An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>

Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
personify
  تنوماردن   
tanumârdan

Fr.: personnifier   

1) To conceive of or represent as a person or as having human qualities or powers.
2) To be the embodiment or personification of (Merriam-Webster.com).

person + -ify, → -fy.

personnel
  تنومگان   
tanumgân

Fr.: personnel   

A body of persons employed in an organization or place of work (Dictionary.com).

From Fr. personnel (as contrasted with matériel), from O.Fr. personel, → personal.

Tanumgân, from tanum, → personal, + -gân multiplicity suffix.

perspective
  پرگاس‌مندی، پرگاسیک؛ ۲) پرگاس‌مند، پرگاسیک   
1) pargâsmandi, pargâsik; 2) pargâsmand, pargâsik

Fr.: perspective   

1) The technique or art of drawing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface so that to give the right impression of their relative sizes and distances. A drawing so made.
2) Of, or pertaining to the art of perspective.

From M.Fr. perspective, from M.L. (ars) perspectiva "science of optics," from feminine of perspectivus "of sight, optical" from L. perspectus, p.p. of perspicere "to inspect, look through," from → per- "through" + specere "to look at," → prospect.

Pargâsmandi, from pargâsmand, from pargâs, from par-, → per-, + gâs, "to look at," → prospect, + -mand possession suffix, from Mid.Pers. -omand; O.Pers./Av. -mant; cf. Skt. -mant or -ik, → -ic.

perturb
  پرتوریدن   
parturidan

Fr.: perturber   

To cause a small → deviation in the → behavior of a → physical system, e.g. in the → orbit of a planet.

O.Fr. perturber, from L. perturbare "to confuse, disorder, disturb," from per- "through" + turbare "disturb, confuse," from turba "turmoil, crowd," turbidus "muddy, full of confusion."

Parturidan, from par-, related to pirâ- (cf. Av. per- "to pass across, through") + turidan "to run away, be very much ashamed," tur "withdrawal, flight;" Lori, Laki tur "restive, disobedient," Laki turyâyen "to get angry, lose one's temper," probably cognate with L. turba, as above.

perturbation
  پرتورش   
partureš

Fr.: perturbation   

1) Any departure introduced into a steady state of a system. The magnitude is often assumed to be small so that the resulting terms in the dependent variables may be neglected. The term "perturbation" is therefore sometimes used as synonymous with "small perturbation."
2) Gravitational effect of a third body that causes an alteration in the orbit of a body going around its primary.
See also: → linear perturbation theory, → method of small perturbationsn → perturbation equation, → perturbation method, → primordial curvature perturbation, → scalar perturbation, → secular perturbation, → tensor perturbation, → vector perturbation.

Verbal noun of → perturb.

perturbation equation
  هموگش ِ پرتورش   
hamugeš-e partureš

Fr.: équation de perturbation   

Any equation governing the behavior of a → perturbation.

perturbation; → equation.

perturbation method
  روش ِ پرتورش   
raveš-e partureš

Fr.: méthode de perturbation   

Approximate method of solving a difficult problem if the equations to be solved depart only slightly from those of a problem already solved.

perturbation; → method.

perturber body
  جسم ِ پرتورنده   
jesm-e parturandé

Fr.: corps perturbateur   

A celestial body that causes a perturbation in the orbit of another body.

Agent noun of → perturb; → body.

peta-
  پتا-   
petâ- (#)

Fr.: péta-   

A prefix denoting 1015.

Of unknown origin.

petro-
  سنگ-   
sang- (#)

Fr.: petro-   

A combining form meaning "rock," "stone." Also, petri-, and petr- when before a vowel.

From Gk. petro-, combining form of petra "rock."

Sang "rock," → stone.

petroleum
  نفت   
naft (#)

Fr.: pétrole   

Natural mixture of liquid hydrocarbons and other organic compounds that include crude oil, refined products obtained from the processing of crude oil, and natural gas liquids.

M.L. petroleum literally "rock oil," from L. petra "rock," from Gk. → petro-, + oleum "oil."

Naft, from Mid.Pers. npt "moist, damp; naphtha," nmb "moisture," from which derives Mod.Pers. nam "humidity, moisture;" Av. napta- "moist," nabah- "cloud; sky;" cf. Skt. nábhas- "moisture, cloud, mist;" PIE base *nebh- "cloud, vapor, fog, moist, sky" (Gk. nephos "cloud, mass of clouds," nephele "cloud;" L. nebula "mist," nimbus "rainstorm, rain cloud;" O.H.G. nebul; Ger. Nebel "fog;" O.E. nifol "dark"). The link between "water, moisture" and "naphta" is suggested to be the natural gas or oil seepages surfacing through water. In fact many of the Zoroastrian fire-temples were located in areas which contained large petroleum leakages, such as those in Khuzestân and at Surakhany near Baku.

petrology
  سنگ‌شناسی   
sangšenâsi (#)

Fr.: pétrologie   

The branch of → geology that deals with → rocks: their classification, composition, structure, occurrence, and conditions of origin.

petro-; → -logy

peVatron
  پواترون   
peVatron

Fr.: peVatron   

An astrophysical source which accelerates → cosmic rays up to energies of several petaelectronvolts. For example, in the → Galactic center, cosmic ray → protons reach such energies. The source of such particles is a matter of research (→ HESS collaboration, 2016, Nature 531, 476).

PeVatron, from PeV (→ peta- + → electronvolt); + euphonic affix -a-; + → -tron.

Pfund series
  سری ِ پفوند   
seri-ye Pfund

Fr.: série de Pfund   

A series of lines in the infrared spectrum of atomic hydrogen whose representing transitions between the fifth energy level and higher levels.

After August Herman Pfund (1879-1949), an American physicist and spectroscopist; → series.

PG 1159 star
     
PG 1159

Fr.: PG 1159   

A member of the class of stars in transition between → post-AGB and → white dwarf stars, with temperatures as high as 200,000 K, mean mass about 0.6 Msun, and log g = 5.5-8. PG 1159 stars have no hydrogen or He I lines in their spectra, but do show weak He II lines and stronger lines of ionized carbon and oxygen. These stars are thought to be the exposed inner core of a star that has exploded as a → planetary nebula and is on its way to become a white dwarf. Also called → pre-degenerate star

Named after their prototype PG 1159-035, from the Palomar-Green Catalog of Ultraviolet Excess Stellar Objects (Green et al. 1986, ApJS 61, 305); → star.

pH
  پ-هاش، پی-اچ   
p-hâš, pi-ec

Fr.: potentiel hydrogène   

A → logarithmic measure of → hydrogen ion concentration, originally defined pH = log10 (1/[H+]), where [H+] is the concentration of hydrogen ions in → moles per liter of solution. The hydrogen ion concentration in pure water around room temperature is about 1.0 × 10-7 moles. Therefore, a pH of 7 is considered "neutral," because the concentration of hydrogen ions is exactly equal to the concentration of → hydroxide (OH-) ions produced by → dissociation of the → water. Increasing the concentration of hydrogen ions above 1.0 × 10-7 moles produces a solution with a pH of less than 7, and the solution is considered → acidic. Decreasing the concentration below 1.0 × 10-7 moles produces a solution with a pH above 7, and the solution is considered → alkaline or → basic. The neutral pH is different for each → solvent. For example, the concentration of hydrogen ions in pure ethanol is about 1.58 × 10-10 moles, so ethanol is neutral at pH 9.8. A solution with a pH of 8 would be considered acidic in ethanol, but basic in water.

From Ger. PH, introduced by Danish biochemist S.P.L. Sørensen (1868-1939) in 1909, from P, for Ger. Potenz "power, potency," and H, symbol of → hydrogen.

Phad (γ UMa)
  فخذ   
Faxez (#)

Fr.: Phecda   

A blue, → main sequence star of → apparent visual magnitude 2.44 and → spectral type A0 Ve located in → Ursa Major. Other designations: Phecda; Phekda; Phegda; Phekha; Phacd.

Phad, from Ar. al-Fakhidh (ad-Dubb) (الفخذ‌الدب) "the thigh (of the Bear)".

Faxez, from Ar., as above.

Phaeton
  فایتون   
Phaeton

Fr.: Phaéton   

A hypothetical → planet which once was postulated to have existed between the orbits of → Mars and → Jupiter and its destruction supposedly led to the formation of the → asteroid belt. The idea of such a hypothetical planet was first put forward by the German astronomer Heinrich Wilhelm Olbers (1758-1840).

In Greek mythology Phaeton was the sun god Helios. Phaeton tried to drive his father's solar chariot but crashed after almost setting fire to the whole earth.

pharynx
  حلق   
halq (#)

Fr.: pharynx   

The tube or cavity, with its surrounding membrane and muscles, that connects the mouth and nasal passages with the esophagus (Dictionary.com). → throat.

From Gk pharynx (genitive pharyngos) "windpipe, throat."

Halq, loan from Ar.

phase
  ۱، ۲) فاز؛ ۳) سیما   
1, 2) fâz; 3) simâ

Fr.: phase   

1) A particular stage or point in a course, development, or graph varying cyclically; the fractional part of the period through which the time has advanced, measured from some arbitrary origin. Phase is measured like an angle, when a complete cycle is equivalent to a phase of 360° (or 2π radians), or, sometimes, as a number between 0 and 1. Two or more waves of the same frequency are → in phase when their maxima and minima take place at the same moments. Otherwise, they are said to be → out of phase or that they have a → phase difference.
2) A state in which matter can exist, depending on temperature and pressure, e.g. the → solid, → liquid, → gaseous, and → plasma states.
3) A recurring form of the → Moon or a → planet seen in the sky. → lunar phase, → phases of Venus.
4) In a → binary star system, → orbital phase.

Mod.L. phases, plural of phasis, from Gk. phasis "appearance," from stem of phainein "to show, to make appear."

1) Fâz, loanword from Fr., as above.
2) Simâ "face, aspect, resemblance."

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>