the world," first element from L. mappa "napkin, cloth" (said to be of Punic origin) + L. mundi "of the world," from mundus "universe, world."

Naqšé "map," from naqš "painting, embroidering, carving," variant of negâštan, negâridan "to paint," negâr "picture, figure," → graph.

map projection
  فراشانش ِ نقشه‌نگاری   
farâšâneš-e naqšenegâri

Fr.: projection cartographique   

The theory and method of transforming the features, geometry, and topology on a sphere surface (in particular the spherical Earth) onto a plane.

map; → projection.

maple
  افرا   
afrâ (#)

Fr.: érable   

Any tree of the genus Acer. The maple leaf is an emblem of Canada.

M.E. mapel, O.E. mapul-, related to O.N. möpurr, O.S. mapulder, M.L.G. mapeldorn.

Afrâ, of Tabari origin.

mapping
  ۱) نقشه‌برداری؛ ۲) همتایش   
1) naqšé bardâri; 2) hamtâyeš

Fr.: 1) cartographie; 2) application   

1) The process of producing a map.
2) Math.: The operation of establishing → relations between two → sets in which one element of the second set is assigned to each element of the first set, as the expression y = x2. Same as → function.

Verbal noun from → map + → -ing.

1) Naqšé bardâri;, → map.
2) Hamtâyeš, verbal noun of hamtâyidan literally "folding together, relating units together," from ham- "together," → com-, + "fold, plait, ply; piece, part; single, a single unit of a pair," also a multiplicative suffix; Mid.Pers. tâg "piece, part," + infinitive suffix -idan.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>