An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12937 Search : far
arc of separation
  کمان ِ جدایی   
kamân-e jodâyi

Fr.: arc de séparation   

The difference in → right ascension between the → Sun and the → Moon, measured in degrees.

arc; → separation.

arc of vision
  کمان ِ دید   
kamân-e did

Fr.: arc de vision   

The → angular  → difference in → altitude between the → Sun and the → Moon.

arc; → vision.

arc second
  کمان-ثانیه، ثانیه‌ی ِ کمانی   
kamân-sâniyé, sâniye-ye kamâni

Fr.: seconde de degré   

A unit of angular size equal to 1/3.600 of a degree.

arc; → second.

arc spectrum
  بیناب ِ کمان   
binâb-e kamân

Fr.: spectre d'étincelle   

The spectrum produced by an atom or mixture of atoms as a result of vaporization within an electric arc generated between two electrodes.

arc; → spectrum.

arch
  تاغ   
tâq (#)

Fr.: arc   

1) A curved structure, normally in the vertical plane, that spans an opening.
2) Any overhead curvature resembling an arch. → Arches cluster.

M.E. arch(e), from O.Fr. arche "arch of a bridge," from L. arcus "a bow," → arc.

Taq "arch," from tâk, contraction of târak, → vertex.

arch of foot
  تاغ ِ پا   
tâq-e pâ

Fr.: arche du pied   

Any of the four vaulted structures in the foot: the internal (medial) longitudinal, the outer (lateral) longitudinal, and two transverse (Medical Dictionary, Farlex).

arch; → foot.

archaeoastronomy
  باستان‌اخترشناسی   
bâstânaxtaršenâsi

Fr.: archéoastronomie   

The study that deals with the astronomical knowledge of prehistoric peoples (season events, calendars, observing sites, astronomical alignments) and its influence on their cultures and societies (mythologies, religions, life). Archaeoastronomy covers the intersection between astronomy and archaeology. Same as → astroarchaeology, megalithic astronomy.

Archeoastronomy, from L. archaeo-, archeo "ancient; earlier; primitive," from Gk. arkhaio-, from arkhaios "ancient" + → astronomy.

Bâstânaxtaršenâsi, from bâstân "ancient" + axtaršenâsi, → astronomy.

arche-
  سر   
sar- (#)

Fr.: arché-, archi   

A prefix meaning "principal, prior, original, first, early" Same as archi-. → archetype.

From Gk. arkhe-, from arckhon "ruler," noun use of p.p. of arkhein "to rule."

Sar-, from sar "top, summit, the capital of a pillar," → head.

Arches cluster
  خوشه‌ی ِ تاقها   
xuše-ye tâqhâ

Fr.: amas des Arches   

One of the three → Galactic center clusters supposed to be the densest young → massive star cluster in the Milky Way. It contains the richest collection of → O stars and → WN Wolf-Rayet stars in any cluster in the Galaxy, thus representing the largest collection of the most massive stars in the Galaxy. With its estimated age of 2-3 million years, the Arches cluster is the youngest of the massive clusters in the Galactic center. → Quintuplet cluster; → Central cluster (Figer et al. 2002, ApJ 581, 258; and 1999, ApJ 525, 750).

Arches, from the presence of Galactic center thermal → arched filaments, about 100 → light-years in projection from the Galactic center (Morris & Yusef-Zadeh, 1985, AJ 90, 2511), from M.E. arche, O.Fr. arche "arch of a bridge," from L. arcus, → arc; → cluster.

archetype
  سرنمون   
sarnemun (#)

Fr.: archétype   

The original pattern or model from which all things of the same kind are copied or on which they are based; a model or first form; prototype (Dictionary.com).

arche-; → type.

Archimedes' principle
  پروز ِ ارشمیدوس   
parvaz-e Arašmidos

Fr.: principe d'Archimède   

A body immersed totally or partially in a liquid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by the body. → buoyancy.

Archimedes of Syracuse (c. 287 BC - c. 212 BC), Greek mathematician and inventor; → principle.

Arašmidos altered form of Archimedes in classical Ar. texts; parvaz, → principle.

architecture
  مهرازیک   
mehrâzik (#)

Fr.: architecture   

1) The art or practice of designing and building structures.
2) Computers: The arrangement of the various devices in a computer system or network. See also → software architecture.

M.E., from M.Fr. architecture, from L. architectura, from architectus "architect," from Gk. arkhitekton "master builder, director of works," from arkhi- "chief" + tekton "builder, carpenter," → technique.

Mehrâzik, from mehrâz literally "chief mason," from meh- "great, large," → high, + râz "mason, builder" (Borhân-e Qâte'), from Mid.Pers. râz "builder, architect," probably related to O.Pers. râs-, Av. râz- "to direct, set, put in line" (with many cognates in Pers., such as râst "straight, direct, true;" raj, rak, râk, rezg (Lori), radé, râdé "line, rule, row," rasté, râsté "row, a market with regular ranges of shops;" ris, risé "straight"); cf. Skt. raj- "to direct, stretch," rjuyant- "walking straight;" Gk. orektos "stretched out;" L. regere "to lead straight, guide, rule," p.p. rectus "right, straight;" Ger. recht; E. right; PIE base *reg- "move in a straight line," hence, "to direct, rule;" + -ik, → -ics.

archive
  بایگانی   
bâygâni (#)

Fr.: archive   

Any extensive record or collection of data.

Archive, from Fr. archives, from L. archivum, from Gk. arkheion "government house, town hall," from arkhe "government," from arkhein "to rule".

Bâygâni, maybe from *pâygâni, from pây-, pâyidan "to watch, guard, take care, conserve" + -gân, suffix referring to group, collection, + -i, noun-forming suffix.

Arctic
  هودرگان، شمالگان   
Hudargân, šomâlgân (#)

Fr.: Arctique   

The north polar area, north of latitude 66° 33' 8'' N.

Arctic, from O.Fr. artique, from L. arcticus, from Gk. arktikos "of the north," literally "of the (northerly prominent constellation) Bear," from arktos "bear" (cf. Av. arša-, Mod.Pers. xers, Tabari , Skt. rksa, L. ursus; PIE *rtko-).

Hudargân, from hudar, → north, + -gân prefix denoting the direction.
Šomâlgân, from šomâl "north," from Ar. šemâl "north, left"+ -gân.

Arcturus (α Boötis)
  خرسبان، سماک ِ رامح   
Xersbân, Semâk-e râmeh (#)

Fr.: Arcturus   

The fourth brightest star in the sky (V magnitude -0.06) lying in the constellation → Boötes at a distance of about 35 light-years. Arcturus is a red giant of spectral type K2 IIIp.

L. Arcturus, from Gk. Arktouros "guardian of the bear," arktos "bear," → Arctic + ouros "guardian, watcher".

Xersbân "guardian of the bear," from xers "bear" (Mid.Pers. xirs, Av. arša-, cognate with Gk. arktos, Skt. rksa, L. ursus; PIE *rtko-) + -bân suffix meaning "watcher, keeper, guard".
Ar. Semâk-e râmeh.

area
  پهنه   
pahné (#)

Fr.: aire   

A particular extent of space or surface; the scope of a concept, operation, or activity.

The etymology is not clear; perhaps akin to L. arere "to be dry" → arid.

Pahné "area, field," from pahn "broad, wide" (Mid.Pers. pah(a)n, Av. pathana- "broad, wide, spacious," probably related to perethav- "broad, wide," Skt. prthav-, Gk. platus; PIE *plat- "to spread") + noun forming suffix .

areography
  بهرام‌نگاری   
Bahrâm-negâri

Fr.: aréographie   

The study of the surface features of Mars; the geography of Mars.

Areography, from Gk. Ares "Mars" + → -graphy.

Bahrâm-negâri, from Bahrâm "Mars" + -negâri-graphy.

areology
  بهرام‌شناسی   
Bahrâm-šenâsi

Fr.: aréologie   

The study of the origin, history, and structure of Mars; the geology of Mars.

Areology, from Gk. Ares "Mars" + → -logy.

Bahrâm-šenâsi, from Bahrâm "Mars" + -šenâsi-logy.

Argand diagram
  نمودار ِ ارگان   
nemudâr-e Argand

Fr.: diagramme d'Argand   

A geometrical representation of → complex numbers, which like the → Cartesian coordinates, uses two reference perpendicular axes. The horizontal axis represents the → real number part of the number and the perpendicular axis the → imaginary number part.

Named after Jean Robert Argand (1768-1822), a Swiss mathematician, who introduced this representation; → diagram.

Argelander method
  روش ِ آرگلاندر   
raveš-e Argelander

Fr.: méthode d'Argelander   

A technique to estimate the brightness of a → variable star. It involves comparing the variable with a sequence of neighboring stars of slightly different → magnitudes.

Friedrich Wilhelm Argelander (1799-1875), German astronomer. His most important work was his compilation of the Bonner Durchmusterung; → method.

<< < -es -iv -ti 217 A s abe abs abs acc acc Ach act act ADa adi adv aff age Alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg arm art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B-t Bai Bal bar bar Be bed Bes BHB bif bim bin Bio bis bla ble blu bod Bol bor bou bra Bre bro Bul cag cal can Can car Car Cas cat CCD cel cen Cet cha cha che che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col Col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos cou cou cra cri cro cry cul cur cyc D r dar dat day dea dec dec dec def def deg del den dep des det deu dex dif dif dif dim dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom dos dou dri Dum dus dyn dyn ear eas ecl Edd eff Ein eje ele ele ele ele eli emb emi Enc ene ens eph epo equ equ eru eth Eul eve evo exc exc exi exo exp exp ext ext fab fai Fan Fea fem fer fie fil fir fis fla flo flu foc for for Fou fra fre fre fro fun G r Gal gal gam gas Gau gel gen geo geo geo Gho gla goa gra gra gra gra gre Gre gro gyr had hal har har HD Hea Hel hel Her her hid hig Hip hom hor hot Hub Hub hun hyd hyd hyg Hyp ice ide ima imm imp imp inc ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins int int int int int int int int int inv ion iro ise iso iso Jab jet Jov Jur Kel Kep kil kit Kui Lag lam lan Lar Lat law lea lem lep Li- lig lim lin lin lio lit loc lod lon Lor low Lum lun Lup Lyn mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man mar mas mas mat Max mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min mir mix mod mol mom Moo mor mov mul mur nab nar nat neb neg nes neu New New nig nod non non non Nor nua nuc nul Nun OBC obl obs occ oct off Ohm on- ope opp opt opt orb orb org Ori ort Ost out ove p m Pal par par par par Pas pat Peg Peo per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro pse pul Pup Qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rap ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot rur Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel sem sen Ser Sey Sha she sho sid sig sim sin sip ske sli smo soc sol sol sol sol sol sou spa spa spe spe spe spe Spi spi spo squ sta sta sta sta Ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub sub sun sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn T-s tar Tei tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur Tyc Typ ult unb und uni uni unr upp Urs vac van Var veg Ven ver vib vio vir vis vol VY war wat wav WC8 Web wes whi win WN1 wob wri X-r yoc zen Zhe > >>