An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12982 Search : far
Planck energy
  کاروژ ِ پلانک   
kâruž-e Planck

Fr.: énergie de Planck   

The unit of energy in the system of Planck units. EP = √ (ħ c5/G) ≅ 1.22 x 1019 GeV. It can also be defined as EP = ħ / tP, where tP is the Planck time. This is an extraordinarily large amount of energy on the subatomic scale and particle accelerators have yet to produce a particle with this magnitude of energy. Understanding the properties of a subatomic particle that contains the Planck Energy is helpful in developing a Unified Field Theory which encompasses the realms of Quantum Theory and Relativity, although this too has evaded complete scientific understanding.

Planck; → energy.

Planck era
  دوران ِ پلانک   
dowrân-e Planck

Fr.: ère de Planck   

The first 10-43 seconds of the Universe's existence, when the size of the Universe was roughly the Planck length and during which quantum effects of gravity were significant. Also called Planck epoch. Our understanding of the Planck era is poor because theory which encompasses both quantum mechanics and general relativity is needed to be developed.

Planck; → era.

Planck function
  کریای ِ پلانک   
karyâ-ye Planck

Fr.: fonction de Planck   

Same as → Planck's blackbody formula.

Planck; → function.

Planck length
  درازای ِ پلانک   
derâzâ-ye Planck (#)

Fr.: longueur de Planck   

The size limit, lP = √ (ħ G/ c3), about 10-33 cm, at which Einstein's notions of space-time are supposed to break down, and space is predicted to become "foam like."

Planck; → length.

Planck mass
  جرم ِ پلانک   
jerm-e Planck

Fr.: masse de Planck   

The unit of mass in Planck's system of physical units, mP = √ (ħ c/ G) = 2.176 x 10-8 kg. It is also the mass of a black hole whose Compton wavelength is comparable to its Schwarzschild radius.

Planck; → mass.

Planck postulate
  فراوَس ِ پلانک   
farâvas-e Planck

Fr.: postulat de Planck   

The postulate that the energy of oscillators in a blackbody is quantized by E = nhν, where n = 1, 2, 3, ..., h is Planck's constant, and ν the frequency.

Planck; → postulate.

Planck Satellite
  ماهواره‌ی ِ پلانک   
mâhvâre-ye Planck

Fr.: Satellite Planck   

A European Space Agency (ESA) mission to map the full sky in the 30 GHz to 1 THz range and to measure the → anisotropies of the → cosmic microwave background (CMB) with a sensitivity set by fundamental limits, i.e. photon noise and contamination by foregrounds. It was launched on 14 May 2009, together with the → Herschel Satellite. Its observing position is a halo orbit around the L2 → Lagrangian point, some 1.5 million km from Earth. Its → Gregorian-like off-axis telescope has an effective aperture of 1.5 m and images the sky on two sets of feed-horns. The Low Frequency Instrument (LFI, at frequencies 30, 44, 70 GHz) amplifies with High Electron Mobility Transistors cooled at 20 K the radiation collected by 13 horns. The High Frequency Instrument (HFI, at 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, 857 GHz) detects the shorter waves with 52 bolometers cooled at only 0.1 degree above the → absolute zero. Both instruments can detect both the total intensity and polarization of photons. The Planck mission is intended to provide maps with a sensitivity of a few micro-Kelvin and an angular resolution down to 5 arcmin, which is considered as a major improvement with respect to the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (→ WMAP) launched by the NASA in 2002. Planck will provide a major source of information relevant to several cosmological and astrophysical issues, such as testing theories of the early Universe and the origin of cosmic structure. It will also provide to astronomers 9 complete maps of the full sky at wavelengths from 0.3 mm to 1 cm, that complement the 4 maps taken by the → IRAS satellite in the 2.5 to 100 micrometer range.

Planck; → satellite.

Planck scale
  مرپل ِ پلانک   
marple-e Planck

Fr.: échelle de Plancck   

1) A general term for anything roughly the size of the → Planck length.
2) Similarly, an energy on the order of the → Planck energy.

Planck; → scale.

Planck spectrum
  بیناب ِ پلانک   
binâb-e Planck

Fr.: spectrum de Planck   

Same as → blackbody spectrum.

Planck; → spectrum.

Planck time
  زمان ِ پلانک   
zamân-e Planck

Fr.: temps de Planck   

The time representing the → Planck length divided by the → speed of light. It is expressed by: tP = (Għ/c5)1/2≅ 5.4 x 10-44 s, where G is the → gravitational constant, ħ is the → reduced Planck's constant, and c is the → speed of light. At the Planck time, the mass density of the Universe is thought to approach the → Planck density.

Planck; → time.

Planck units
  یکاهای ِ پلانک   
yekâhâ-ye Planck (#)

Fr.: unités de Planck   

A set of → natural units in which the normalized units are: the gravitational constant, Planck's constant, the speed of light, the Coulomb constant, and Boltzmann's constant.

Planck; → unit.

Planck's blackbody formula
  دیسول ِ سیه‌جسم ِ پلانک   
disul-e siyah jesm-e Planck

Fr.: formule du corps noir de Planck   

A formula that determines the distribution of intensity of radiation that prevails under conditions of thermal equilibrium at a temperature T: Bv = (2hν3 / c2)[exp(hν / kT) - 1]-1 where h is Planck's constant and ν is the frequency.

Planck; → blackbody; → formula.

Planck's constant
  پایای ِ پلانک   
pâyâ-ye Planck (#)

Fr.: constante de Planck   

Planck constant.

Planck; → constant.

Planck's radiation law
  قانون ِ تابش ِ پلانک   
qânun-e tâbeš-e Planck

Fr.: loi du rayonnement de Planck   

An equation that expresses the energy radiated per unit area per unit time per unit wavelength range by a blackbody as a function of temperature. It is expressed by → Planck's blackbody formula.

Planck; → radiation; → law.

plane
  ۱) هامُن؛ ۲) تخت   
1) hâmon (#); 2) taxt (#)

Fr.: plan   

1) (n.) a flat or level surface.
2) (adj.) Of or pertaining to planes or plane figures.

1) From L. plantum "flat surface," noun use of adj. planus "flat, level, plain."
2) From L. planus, as above.

1) Hâmon, variant of hâmun "plain, level ground;" Mid.Pers. hâmôn "level, flat;" Proto-Iranian *hāma-van-, from *hāma- "same, equally, even; together, with" (Mod.Pers./Mid.Pers. ham-; O.Pers./Av. ham-; cf. Skt. sam-; also O.Pers./Av. hama- "one and the same;" Skt. sama-; Gk. homos-; originally identical with PIE numeral *sam- "one," from *som-. The Av. ham- appears in various forms: han- (before gutturals, palatals, dentals) and also hem-, hen-) + *-van- suffix.
2) Taxt "flat;" Mid.Pers. taxtag "tablet, plank, (chess)board."

plane figure
  شکل ِ هامن، ~ تخت   
šekl-e hâmon, ~ taxt

Fr.: figure plane   

A two-dimensional geometric figure. The points of the figure lie entirely in a plane.

plane; → figure.

plane mirror
  آینه‌ی ِ تخت   
âyene-ye taxt (#)

Fr.: miroir plan   

A mirror whose reflective surface is neither concave nor convex.

plane; → mirror.

plane of polarization
  هامن ِ قطبش   
hâmon-e qotbeš

Fr.: plan de polarisation   

In a → linearly polarized light, a plane perpendicular to the → plane of vibration and containing the direction of propagation of light. It is also the plane containing the direction of propagation and the magnetic vector (H) of the electromagnetic light wave.

plane; → polarization.

plane of rotation
  هامن ِ چرخش   
hâmon-e carxeš

Fr.: plan de rotation   

For a rotating object, the plane → perpendicular to the → rotation axis.

plane; → rotation.

plane of the sky
  هامن ِ آسمان   
hâmon-e âsmân

Fr.: plan du ciel   

An imaginary plane that is perpendicular to the → line of sight.

plane; → sky.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- a p abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi ads aes Age Alb Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app app arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att Aur aut axi azi bac Bal Bar Bar Bay Bec Ber bet bic bij bin bio Bir bla Bla blu blu bol Boo bou bra Bre bro bug C r cal Cal can car Car Cas cat cau cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos Cou cou cow cre cri cro cry cur cut Cyg dam dar dat de deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dig dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis div don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ Equ esc eth Eur eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext eye fac fal Far fed fer fer fie fin fir fit fla flo flu fol for for Fou fra fre Fre fro fuz gai Gal Gal gam gas Gau gen gen geo geo geo gia glo gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I hai Ham har Hau hea hec hel hel her HES hie hig his hom hor hot Hub hum Huy hyd hyd hyl hyp ice ide ima imp imp imp inc ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iro irr iso iso ite jel Jou Jup kao Kep kil Kip Kra Lag Lam lan lar las law lea leg Leo lex lig lim lin lin lin lit Loc loc log Lor low lum lun lun Lym mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mec meg men mer met met met mic mic Mik min min mis mob mod mol mon moo mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ odd OH Ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai Pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phl pho pho pho pi pip Pla pla pla pla ple poa pol Pol pol pol pop pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul puz qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea Rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret Rhe rid rig ris Roe Ros rot rub rut Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci sea sec sec see sel sem sen ser Sh2 sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sol sol sol sol sol sou spa spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spo Squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub sub sum sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn T d tap tec tem ten tes the the the the thi thr tid tim tip ton tor tow tra tra tra tra tri tri tru tub tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unp upp urg V20 Van var veg vel ver vib vio vir vis Vol Vul wan wat wav WC4 wea wel whi Wil wis WNL wor X-r Yer Z s zer [C > >>