An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12942 Search : far
peculiar galaxy
  کهکشان ِ اَفد   
kahkešân-e afd

Fr.: galaxie particulière   

An irregular galaxy that has an abnormal shape (neither elliptical, spiral, nor lenticular) and/or has another unusual characteristic.

peculiar; → galaxy.

peculiar motion
  جنبش ِ اَفد   
jonbeš-e afd

Fr.: mouvement particulier   

1) The true motion of a star with respect to the Local Standard of Rest. → proper motion.
2) The motion of a cosmological object other than the apparent recession caused by the expansion of the Universe.

peculiar; → motion.

peculiar star
  ستاره‌ی ِ اَفد   
setâre-ye afd

Fr.: étoile particulière   

A star with a spectrum that cannot be conveniently fitted into any of the standard → spectral classifications.

peculiar; → star.

peculiar velocity
  تندا‌ی ِ اَفد   
tondâ-ye afd

Fr.: vitesse particulière   

1) Velocity with respect to the Local Standard of Rest.
2) Any velocity a galaxy has with respect to us that is not a Hubble law velocity due to the expansion of space.

peculiar; → velocity.

peculiarity
  اَفدی   
afdi

Fr.: particularité   

The quality or condition of being peculiar.

Noun form of → peculiar.

Pegasus
  پگاسوس، اسب ِ بالدار   
Pegâsus (#), asb-e bâldâr (#)

Fr.: Pégase   

The Winged Horse. A large constellation in the northern hemisphere at 22h 50m right ascension, 20° north declination. The stars → Markab, → Scheat, and → Algenib form three corners of the famous Great → Square of Pegasus, which is completed by the star → Alpheratz from neighboring → Andromeda. Abbreviation: Peg; Genitive: Pegasi.

In Gk. mythology, Pegasus is the winged horse that was fathered by Poseidon with Medusa. When the head of Medusa was cut off by Perseus, the horse sprang forth from her pregnant body. Pegasus aided Perseus in his fight against both the Chimera and the Amazons.

Pegâsus, from Gk., as above; asb-e bâldâr "Winged Horse," referring to the Gk. mythology, from asbhorse; bâl, → wing; dâr "having, possessor" (from dâštan "to have, to possess," Mid.Pers. dâštan, O.Pers./Av. root dar- "to hold, keep back, maintain, keep in mind," Skt. dhr-, dharma- "law," Gk. thronos "elevated seat, throne," L. firmus "firm, stable," Lith. daryti "to make," PIE *dher- "to hold, support").

pejorate
  پستاردن   
pastârdan

Fr.: péjorer   

To make worse; to cause to deteriorate. To endow (a word) with a less favorable meaning.

Back formation from → pejorative.

Pastârdan, literally "to render low, vile, bring down" from past "low, vile, abject," → platykurtic, + ârdan, short for âvardan, "to cause or produce; to bring," → cause.

pejoration
  پستارش   
pastâeš

Fr.: péjoration   

1) Depreciation; a lessening in worth, quality, etc.
2) Semantic change in a word to a lower, less approved, or less respectable meaning.

Verbal noun of → pejorate.

pejorative
  پستار، پستارنده   
pastâr, pastaarandé

Fr.: péjoratif   

1) Having negative connotations; tending to disparage or belittle.
2) A pejorative word, expression, etc.

From Fr. péjoratif, from L.L. peiorat-, p.p. stem of peiorare "make worse," from L. peior "worse," related to pessimus "worst," pessum "downward, to the ground," from PIE *ped-yos-, comparative of root *ped- "to walk, stumble, impair," → foot.

Pastârandé agent noun from pastârdan, → pejorate.

Pelican Nebula
  میغ ِ پلیکان   
miq-e pelikân

Fr.: Nébuleuse du Pélican   

An → H II region, also known as IC 5067 and IC 5070, about 2,000 → light-years away in the constellation → Cygnus. It is part of a much larger, complex star-forming region also containing the larger and bright → North America Nebula.

So named because of its resemblance to a pelican on long exposure images. M.E. pellican; O.E. pellicane, from L.L. pelecanus, from Gk. pelekan "pelican:" → nebula.

Peltier effect
  اسکر ِ پلتیه   
oskar-e Peltier

Fr.: effet Peletier   

When an electric current is sent through the junction between two different conductors or semiconductors, a quantity of heat is liberated or absorbed, depending on the direction of the current. The heat is proportional to the total electric charge crossing the junction. This effect is due to the existence of an electromotive force at the junction.

Named after Jean-Charles Peltier (1785-1845), French physicist and watchmaker, who discovered the effect in 1834; → effect.

pencil
  ۱) مداد، کلک؛ ۲) باریکه   
1) medâd, kelk; 2) bâriké

Fr.: 1) crayon; 2) pinceau   

1a) A slender tube of wood, metal, plastic, etc., containing a core or strip of graphite, a solid coloring material, or the like, used for writing or drawing.
1b) Anything shaped or used like a pencil.
2) A narrow set of lines, light rays, or the like, diverging from or converging to a point (Dictionary.com). → pencil of light.

M.E. pencel, from M.Fr. pincel, from L. penicillus "painter's brush or pencil," diminutive of peniculus "little tail," diminutive of penis "tail;" → light.

Medâd "pencil," of unknown origin.
Kelk "quill, pen," originally "hollow reed."
Bâriké, from bârik, → narrow, + nuance suffix ; nur, → light.

pencil beam
  تابه‌ی ِ باریک   
tâbe-ye bârik

Fr.: faisceau étroit   

A beam of radiant energy in the form of a narrow cone or cylinder.

pencil; → beam.

Pencil Nebula (NGC 2736)
  میغ ِ کلک   
miq-e kelk

Fr.: Nébuleuse du Crayon   

A small part of the → Vela supernova remnant with a narrow appearance. The Pencil Nebula measures about 0.75 → light-years across, is about 5 light-years long, and lies about 800 light-years from Earth. It is moving through the → interstellar medium at about 650 000 kilometres per hour.

pencil; → nebula.

pencil of light
  باریکه‌ی ِ نور   
bârike-ye nur (#)

Fr.: pinceau lumineux   

A small bundle of → rays of light. See also → beam of light.

M.E. pencel, from M.Fr. pincel, from L. penicillus "painter's brush or pencil," diminutive of peniculus "little tail," diminutive of penis "tail;" → light.

Bâriké, from bârik, → narrow, + nuance suffix ; nur, → light.

pendulum
  آونگ   
âvang (#)

Fr.: pendule   

In its simple form, a device consisting of a body suspended from a fixed point on the end of a string to move to and fro by the action of gravity and acquired momentum. The period of oscillation for small amplitudes of swing is determined by the formula T = 2π √(l/g).

From Mod.L. pendulum, noun use of neuter of L. pendulus "hanging down," from pendere "to hang."

&ACIRC;vang, related to âvixtan, âviz- "to hang" (akin to bixtan, biz- "to shake, to sort out, to sift"); Mid.Pers. âwixtan "to hang" (Sogdian wyc "to move, shake;" Chorasmian wc- "to tremble, shake;" Ossetic wigyn "to shake," awynzyn "to hang"), from prefixed (â-) Proto-Iranian base *uij-, *uic- "to shake, swing;" cf. Av. vij- "to shake, swing," vaējant- "swinging;" cf. Skt. vej- "to tremble, wince."

pendulum day
  روز ِ آونگی   
ruz-e âvangi

Fr.: jour pendulaire   

The time required for the plane of a freely suspended → Foucault pendulum to complete an apparent rotation about the local vertical. It is given by T = 23.9344 / sin φ in hours, where φ represents the latitude of the place. For Paris it is 31h 47m 38s; for the poles it 23.9344 h and for the equator it is ∞ since the plane of pendulum does not turn.

pendulum; → day.

Penrose process
  فراروند ِ پنروز   
farâravand-e Penrose

Fr.: processus de Penrose   

A hypothetical means of extracting energy from a rotating black hole. If a particle spirals into the ergosphere of a black hole in a direction counter to the rotation of the black hole, and if the particle then breaks up into two fragments inside the ergosphere, one of the fragments can escape with energy greater than the energy of the original particle.

Named after Roger Penrose, English physicist (1931-), who devised the process; → process.

Penrose theorem
  فربین ِ پنروز   
farbin-e Penrose

Fr.: théorème de Penrose   

A collapsing object whose radius is less than its Schwarzschild radius must collapse into a singularity.

Penrose process; → theorem.

Penrose-Carter diagram
  نمودار ِ پنروز-کارتر   
nemudâr-e Penrose-Carter (#)

Fr.: diagramme de Penrose-Carter   

A diagram involving → formal compactification of → space-time used in → general relativity to describe the causal properties of the space-time. Only two of the space dimensions are shown and horizontal lines represent space, while vertical lines belong to time. The → null geodesicss are at 45°, which facilitates the visualization of → light cones. The major feature of Penrose-Carter diagram is representing the whole space-time on a finite surface, while putting → spacelike and → timelike infinities at finite distance.

Named for Roger Penrose (1931-) and Brandon Carter (1942-) who introduced it independently; → diagram.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou cra cre cro cru cub cur cyc Cyn dar dat day de- dec dec dec def def deg del den dep Des det deu dex die dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom Dor dou Dra duc dus dwa dyn e-t ear ecl eco eff Ein Ein ele ele ele ele ele elv emi emp ene enr epa epo equ equ Err Eta Eul eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext Fab fai fan fau fel fer fic fil fin fir fla fli flu foc for for for fra fre fre fro fun fuz Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel hep Her hex hig Him hol hor hos hov Hub Hun hyd hyd hyd hyp IC ide ill Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ini inp ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion Iri irr iso iso ite jel Jou JUp Kan Kep Kil kin Kra Lag Lam Lan Lar las law lea Leg Leo lev lig lim lin lin lin lit loc loc log Lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mec meg men mer met met Met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur n-b nan nat nea neg Ner neu new New NGC noc nom non non nor nou nuc nuc num O-p obl obs obs oce Of? ohm omn opa Oph opt opt or orb ord Ori ort osc out ove ozo pal pan par par par par pat pec pen per per per per per Pfu pha pho pho pho phy pie pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol pol pol por pos pot pow pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro Pro pro Prz pul pum Pyx qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rhy rif Rin rob Rom rot rot rum S s Sak San sav sca Sch Sch scr sec sec SED sei sel sem seq sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma SNR Sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spo squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste sto sto str str sub sub sub sum sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn syz tan tea tem ten ter the the the the thi thr tid til tip tom tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ ult umb unc uni uni unk upp urg uvb val var Veg vel ver vib vio vir vis Voi vow wan wat wav WC wea wel whi Wil wir WNh wor X-r Yer Z s zer [C > >>