An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12960 Search : far
planetary precession
  پیشایان ِ سیاره‌ای   
pišâyân-e sayyâre-yi

Fr.: précession planétaire   

The motion of the → ecliptic plane caused by the gravitational influence of the other planets, mainly → Jupiter. The observational effect of planetary precession is similar to that of the → lunisolar precession. But planetary precession causes the → equinoxes to move along the ecliptic in the opposition direction (eastward) from that of luni-solar precession (westward) and at a much slower rate: 0''.12 per year. Same as → precession of ecliptic.

planetary; → precession.

planetary ring system
  راژمان ِ حلقه‌های ِ سیاره‌ای   
râžmân-e halqehâ-ye sayyâre-yi

Fr.: système d'anneaux planétaires   

Interplanetary dust and other small particles organized into thin, flat rings encircling a planet. The most spectacular planetary rings known are those around → Saturn, but the other three → giant planets of the solar system (→ Jupiter, → Uranus, and → Neptune) have their own ring systems.

planetary; → ring; → system.

planetary science
  سیاره‌شناسی   
sayyârešenâsi (#)

Fr.: planétologie   

The branch of astronomy that deals with the science of planets, or planetary systems, and the solar system.

planetary; → science.

planetary system
  راژمان ِ سیاره‌ای   
râžmân-e sayyâreyi

Fr.: système planétaire   

A system composed of a star and all the celestial bodies bound to it by gravity, especially planets and their natural satellites.

planetary; → system.

planetary transit
  گذر ِ سیاره‌ای   
gozar-e sayyâre-yi (#)

Fr.: transit planétaire   

The passage of an → inferior planet against the disk of the Sun, as viewed from Earth. Mercury and Venus pass in front of the Sun only when they are close to one of their → orbital nodes, at → inferior conjunction. For Mercury this occurs at the beginning of November (the → ascending node) or at the beginning of May (the → descending node), while for Venus it takes place at the beginning of December (the ascending node) or at the beginning of June (the descending node). See also → transit of Mercury, → transit of Venus.

planetary; → transit.

PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars (PLATO)
  پلاتو   
PLATO

Fr.: PLATO   

A space observatory under development by the → European Space Agency for launch around 2024. Its objective is to detect and characterize → exoplanets by means of their → transit signature in front of a very large sample of → bright stars, and measure the seismic oscillations (→ asteroseismology) of the parent stars orbited by these planets in order to understand the properties of the exoplanetary systems.

planetary; → transit; → oscillation; → star.

planetesimal
  خرده‌سیاره   
xordesayyâré

Fr.: planétésimal   

Any of numerous small solid bodies in a → protoplanetary disk that in some cases clump together to form → planets but in other cases remain relatively small and become → asteroids and → comets. Similarly, → Kuiper Belt Objects are probably the remnants of the planetesimals that formed the planets.

From → planet + (infinit)esimal, → infinitesimal.

Xordesayyâré, from xordé "small, minute; crumbs," from xord "minute, little, small" (from Mid.Pers. xvart, xôrt "small, insignificant;" Av. ādra- "weak, dependent;" Skt. ādhrá- "small, weak, poor," nādh "to be oppressed;" Gk. nothros "sluggish;" PIE base *nhdhro-) + sayyâré, → planet.

planetoid
  سیارک   
sayyârak (#)

Fr.: planétoïde   

An older equivalent for → asteroid.

planet + → -oid.

planetology
  سیاره‌شناسی   
sayyârešenâsi (#)

Fr.: planétologie   

Same as → planetary science.

planet; + → -logy.

plani-
  تخت-   
taxt- (#)

Fr.: plani-   

Variant of → plano-, as in → planisphere.

plane.

planisphere
  تخت-سپهر، تخت-کره   
taxt-sepehr, taxt-koré

Fr.: planisphère   

A projection or representation of the whole or a part of a sphere on a plane. In particular, a polar projection of the celestial sphere or the Earth on a plane.

plani-; → sphere.

planispheric
  تخت-سپهری، تخت-کره‌ای   
taxt-sepehri, taxt-kore-yi

Fr.: planisphérique   

Of or relating to → planisphere.

planisphere + → -ic..

planispheric astrolabe
  اسطرلاب ِ تخت-سپهری، ~ کره‌ای   
ostorlâb-e taxt-sepehri, ~ kore-yi

Fr.: astrolabe planisphérique   

The most common form of the → astrolabe in which both the → celestial sphere and the observer's horizon are projected on to one or more plane surfaces by means of the stereographic projection. See also → universal astrolabe and → particular astrolabe.

planispheric; → astrolabe.

planned obsolescence
  پیتاری ِ پیشگاشته   
pitâri-ye pišgâšté

Fr.: obsolescence programmée   

The business strategy of deliberately designing products so they have a limited effective lifespan. Its objective is to incite the consumer to abandon the currently owned item and buy another one.

Planned, p.p. of "to → plan;" → obsolescence.

plano-
  تخت-   
taxt- (#)

Fr.: plano-   

A combining form meaning "flat, plane," used in the formation of compound terms. Also plani- and plan- before a vowel, → plane.

plane.

plano-concave lens
  عدسی ِ تخت-کاو   
adasi-ye taxt-kâv (#)

Fr.: lentille plano-concave   

A → divergent lens composed of one concave surface and one plane surface. This type of lens has a negative focal point and produces a → virtual image.

plano-; → concave; → lens.

plano-convex lens
  عدسی ِ تخت-کوژ   
adasi-ye taxt-kuž (#)

Fr.: lentille plano-convexe   

A → convergent lens that has one flat side and one convex side. Plano-convex lenses focus parallel rays of light to a positive point, thus forming → real images.

plano-; → convex; → lens.

plant
  گیاه   
giyâh (#)

Fr.: plante   

A living organism, in the Kingdom Plantae, with cellulose cell walls and lacking a nervous system or powers of voluntary motion.

M.E. plaunte; O.E. plante; L. planta "shoot, sprig, scion."

Giyâh "plant;" dialectal Bašâkardi gidâ(h), gida; Av. gaodāyu-, literally "cattle nourisher," from gao- "cattle, bull, ox," → Taurus, + dāyu- "nourisher," from dā(y)- "to feed" (Gershevitch 1962); Mod.Pers. dâyé "wet nurse;" cognate with L. femina "woman, female," → feminism; PIE base *dheh(i)- "to suck, suckle."

Plaskett's star
  ستاره‌ی ِ پلسکت   
setâre-ye Plaskett (#)

Fr.: étoile de Plaskett   

A → binary system consisting of two → massive stars, which are → supergiants of → spectral types O7.5 and O6. The two components are so close together that they orbit each other with a period of 14.4 days only. The Plaskett's star is a → double-line binary. The estimated masses of the components are 43 (Plaskett A) and 51 (Plaskett B) → solar masses. The lower mass component is optically brighter than the other star. Also known as HR 2422 and HD 47129 (See, e.g., Bagnuolo et al. 1992, ApJ 385, 708).

Named after the Canadian astronomer John S. Plaskett (1865-1941), who made a detailed spectroscopic study of this star in 1922.

plasma
  پلاسما   
plâsmâ (#)

Fr.: plasma   

In physics, a gas in which an important fraction of the atoms is ionized, so that the electrons and ions are separately free. Plasma, often described as the fourth state of matter, occurs at extremely high temperatures, as in the interiors of stars, in fusion reactors, and in the interstellar medium ionized by hot stars.

From L.L. plasma, from Gk. plasma "something molded or formed," from plassein "to mold," originally "to spread thin."

Plâsmâ, loan from Fr.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu co- cod coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cop cor cor Cor cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cya cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn E-E Ear ech eco edu eig Ein ela ele ele ele ele elo emi emp ene eni ent epi equ equ erg est Euc eva evo exa exc exe exo exp exp ext ext F r fac fam fas fee Fer Fib fig fin fir fix fle flu foc For for for fov fre fre Fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gam gau Gau gen geo geo geo geo gig glo gov gra gra gra gra gre gro Gum Hab hal han har Hay hea hel hel hem Her het hig Hil hol hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ind inf inf inf inf inj ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jal JHK Jul jur Kel Kep kin kne L2 Lag lam Lap lar lat law Lec len Lep lib lig lin lin lin liq lit loc log lon los low lum lun lux Lyr mac mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil min mir mix mod mol mom Moo mos Mu mul mus nad nas nat neb neg net neu New New nig Noe non non non Nor nuc nuc nul nut obe obl obs occ oct off Olb one ope opp opt opt orb orb org Ori ort oth out Owl P-s pal par par par par Pas pat pej peo per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro pse pul Pup Qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rap ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot rur Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel sem sen Ser Sey Sha she sho sid sig sim sin sip ske sli smo soc sol sol sol sol sol sou spa spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spo Squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub sub sum sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn T d tap tec tem ten tes the the the the thi thr tid tim tip ton tor tow tra tra tra tra tri tri tru tub tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unp upp urg V20 Van var veg vel ver vib vio vir vis vol vul war wat wav WC5 wea Wer whi WIM wis WO wor X-r yie Zan Zet > >>