# An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

## فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

### M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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 measurement uncertainty   ناتاشتیگی ِ اندازه‌گیری   nâtâštigi-ye andâzegiriFr.: incertitude de mesure   The interval within which lies the actually measured value of a physical quantity and the true value of the same physical quantity.→ measurement; uncertainty, from negation prefix un- + → certainty. mechanic   ساز-و-کارمند، ساز-و-کارگر   sâzokârmand, sâzokârgarFr.: mécanicien   A person who repairs and maintains machinery, motors, etc. (Dictionary.com). Same as → mechanician. mechanical   ساز-و-کاریک، ساز-و-کاروار   sâzokârik, sâzokârvârFr.: mécanique   1) Of, connected with, produced by → mechanics. 2) Like machines; automatic.→ mechanic; → -al. mechanical energy   کاروژ ِ مکانیکی   kâruž-e mekânikiFr.: énergie mécanique   The energy that is possessed by an object due to its motion or due to its position. It is equal to the sum of the → kinetic energy and → potential energy.→ mechanical; → energy. mechanical equilibrium   ترازمندی ِ مکانیکی   tarâzmandi-ye mekânikiFr.: équilibre mécanique   1) The state of a → rigid body if, as viewed from an → inertial frame of rest: 1) the → linear acceleration of its → center of mass is zero, and 2) its → angular acceleration about any axis fixed in this reference frame is zero. The center of mass may be moving with constant velocity and the body may be rotating about a fixed axis with constant angular velocity. 2) In → thermodynamics, the state of a system in which → pressure is the same every where with no other forces acting on the system except a uniform external pressure. mechanical equivalent of heat   هم‌ارز ِ مکانیکی ِ گرما   ham-arz-e mekâniki-ye garmâ (#)Fr.: équivalent mécanique de chaleur   Same as → Joule's constant.→ mechanical; → equivalent; → heat. mechanical mixing   آمیزش ِ مکانیکی   âmizeš-e mekânikiFr.: mélange mécanique   Any → mixing process that utilizes the → kinetic energy of relative → fluid motion.→ mechanical; → mixing. mechanical power   توان ِ مکانیکی   tavân-e mekâniki (#)Fr.: puissance mécanique   The → rate at which → work is done by a → force. In other words, → mechanical energy per unit time. Mechanical power is expressed in units of joules/sec (joules/s) or a watt (W) in the → mks system.→ mechanical; → power. mechanical system   راژمان ِ مکانیکی   râžmân-e mekânikiFr.: système mécanique   1) Any system of elements that interact according to the laws of → mechanics (as distinguished from chemical, electrical, thermal, etc.). 2) A collection of → machines functioning together to achieve the transfer of motion.→ mechanical; → system. mechanical wind   باد ِ مکانیکی   bâd-e mekânikiFr.: vent mécanique   A process in which matter is shed into a → Keplerian disk from a star rotating at the → critical velocity. The disk is probably destroyed by the pressure exerted by the stellar radiation and finally matter is lost. Such a process seems to occur around → Be stars which are stars rotating at or very near the critical limit (Meynet et al. 2007, arXiv:0709.2275).→ mechanical; → wind. mechanically   ساز-و-کاریکانه، ساز-و-کاروارانه   sâzokârikâné, sâzokârvârânéFr.: mécaniquement   1) In a mechanical manner; by a mechanism. 2) In a machine-like manner; without feeling.→ mechanical; → -ly. mechanician   ساز--و-کارمند، ساز-و-کار-گر   sâzokârmand, sâzokârgarFr.: mécanicien   A person skilled in constructing, working, or repairing machines; mechanic; machinist (Dictionary.com).From → mechanic + -ian. mechanics   مکانیک، ساز-و-کاریک   mekânik (#), sâzokârikFr.: mécanique   A branch of → physics that deals with motion and the → action of → forces on bodies. Mechanics may be divided into three areas, → kinematics, → dynamics, and → statics.From mechanic, from L. mechanicus, from Gk. mekhanikos "an engineer," also "inventive," literally "pertaining to machines" (adj.), from mekhane, → machine, + → -ics.Mekânik, loan from Fr. Sâzokârik, from sokâr, → mechanism, + -ik, → -ic. mechanism   ساز-و-کار   sâzokâr (#)Fr.: mécanisme   1) The structure or arrangement of parts of a machine or similar device, or of anything analogous. 2) The agency or means by which an effect is produced or a purpose is accomplished.From Mod.L. mechanismus, from Gk. mekhane, → machine.Sâzokâr, literally "making and working," from sâz "apparatus; (musical) instrument," from sâzidan, sâxtan "to build, make, fashion; to adapt, adjust, be fit" (from Mid.Pers. sâxtan, sâz-, Manichean Parthian s'c'dn "to prepare, to form;" Av. sak- "to understand, to mark," sâcaya- (causative) "to teach") + kâr "work," from kardan "to do, to make" (Mid.Pers. kardan; O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build;" Av. kərənaoiti "he makes;" cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "he makes, he does," karoti "he makes, he does," karma "act, deed;" PIE base kwer- "to do, to make"). median   میانه   miyâné (#)Fr.: médiane   Statistics: The middle value in a sample sorted into ascending order. If the sample contains an even number of values, the median is defined as the mean of the middle two. Geometry: The line from a vertex of a triangle to the midpoint of the opposite side.From M.Fr. médian, from L. medianus "of the middle," from medius "middle;" akin to Pers. middle, → medium, → meddle; from PIE *medhyo-, from base *me- "between;" → medium.Miyâné from miyân, → middle, + -é nuance suffix. medicine   پزشکی   pezeški (#)Fr.: médecine   The art or science of restoring or preserving health or due physical condition, as by means of drugs, surgical operations or appliances, or manipulations (Dictionary.com).M.E. medicin, from O.Fr. medecine "art of healing, cure," from L. medicina "the healing art; a remedy," feminine of medicinus (adj.) "of a doctor," from medicus "a physician;" PIE root *med- "to measure, limit, consider, advise," → dimension; cf. Av. vi-mad- "physician;" Gk. medein "to rule;" L. meditari "think or reflect on, consider," → meditation; Ir. miduir "judge;" O.E. metan "to measure out."Pezeški, from pezešk "physician," from Mid.Pers. bizešk "physician," bêšâz "medicinal;" Av. bišaz- "to cure, heal;" cf. Skt. bhisaj- "healer, physician." meditate   سگالیدن   segâlidan (#)Fr.: méditer   To engage in thought or contemplation; reflect. → consider.Back formation from → meditation.Segâlidan "to meditate, consider, think," from Mid.Pers. uskaridan "to think, consider, discuss," from us-, → ex-, + kar- "to observe, to consider;" related to engâridan, negaristan, âgâridan, → consider. meditation   سگالش   segâleš (#)Fr.: méditation   The act of meditating. → consideration.From L. meditatatus p.p. of meditari "to think over, reflect, consider," from PIE root *med- "to measure, limit, consider, advise," → mode.Verbal noun of → meditate. medium   مدیم   madimFr.: milieu   An intervening substance through which an effect is produced; surrounding objects, conditions, or influences; environment. → interstellar medium.From L. medium, from neut. of adj. medius "middle," from PIE *medhyo- "middle;" cf. Av. maδəma- "middle," as below.Madim, from Av. maδəma- [adj.] "middle, being in the middle; middling, of a middling size or quality," maiδim "in the midst of," maiδyāna- "the middle;" cf. Skt. mádhya- "middle;" Gk. messos; Goth. midjis; O.E. midd "middle;" O.C.S. medzu "between," Arm. mej "middle;" L. medium, as above. meet   موازیدن   mavâzidanFr.: renconter   To come upon; come into the presence of; encounter.M.E. meten, from O.E. metan "to find, find out; encounter; obtain," cognate with O.Frisian meta, O.Sax. motian "to meet," Goth. gamotijan, ultimately from PIE root *mod- "to meet, assemble."Mavâzidan, from Sogd. mwz "to meet together, encounter" (Cheung 2007); ultimately from Proto-Ir. *ham-uaz-, from *ham- "together, → com-," + *uaz- "to move, carry, drive;" cf. Av. vaz- "to move, carry, drive (a chariot);" Pers. vazidan "to blow;" parvâz "→ flight."