# An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

## فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

### M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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 Neso   نسو   NesoFr.: Néso   The outermost natural satellite of → Neptune, discovered in 2002. Also known as Neptune XIII, it follows a highly inclined and highly eccentric orbit at about 48 million km from Neptune. According to preliminary estimates, Neso is about 60 km in diameter.In Gk. mythology, one of the Nereids, the fifty daughters of Nereus and Doris. nested   تو-در-تو   tu-dar-tuFr.: imbriqué   Math.: Of an ordered collection of terms, having the property that each term is contained in the preceding one. → nested function, → nested multiplication.From nest, from M.E., O.E. nest "bird's nest;" cf. M.L.G., M.Du. nest, Ger. Nest, ultimately from PIE *nizdo- (cf. Skt. nidah "resting place, nest," L. nidus "nest," O.C.S. gnezdo, O.Ir. net, Breton nez "nest"), probably from → ni- (PIE) + *sed- "sit" (cf. Pers. nešastan "to sit"), → lander.Tu-dar-tu literally "inside in inside," from tu "inside, in;" dar, → in-. nested function   کریای ِ تو-در-تو   karyâ-ye tu-dar-tuFr.: fonction imbriquée   In computer programing, a function that is defined inside the definition of another function.→ nested; → function. nested multiplication   بستایش ِ تو-در-تو   bastâyeš-e tu-dar-tuFr.: multiplication imbriquée   A method in the evaluation of polynomials which involves fewer basic operations and allows simpler computation, especially for polynomials of high degree. More specifically, the polynomial P(x) = a0 + a1x + a2x2 + a3x3 + ... + anxn can be written in the nested form as: P(x) = a0 + x(a1 + x(a2 + ... + x(an - 1 + anx) ...)). For example, the polynomial P(x) = x3 - 5x2 + 10x - 3 has the following nested form: P(x) = ((x - 5)x + 10)x - 3. Same as the → Ruffini-Horner method.→ nested; → multiplication. network   توربست   turbastFr.: réseau   Any net-like combination of elements in a system; an interconnection of several communicating entities.O.E. net "mesh," from P.Gmc. *natjan (cf. Du. net, Swed. nät, O.H.G. nezzi, Ger. Netz, Goth. nati "net"), originally "something knotted," from PIE *ned- "to twist, knot" (cf. L. nodus "knot;" Skt. nahyati "binds, ties") + → work.Turbast literally "joined, tied by a net," from tur "net, fishing net, snare," related to târ "thread, warp, string," tâl "thread" (Borujerdi dialect), tân "thread, warp of a web," from tanidan, tan- "to spin, twist, weave" (Mid.Pers. tanitan; Av. tan- to stretch, extend;" cf. Skt. tan- to stretch, extend;" tanoti "stretches," tántra- "warp; essence, main point;" Gk. teinein "to stretch, pull tight;" L. tendere "to stretch;" Lith. tiñklas "net, fishing net, snare," Latv. tikls "net;" PIE base *ten- "to stretch") + bast "joined, tied," from bastan, vastan "to bind, shut" (O.Pers./Av. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie" (cf. Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten;" PIE *bhendh- "to bind;" Ger. binden; E. bind). Neumann line   خط ِ نویمان   xatt-e NeumannFr.: raie de Neumann   In → iron meteorites, any of very fine parallel lines that cross each other at various angles. They can be seen after cutting diagonally across the sample.Named after Johann G. Neumann, who discovered them in 1848 in the iron meteorite Braunau, which fell in 1847; → line. neuter   نتار   natâr (#)Fr.: neutre   Grammar: Noting or pertaining to a gender that refers to things classed as neither masculine nor feminine. Biology: Having no organs of reproduction; without sex; asexual. → neutral.From M.E., from M.Fr., from L. neuter, literally "neither one nor the other," from ne- "not, no" + uter "either of two;" cf. Av. atāra- "this of the two, which of the two;" Gk. poteros; Lith. katras "which of the two," Russ. kotoryj "which."Natâr, from negation prefix na-, → non-, + Mid.Pers. atâr, from Av. atāra- "this of the two," cognate with L. uter "either of two;" Av. katāra- "which of two; each of two;" Skt. katará- "who or which of two." neutral   نتار   natâr (#)Fr.: neutre   Physics: Of an atom, molecule, collection of particles, having no net charge; not electrified. Chemistry: Exhibiting neither acid nor alkaline qualities.From → neuter + → -al.→ neuter. neutral atom   اتم ِ نتار   atom-e natârFr.: atome neutre   An atom in which the number of → protons equals the number of → electrons and therefore has no net → electric charge.→ neutral; → atom. neutral density filter   پالایه‌ی ِ چگالی ِ نتار   pâlâye-ye cagâli-ye natârFr.: filtre neutre   A filter having a flat response over the range of wavelengths of interest. Also called neutral filter or gray filter.→ neutral; → density; → filter. neutral filter   پالایه‌ی ِ نتار   pâlâye-ye natârFr.: filtre neutre   Same as → neutral density filter.→ neutral; → filter. neutral gas   گاز ِ نتار   gâz-e natârFr.: gaz neutre   A gas which is not ionized.→ neutral; → gas. neutral hydrogen   هیدروژن ِ نتار   hidrožen-e natârFr.: hydrogène neutre   Non-ionized → atomic hydrogen gas which constitutes an important component of the → interstellar medium, accounting for perhaps half its mass, even though its density is very low. Its radio emission → 21-centimeter line has made it possible to map the distribution of neutral hydrogen in the → spiral arms of our own Galaxy and other nearby galaxies.→ neutral; → hydrogen. neutral mode   مد ِ نتار، ترز ِ ~   mod-e natâr, tarz-e ~Fr.: mode neutre   In hydrodynamic instability theory, a wave solution the amplitude of which does not change with time; it neither grows nor decays. Also called neutral wave.→ neutral; → mode. neutral point   نقطه‌ی ِ نتار   noqte-ye natârFr.: point neutre   1) A point where two fields are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction so that the net force exerted on it is zero. 2) One of several points in the sky for which the → degree of polarization of diffuse sky light is zero.→ neutral; → point. neutral tail   دم ِ نتار، دنباله‌ی ِ ~   dom-e natâr, donbâle-ye ~Fr.: queue neutre   Same as → sodium tail.→ neutral; → tail. neutral wave   موج ِ نتار   mowj-e natârFr.: onde neutre   Same as → neutral mode.→ neutral; → wave. neutralino   نوترالینو   notrâlino (#)Fr.: neutralino   A hypothetical particle predicted by supersymmetry theories, which aim at relating bosons to fermions. Under certain assumptions, the lightest such partner particle would be stable, and if it is neutral (a "neutralino"), would make a good dark matter candidate. Reasonable neutralino masses range from 30 GeV to 10 TeV.From → neutral + -ino diminutive suffix. neutralization   نتارش   natârešFr.: neutralisation   In optics, the process of combining two lenses having equal and opposite powers to produce a result having no power.Verbal noun of → neutralize. neutralize   نتاریدن   natâridanFr.: neutraliser   To make neutral; cause to undergo neutralization. To render electrically or magnetically neutral.Infinitive from → neutral.