An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
Argelander method
  روش ِ آرگلاندر   
raveš-e Argelander

Fr.: méthode d'Argelander   

A technique to estimate the brightness of a → variable star. It involves comparing the variable with a sequence of neighboring stars of slightly different → magnitudes.

Friedrich Wilhelm Argelander (1799-1875), German astronomer. His most important work was his compilation of the Bonner Durchmusterung; → method.

Argo (Argo Navis; Ship Argo)
  کشتی   
Kašti (#)

Fr.: Navire Argo   

An extensive constellation, one of the 48 constellations known to Greeks, representing the ship of Argonauts. It was divided in 18th century into the constellations → Carina, → Puppis, and → Vela.

The ship in which Jason sailed in search of the Golden Fleece.

Kašti "ship," from Mid.Pers. kaštik.

argol
  لرد   
lerd (#)

Fr.: tartre   

A generally reddish matter that settles from a liquid, especially from wine. Same as → tartar.

M.E. argul, argoile, from M.Fr. argoil, from L. argilla "argil."

Lerd ou lert "the sediment of liquids, dregs, lees" (Dehxodâ).

argon
  آرگون   
ârgon (#)

Fr.: argon   

A → chemical element which occurs as a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas in the atmosphere (of which it constitutes 0.94% by volume) and in some volcanic gases; symbol Ar. → Atomic number 18; → atomic weight 39.948; → melting point -189.2°C; → boiling points -185.7°C.

Argon, from Gk. neutral of argos "inactive, idle, lazy," from negation prefix → a- + ergon "work," → energy. It was discovered in 1895 by the Scottish chemist William Ramsay and the English physicist Robert John Strutt (Lord Rayleigh) in liquified atmospheric air.

argue
  آروزیدن   
âruzidan (#)

Fr.: argumenter   

To put forth reasons for or against.

argument.

argument
  آروزمان   
âruzmân (#)

Fr.: argument   

1) General: A discussion involving differing points of view; debate; a process of reasoning; series of reasons.
2a) Math.: The → independent variable of a → function.
2b) Math.: The → angle of a → complex number measured from the positive horizontal axis.
3) Astro.: → argument of periapsis, → argument of perigee, → argument of perihelion.
4a) Logic: A sequence of → propositions with one or more → premises and a → conclusion. Arguments are usually divided into two kinds, → deductive and → inductive.
4b) Logic: A → propositional symbol (→ variable or → constant) taken by a → predicate in an → atomic wff.

M.E., from M.Fr., from L. argmentum, from arguere "to make clear." Compare with L. argentum "silver," Gk. argos "white," arguron "silver," Av. auruša- "white" (Mid.Pers. arus "white, bright"), Av. ərəzata- "silver," Skt. arjuna- "white, shining," rajata- "silver," Mod.Pers. arziz "silvery metal tin;" PIE *arg- "to shine, be white, bright, clear."

Âruzmân, from Av. āroc- "to enlighten, make light," Av. raocah- "light, luminous; daylight;" Skt. roka- "brightness, light," cognate with Gk. leukos "white, clear;" L. lux "light" (also lumen, luna); PIE *leuk- "light, brightness" + noun forming suffix -mân.

argument of periapsis
  آروزمان ِ پیراهباک   
âruzmân-e pirâhabâk

Fr.: argument du périastre   

The angular distance between the → ascending node of an object orbiting a → primary and its periapsis measured from the primary. Argument of periapsis is measured in the → orbital plane in the direction of motion. It is one of the → orbital elements. See also → argument of perigee, → argument of perihelion.

argument; → perigee.

argument of perigee
  آروزمان ِ پیرازم   
âruzmân-e pirâzam

Fr.: argument du périgée   

The angular distance between the → ascending node of an object orbiting the Earth and its perigee, measured from the Earth. See also: → argument of perihelion, → argument of periapsis.

argument; → perigee.

argument of perihelion
  آروزمان ِ پیراهور   
âruzmân-e pirâhur

Fr.: argument du périhélie   

The angular distance between the → ascending node of an object orbiting the Sun and its perihelion. Argument of perihelion is measured in the → orbital plane with respect to the Sun and in the direction of motion. It is one of the → orbital elements and usually shown with the symbol ω. See also: → argument of perigee, → argument of periapsis.

argument; → perihelion.

argumentation
  آروزش   
âruzeš

Fr.: argumentation   

The presentation and elaboration of an argument or arguments.

Noun from → argument.

argumentative
  آروزمانگین   
âruzmângin

Fr.: raisonneur   

1) Fond of or given to argument and dispute.
2) Of or characterized by argument; controversial.

argue; → -ive

arid
  کماب   
kamâb (#)

Fr.: aride   

Lacking sufficient water or rainfall.

L. aridus, from arere "to be dry, i.e. burnt up"; compare with Gk. azaleos "dry," PIE *as- "to burn, glow".

Kamâb, from Mod.P. kam "little, few, deficient, scarce" + âb "water".

aridity
  کمابی   
kamâbi (#)

Fr.: aridité   

A measure of the degree to which a climate lacks effective moisture.

Aridity, noun from → arid.

Kamâbi, noun from amâbi, → arid.

Ariel (Uranus I)
  آریل   
Ariel (#)

Fr.: Ariel   

A satellite of → Uranus discovered by Lassell in 1851. It is orbiting at a mean distance of 192,000 kilometers with a period of 2.52 days.

Ariel, a spirit in William Shakespeare's The Tempest.

Aries
  بره   
Barré (#)

Fr.: Bélier   

The Ram. A constellation of the → Zodiac, representing a ram (R.A. = 2h 30m, Dec. = +13 deg). Its brightest star is → Hamal (α Arietis). Abbreviation: Ari; genitive form: Arietis.

L. aries "ram," perhaps akin to Gk. eriphos "a kid, a young goat," O.Ir. heirp "she-goat;" cf. Lith. erytis, O.C.S. jarici, Arm. oroj "lamb."

Barré "ram, sheep; Aries" from Mid.Pers. warrag "lamb, ram; Aries," compare with Av. varənâ- "wool," Skt. urana, urabhra "wool-beared = ram," from urna "wool," L. vervex "a wether, sheep".

Aristarchus' inequality
  ناهموگی ِ اریستارخوس   
nâhamugi-ye Aristarchus

Fr.: inégalité d'Aristarque   

Put in modern notation, if α and β are acute angles and if β <α, then sin α / sin β <α / β < tan α / tan β. Aristarchus probably used this inequality to show that the Sun is between 18 and 20 times as far from the Earth as the Moon is.

Aristarchus of Samos (c.310-c.230 BC); → inequality.

Aristotelian form
  دیسه‌ی ِ ارسطویی   
dise-ye Arastuyi

Fr.: forme aristotelienne   

Any of the four main → proposition forms treated in Aristotle's → syllogism:
The A form (universal affirmative): All P's are Q's,
The E form (universal negative): No P's are Q's,
The I form (particular affirmative): Some P's are Q's, and
The O form (particular negative) Some P's are not Q's.

Greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322 BC); → form.

arithmetic
  حساب   
hesâb (#)

Fr.: arithmétique   

A branch of mathematics that deals usually with integers, rational numbers, real numbers, or complex numbers under addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. See also → compute, → computation, → count, → calculate, → calculus, → mathematics, → statistics.

O.Fr. arsmetique, from M.L. arithmetica, from Gk. arithmetike (tekhne) "(art, skill) of numbers," from arithmos "number."

Hesâb, from Ar. hisab.

arithmetic mean
  میانگین ِ حسابی   
miyângin hesâbi (#)

Fr.: moyenne arithmétique   

Of n numbers a1, a2, ..., an, the quantity defined as: (a1 + a2 + ... + an)/n.

arithmetic; → mean.

arithmetic progression
  فرایازی ِ حسابی   
farâyâzi-yz hesâbi (#)

Fr.: progression arithmétique   

A → sequence of n numbers or quantities such that the difference between any two successive terms is a constant. In particular, if a is the first term, the nth term is a + (n - 1)d, where d is the constant. Also called → arithmetic sequence.

arithmetic; → progression.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>