An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12955 Search : far
neutron star
  ستاره‌ی ِ نوترونی، نوترون‌ستاره   
setâre-ye notroni, notron setâré (#)

Fr.: étoile à neutrons   

An extremely compact ball of matter created from the central core of a star that has collapsed under gravity to such an extent that it consists almost entirely of → neutrons. Neutron stars result from two possible evolutionary scenarios: 1) The → collapse of a → massive star during a → supernova explosion; and 2) The accumulation of mass by a → white dwarf in a → binary system. The mass of a neutron star is the same as or larger than the → Chandrasekhar limit (1.4 → solar masses). Neutron stars are only about 10 km across and have a density of 1014 g cm-3, representing the densest objects having a visible surface. The structure of neutron stars consists of a thin outer crust of about 1 km thickness composed of → degenerate electrons and nuclei, which becomes progressively neutron rich with increasing depth and pressure due to → inverse beta decays. In the main body the matter consists of → superfluid neutrons in equilibrium with their decay products, a few percent protons and electrons. Neutron stars have extremely strong magnetic fields, from 3 x 1010 to 1015 gauss. As of 2010 more than 2000 neutron stars have been catalogued, which show a large variety of manifestations, mainly → pulsars.

neutron; → star.

neutron star binary system
  راژمان ِ درین ِ ستاره‌های ِ نوترونی   
râžmân-e dorin-e setârehâ-ye noroni

Fr.: système binaire d'étoiles à neutron   

A → binary system composed of two → neutron stars.

neutron; → star; → binary; → system.

neutron-capture element
  بن‌پار ِ گیر‌افت ِ نوترون   
bonpâr-e giroft-e notron

Fr.: élément de capture de neutron   

A → nucleosynthesis process responsible for the generation of the → chemical elements heavier than the → iron peak elements. There are two possibilities for → neutron capture: the slow neutron-capture process (the → s-process) and the rapid neutron-capture process (the → r-process). The s-process is further divided into two categories: the weak s-component and the main s-component. Massive stars are sites of the weak component of s-process nucleosynthesis, which is mainly responsible for the production of lighter neutron-capture elements (e.g. Sr, Y, and Zr). The s-process contribution to heavier neutron-capture elements (heavier than Ba) is due only to the main s-component. The low- to intermediate-mass stars (about 1.3-8 Msun) in the → asymptotic giant branch (AGB) are usually considered to be sites in which the main s-process occur. There is abundant evidence suggesting that → Type II supernova (SNe II) are sites for the synthesis of the r-process nuclei, although this has not yet been fully confirmed. The observations and analysis on → very metal-poor stars imply that the stars with [Fe/H] ≤ -2.5 might form from gas clouds polluted by a few supernovae (SNe). Therefore, the abundances of → heavy elements in → metal-poor stars have been used to learn about the nature of the nucleosynthetic processes in the early Galaxy (See, e.g., H. Li et al., 2013, arXiv:1301.6097).

neutron;→ capture; → element.

neutronization
  نوترونش   
notroneš

Fr.: neutronisation   

The reaction that transforms a → proton into a → neutron when a proton and an → electron are forced together to make a neutron: p + e-n + ν_e. In astronomy, this process occurs during the → core collapse of → massive stars which leads to the formation of → neutron stars.

neutron; → -ize; → -tion.

never
  هرگز   
hargez (#)

Fr.: jamais   

1) Not ever; at no time.
2) Not at all; absolutely not.

M.E., from O.E. næfre "never," compound of ne "not, no," → un- + æfre "ever."

Hargez, variant hagarz; Mid.Pers. hagriz, hakarc "ever, always, never;" O.Pers. hakarnciy "once"; Av. hakərət "once;" cf. Skt. sakrt "once; repeated; ever; never;" Gk. hapax "once;" L. semel "once," semper "always;" PIE *smkrt.

nevertheless
  هگرزکم   
hagarzkam

Fr.: néanmoins   

However, notwithstanding, in spite of, still.

M.E. natheles, notheles, natheless, from O.E. neuerþeles, that is → never + the "in or by that," "on that account," "in or by so much," + less-less, cf. Fr. néanmoins = pas moins; Ger. nichtsdestoweniger.

Hagarzkam, from hagarz, → never, + kam "less," → -less.

new
  نو   
now (#)

Fr.: nouveau, neuf   

Of recent origin, production.
Of a kind now existing or appearing for the first time. → new moon; → New General Catalogue (NGC).

O.E. neowe, niowe, niwe; cf. Du. nieuw, Ger. neu, Dan., Swed. ny; cognate with Pers. now, as below, L. novus "new, recent, fresh" (Fr. nouveau, neuf), from PIE *neu- "new, young."

Now, from Mid.Pers. nôg "new, fresh;" Av. nauua- "new, fresh;" cf. Skt. náva- "new, fresh, young;" Gk. neos "new, young;" L. novus, as above, cognate with E. new, as above.

New General Catalogue (NGC)
  کاتالوگ ِ هروین ِ نو   
kâtâlog-e harvin-e now

Fr.: New General Catalogue   

A catalogue of 7,840 non-stellar objects compiled by J. L. E. Dreyer and published in 1888. A further 1,529 objects were listed in a supplement that appeared seven years later, called the → Index Catalogue (IC). The Second Index Catalogue of 1908 extended the supplementary list to 5,386 objects.

new; → general; → catalog

New Horizons
  نیو هورایزنز   
New Horizons

Fr.: New Horizons   

A space mission by → NASA whose main goal is to study the → dwarf planet Pluto and it satellites. New Horizons was launched on January 19, 2006; it swung past → Jupiter for a → gravity assist and scientific studies in February 2007, and conducted a six-month-long reconnaissance → flyby study of → Pluto and its moons in summer 2015, culminating with Pluto closest approach on July 14, 2015. It flew 12,500 km above the surface of Pluto, making it the first spacecraft to explore the dwarf planet. Its science payload includes seven instruments: Ralph (visible and infrared imager/spectrometer), Alice (ultraviolet imaging spectrometer), REX (Radio Science EXperiment), LORRI (Long Range Reconnaissance Imager), SWAP (Solar Wind Around Pluto), PEPSSI: (Pluto Energetic Particle Spectrometer Science Investigation), and SDC: (Student Dust Counter). As part of an extended mission, New Horizons has maneuvered for a flyby of → Kuiper belt object 2014 MU69, expected to take place on January 1, 2019, when it is 43.4 → astronomical units (AU) from the Sun.

new; → horizon.

new moon
  نوماه، ماه ِ نو، اندرماه   
nowmâh (#), mâh-e now (#), andarmâh (#)

Fr.: nouvelle lune   

The Moon's phase when it is at the same celestial longitude as the Sun and thus totally un-illuminated as seen from Earth.

new; → moon.

newton
  نیوتن   
newton (#)

Fr.: newton   

The unit of force in the SI system of units. 1 newton (N) is defined as the force required to give a mass of 1 kilogram an acceleration of 1 m s-2. 1 N = 105  → dynes.

Named after Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727), the English highly prominent physicist and mathematician.

Newton constant
  پایای ِ نیوتن   
pâyâ-ye Newton

Fr.: constante de Newton   

Same as the → gravitational constant.

Newton; → constant.

Newton's color wheel
  چرخ ِ رنگ ِ نیوتن   
carx-e rang-e Newton

Fr.: disque de Newton   

The arrangement of the seven colors of the rainbow on a disk. When the disk rotates very fast, the eye cannot distinguish between individual colors and the disk is perceived as white. This apparatus demonstrates the discovery made by Newton (Opticks, 1704) that light is composed of seven colors.

Newton; → color; → wheel.

Newton's constant
  پایای ِ نیوتون   
pâyâ-ye Newton

Fr.: constante de Newton   

Same as the → gravitational constant.

Newton; → constant.

Newton's cradle
  گهواره‌ی ِ نیوتون   
gahvâre-ye Newton

Fr.: pendule de Newton   

A device consisting of a series of equal → pendulums in a row used to demonstrate the laws of → conservation of momentum and → conservation of energy.

Newton; → cradle.

Newton's disk
  گرده‌ی ِ نیوتن   
gerde-ye Newton

Fr.: disque de Newton   

Newton's color wheel.

Newton; → disk.

Newton's equation
  هموگش ِ نیوتن   
hamugeš-e Newton

Fr.: équation de Newton   

In → geometric optics, an expression relating the → focal lengths of an → optical system (f and f') and the object x and image x' distances measured from the respective focal points. Thus, ff' = xx'. Same as Newton's formula.

Newton; → equation.

Newton's first law of motion
  نخستین قانون ِ نیوتنی ِ جنبش   
naxostin qânun-e Newtoni-ye jonbeš (#)

Fr.: première loi newtonienne de mouvement   

A body continues in its state of constant velocity (which may be zero) unless it is acted upon by an external force.

Newton; → first; → law; → motion.

Newton's law of cooling
  قانون ِ سردش ِ نیوتن   
qânun-e sardeš-e Newton

Fr.: loi de refroidissement de Newton   

An approximate empirical relation between the rate of → heat transfer to or from an object and the temperature difference between the object and its surrounding environment. When the temperature difference is not too large: dT/dt = -k(T - Ts), where T is the temperature of the object, Ts is that of its surroundings, t is time, and k is a constant, different for different bodies.

Newton; → law; → cooling.

Newton's law of gravitation
  قانون ِ گرانش ِ نیوتن   
qânun-e gerâneš-e Newton

Fr.: loi newtonienne de la gravitation   

The universal law which states that the force of attraction between any two bodies is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them: F = G (m1.m2)/r2, where G is the → gravitational constant.

Newton; → law; → gravitation.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dog Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn e-f Ear ecl eco edu eig Ein ela ele ele ele Ele elo emi emp ene Enl env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh Exo exp exp ext ext f(R fac fam fat fee Fer Fib fig fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre Fre fri fun fuz Gal gal gal Gam gau Gay gen Geo geo geo geo gim glo gov gra gra gra gra gre gro Gun hab hal han Har haz hea hel hel Hen Her het Hig hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind Ind inf inf inf inf inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv ion ion Irr iso iso iso jan jit Jul jus Kel ker kin kni La lam lan Lap las lat Lay Led Len let lif lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou low lum lun Lym M d Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man mar mas mas mat mea mea mec mem mer Mes met met mho mic Mie Mil min mis MKS MOd mol Mon moo mot mul mul myo nak Nas nat neb neg neu neu New New nit noi non non nor nor nuc nuc nul nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi pai Pan par par Par par pas Pav Pel per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy Pip Pla pla PLA pla ple plu pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pot Pra pre pre pre Pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul pur qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret RHB rid rig ris roc Ros rot rub Rut Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci Sea sec sec see sel sem sen set Sha sha shi shu sid sil sim sin SIS ski Slo smo Soc sol sol sol sol son sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi Spo squ sta sta sta sta Ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur Swa syn syn tab tar tel tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tit top tot tra tra TRA tra tre tri tri tru Tun Tus tym Typ ult unb und uni uni uns upp Urs vac van var Vei Ven ver vic Vir vir vis vol W 4 war wat wav wea wed wet wid win WN2 Wol wri xen yok zen zin > >>