An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12955 Search : far
paraboloid
  سهمی‌وار   
sahmivâr (#)

Fr.: paraboloïde   

A solid formed by the revolution of a parabola about its axis.

From parabol(a), → parabola, + → -oid.

paradigm
  پرادیش، پارادیش   
parâdiš, pârâdiš

Fr.: paradigme   

1) General: A typical example of something.
2) Grammar: A set of word forms giving all of the possible inflections (declensions, conjugations) of a word.
3) Philosophy of science: A framework of concepts, results, and procedures within which subsequent work is carried out, as defined by the influential Thomas Kuhn (1922-1996) in his classic The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962). "Normal science" proceeds within such a framework or paradigm. When a paradigm has to be changed (→ paradigm shift), there comes about a crisis and then scientific revolution. For example, Newton's mechanical paradigm was replaced by the paradigm of Einstein's relativistic universe. Each paradigm is an interpretation of the world, rather than an objective explanation. For criticism of Kuhn's views, see, e.g., Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
4) Term now occurring frequently in every kind of discourse, usually to mean something like "way of thinking" or "approach to a problem."

L.L. paradigma "pattern, example," especially in grammar, from Gk. paradeigma "pattern, model," from paradeiknynai "to exhibit, show side by side," from → para- "beside" + deiknynai "to show," related to dokein "to appear, seem, think," cognate with Av. daēs- "to show" (Mod.Pers. andišé, andiš "thought, think," see below); Skt. diś- "to show, point out," diśati "he shows;" L. dicere "to utter;" PIE base *deik- "to show, to pronounce."

Parâdiš, pârâdiš, from parâ-, pârâ, → para- + diš "to show," as in andiš, andišidan "to → think" (related to dis, disé, → form); Sogd. andiš "to seem," andêš "to show," andêšik "appearing;" ultimately from Av. daēs- "to show," s-aorist forms dāiš-, dôiš-, diš-, akin to Gk. deiknynai "to show," as above, dike "manner, custom;" Skt. diś- "to show, point out;" L. dicere "to utter, say;" O.H.G. zeigon, Ger. zeigen "to show;" O.E. teon "to accuse," tæcan "to teach."

paradigm shift
  کیب ِ پرادیش، دگرگونی ِ ~   
kib-e parâdiš, degarguni-ye ~

Fr.: changement de paradigme   

1) Philosophy of science: A process of revolutionary change in scientific → paradigms, whereby established scientific ideas are replaced by new ones. For instance, Copernicus' evidence that the Earth revolved around the Sun caused a paradigm shift in astronomy.
2) The idea of paradigm shift has been transferred from the sciences to other areas of society and culture, referring to a fundamental reorganization of how people think about an entire topic.

paradigm; → shift; → change.

paradox
  پارادخش   
pârâdaxš (#)

Fr.: paradoxe   

A statement, proposition, or situation that seems self-contradictory or absurd but in reality is or may be true. → Fermi paradox; → faint early Sun paradox; → twins paradox; → paradox of youth.

From L. paradoxum "contrary to expectation," from Gk. paradoxon, from neuter of adj. paradoxos "contrary to common opinion, unbelievable," from → para- "contrary to" + dox(a) "opinion, belief" + -os adj. suffix. The main component dox, from dokein "to appear, seem, think," is cognate with Av. daēs- "to show;" Skt. diś- "to show, point out," diśati "he shows;" L. dicere "to utter;" PIE base *deik- "to show, pronounce solemnly."

Pârâdaxš (on the model of Gk. paradoxos), from pârâ-, → para-, + daxš, from Av. daxš- "to reveal, instruct, point out," fradaxštar- "teacher," *daxšārə "revelations;" Mod.Pers. daxš "task, effort;" cf. Skt. daks- "to be able," dáksa- "able, expert."

paradox of youth
  پارادخش ِ جوانی   
pârâdaxš-e javâni

Fr.: paradoxe de jeunesse   

The observed presence of young stars in the immediate vicinity of the → supermassive black hole (SMBH), → Sgr A*, residing in the center of our Galaxy. The stellar population within 1 pc of the SMBH contains a variety of young and → massive stars orbiting the SMBH. Some of them are only about 20 Myr old and get as close as a few light-days to the SMBH, while from 0.1 to 0.4 pc even younger stars are found with ages of 3-7 Myr. The presence of these stars so near to the SMBH is a paradox. Their → in situ formation should be almost impossible, since the environment is too hostile for these stars to form. Indeed the strong → tidal influence of the SMBH should hamper their formation. On the other hand, the scenario considering their → migration from other places does not seem to be adequate. The time required for the migration from > 1 pc by dynamical friction would exceed their inferred ages unless the migration rate were somehow accelerated. This apparent contradiction was termed "paradox of youth" by Ghez et al. (2003, ApJ 586, L127). See also Genzel et al. (2010, Rev.Mod.Phys. 82, 3121, also at astro-ph/1006.0064).

Youth, the condition of being → young; → paradox.

parahydrogen
  پارا-هیدروژن   
pârâ-hidrožen

Fr.: parahydrogène   

Molecular hydrogen in which the nuclei (protons) of the two hydrogen atoms contained in the molecule have spins in opposite directions. → orthohydrogen

para-; + → hydrogen.

parallactic
  دیدگشتی   
didgašti

Fr.: parallactique   

Of or pertaining to a parallax.

Adj. form of → parallax.

parallactic angle
  زاویه‌ی ِ دیدگشتی   
zâviye-ye didgašti

Fr.: angle parallactique   

Of an object in the sky, the angle between the → celestial pole, the object, and the → zenith. Since parallactic angle describes the orientation on the sky of the object for a particular observer, it can be an important quantity in some observations.

parallactic; → angle.

parallactic ellipse
  بیضی ِ دیدگشت   
beyzi-ye didgašt

Fr.: ellipse de parallaxe   

The path on the sky of the apparent position of a star as seen from the Earth, due to the Earth's annual motion around the Sun.

parallactic; → ellipse.

parallactic inequality
  ناهموگی ِ دیدگشتی   
nâhamugi-ye didgašti

Fr.: inégalité parallactique   

An irregularity in the Moon's motion caused by the Sun's gravitational attraction, which sets the Moon ahead or behind its normal orbital position. The Moon is about 2 arcminutes ahead of its expected position at first quarter, and a similar amount behind at last quarter.

parallactic; → inequality.

parallactic motion
  جنبش ِ دیدگشتی   
jonbeš-e didgašti

Fr.: mouvement parallactique   

The proper motion of a star due to the effect of the Sun's motion relative to the → local standard of rest.

parallactic; → motion.

parallax
  دیدگشت   
didgašt (#)

Fr.: parallaxe   

The apparent → shift of a nearby object's → position in relation to more distant ones when the nearby object is observed from different → viewing angles. See also → stellar parallax.

From M.Fr. parallaxe, from Gk. parallaxis "change, alteration," from parallassein "to alter, make things alternate," from → para- "beside" + allassein "to change," from allos "other;" → alias.

Didgašt, literally "view change," from did "sight, view; eye," from didan "to see" (Mid.Pers. ditan "to see, regard, catch sight of, contemplate, experience;" O.Pers. dī- "to see;" Av. dā(y)- "to see," didāti "sees;" cf. Skt. dhī- "to perceive, think, ponder; thought, reflection, meditation," dādhye; Gk. dedorka "have seen") + gašt "change, alteration," past stem of gaštan, gardidan "to turn, to change" (Mid.Pers. vartitan; Av. varət- "to turn, revolve;" Skt. vrt- "to turn, roll," vartate "it turns round, rolls;" L. vertere "to turn;" O.H.G. werden "to become;" PIE base *wer- "to turn, bend").

parallax angle
  زاویه‌ی ِ دیدگشت   
zâviye-ye didgašt

Fr.: angle de parallaxe   

The angular displacement associated with → parallax.

parallax; → angle.

parallel
  پراسو   
parâsu

Fr.: parallèle   

1) Said of two or more things, such as lines or planes, that are equally distant from one another at all points.
2) Electricity: An arrangement of the components in an electric circuit so that the same voltage is applied to each component. Compare → series.

From M.Fr. parallèle, from L. parallelus, from Gk. parallelos "parallel," from para allelois "beside one another," from → para- "beside" + allelois "each other," from allos "other," → alias.

Parâsu, from parâ-, → para-, + su "direction, side," from Mid.Pers. sôk "direction, side."

parallel axis theorem
  فربین ِ آسه‌ها‌ی ِ پراسو   
farbin-e âsehâ-ye parâsu

Fr.: théorème des axes parallèles   

The → moment of inertia of a body about any given axis is the moment of inertia about a parallel axis through the center of mass, plus the moment of inertia about the given axis if the mass were located at the center of mass. same as → Steiner's theorem.

parallel; → axis; → theorem.

parallel of altitude
  پرهون ِ فرازا   
parhun-e farâzâ

Fr.: almucantar   

A small circle on the celestial sphere whose plane is parallel to the celestial horizon. Same as → almucantar.

parallel; → altitude.

almucantar.

parallelepiped
  پراسورویه، لوزی‌وار   
parâsuruyé, lowzivâr

Fr.: parallélépipède   

A solid figure whose six bases are → parallelograms, opposite pairs being identical and parallel.

From Gk. parallelepipedon, from parallelos, → parallel + epipedon "plane surface," from neuter of epipedos "flat," from → epi- + pedon "ground," cognate with L. ped-, pes, → foot.

Parâsuruyé, from parâsu, → parallel, + ruyé, → surface. Lowzivâr, from lowzi, → rhombus + -vâr, → -oid.

parallelogram
  پراسوبر   
parâsubar

Fr.: parallélogramme   

A four-sided → polygon whose opposite sides are parallel. A parallelogram all of whose angles are right angles is a → rectangle.

From Fr. parallélogramme, from L. parallelogrammum, from Gk. parallelogrammon "bounded by parallel lines," from parallelos, → parallel, + gramme "line," related to graphein "to write, draw" → -graph.

Parâsubar, from parâsu, → parallel, + bar, → side.

paramagnet
  پارامغنات   
pârâmeqnât

Fr.: para-aimant   

A paramagnetic substance, which possesses → paramagnetism.

para- + → magnet.

paramagnetic
  پارامغناتی   
pârâmeqnâti

Fr.: paramagnétique   

Relative to or characterized by → paramagnetism.

para- + → magnetic

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dog Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn e-f Ear ecl eco edu eig Ein ela ele ele ele Ele elo emi emp ene Enl env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh Exo exp exp ext ext f(R fac fam fat fee Fer Fib fig fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre Fre fri fun fuz Gal gal gal Gam gau Gay gen Geo geo geo geo gim glo gov gra gra gra gra gre gro Gun hab hal han Har haz hea hel hel Hen Her het Hig hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind Ind inf inf inf inf inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv ion ion Irr iso iso iso jan jit Jul jus Kel ker kin kni La lam lan Lap las lat Lay Led Len let lif lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou low lum lun Lym M d Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man mar mas mas mat mea mea mec mem mer Mes met met mho mic Mie Mil min mis MKS MOd mol Mon moo mot mul mul myo nak Nas nat neb neg neu neu New New nit noi non non nor nor nuc nuc nul nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi pai Pan par par Par par pas Pav Pel per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy Pip Pla pla PLA pla ple plu pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pot Pra pre pre pre Pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul pur qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret RHB rid rig ris roc Ros rot rub Rut Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci Sea sec sec see sel sem sen set Sha sha shi shu sid sil sim sin SIS ski Slo smo Soc sol sol sol sol son sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi Spo squ sta sta sta sta Ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur Swa syn syn tab tar tel tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tit top tot tra tra TRA tra tre tri tri tru Tun Tus tym Typ ult unb und uni uni uns upp Urs vac van var Vei Ven ver vic Vir vir vis vol W 4 war wat wav wea wed wet wid win WN2 Wol wri xen yok zen zin > >>