An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13009 Search : far
plasmasphere
  پلاسماسپهر   
pelâsmâsepehr

Fr.: plasmasphère   

In the magnetosphere, a region of relatively cool (low energy) and dense plasma that may be considered an outer extension of the ionosphere with which it is coupled. Like the ionosphere, the plasmasphere tends to co-rotate with the Earth.

plasma + → sphere.

plasmon
  پلاسمون   
plâsmon

Fr.: plasmon   

Physics: The quasiparticle resulting from the → quantization of → plasma oscillations. Plasmons are collective oscillations of free electrons inside or on surfaces of materials.

From plasm-, from → plasma + → -on.

plasmonics
  پلاسمونیک   
plâsmonik

Fr.: plasmonique   

The research area dealing with the interaction of → plasmons and → photons and the technology of its practical use. Plasmonics represents one of the most active research fields at the interface of → nanotechnology and → optics.

plasmon; → -ics.

plastic
  شوکایند   
šukâyand

Fr.: plastique   

1a) Capable of being → deformed continuously and permanently without → rupture.
1b) Capable of being molded.
1c) Made or consisting of a plastic.
2) → plastic substance.

From L. plasticus, from Gk. plastikos "that may be molded, pertaining to molding," from plassein "to mold."

Šukâyand, literally "moldable," from šuk, contraction of šuka (Dehxodâ) "a mold in which ingots are cast" + âyand agent noun form of âmadan "to come; to become," → elastic.

plastic deformation
  وادیسش ِ شوکایند   
vâdiseš-e šukâyand

Fr.: déformation plastique   

Permanent → deformation of a → solid subjected to a → stress.

plastic; → deformation.

plastic substance
  زیریست ِ شوکایند   
zirist-e šukâyand

Fr.: substance plastique   

A substance which remains → deformed after an applied → force ceases to act.

plastic; → substance.

plasticity
  شوکایندی   
šukâyandi

Fr.: plasticité   

The property which enables a material to be → deformed permanently without → rupture during the application of a → force. An → elastic material becomes plastic above its → yield point. See also → elasticity, → ductility.

plastic; → -ity.

plate
  ۱) تیغه؛ ۲)؛ ۳) پلاک   
1) tiqé (#); 2); 3) pelâk (#)

Fr.: 1) lame; 2); 3) plaque   

1) Optics: Any crystalline material whose length is much less than its measured diameter. → half-wave plate.
2) A flat piece of material on which a picture or text has been produced.
3) Any of the large movable segments into which the Earth's lithosphere is divided. → plate tectonics.

M.E., from O.Fr. plate "thin piece of metal," from M.L. plata "plate, piece of metal," perhaps via V.L. *plattus, from Gk. platys " flat, broad."

1) Tiqé, from tiq "blade," related to tiz "sharp," variants tig, tež, tej, tij; Mid.Pers. tigr, têz, têž "sharp," O.Pers. tigra- "pointed," tigra.xauda- "pointed helmet (epithet of Scythians)," Av. tiγra- "pointed," tiγray- "arrow," tiži.arštay- "with the pointed spear," cf. Skt. tikta- "sharp, pungent, bitter," tejas- "sharpness, edge, point or top of a flame;" PIE base *st(e)ig- "to stick; pointed." Cognates in other IE languages: Gk. stizein "to prick, puncture," stigma "mark made by a pointed instrument," L. in-stigare "to goad," O.H.G. stehhan, Ger. stechen "to stab, prick," Du. stecken, O.E. sticca "rod, twig, spoon," E. stick.
2); 3) loanword from Fr., as above.

plate center
  مرکز ِ پلاک   
markaz-e pelâk

Fr.: centre de plaque   

The celestial coordinates of the center of the field of an astronomical photographic plate.

plate; → center.

plate scale
  مرپل ِ پلاک   
marpel-e pelâk

Fr.: échelle de plaque   

The scale factor for converting linear measure on a photographic plate to angular measurement on the sky.

plate; → scale.

plate tectonics
  سازانیک ِ پلاک   
sâzânik-e pelâk

Fr.: tectonique des plaques   

The theory supported by a wide range of evidence in which the Earth's crust is composed of several large, thin, relatively rigid plates that move relative to one another. The interaction of the plates at their boundaries causes seismic and tectonic activity along these boundaries. See also → continental drift.

plate; → tectonics.

plateau
  تختال   
taxtâl

Fr.: plateau   

1) An extensive area with a fairly level surface raised sharply above adjacent land.
2) A period, phase, or state of little or no growth or decline in something. → Spite plateau.

From Fr. plateau, from O.Fr. platel "flat piece of metal, wood, etc.," diminutive of plat "flat surface or thing," → plate.

Taxtâl, from taxt "flat;" Mid.Pers. taxtag "tablet, plank, (chess)board" + -âl, → -al.

platelet
  پلاکچه   
pelâkcé

Fr.: plaquette   

1) A small platelike body.
2) One of a variety of forms taken on by → snowflakes.
3) A tiny cell occurring in the blood of vertebrates and involved in clotting of the blood. Formerly called thrombocyte.

plate; → -let.

platinum
  پلاتین   
pelâtin (#)

Fr.: platine   

A silvery metallic → chemical element which is tenacious, malleable, and ductile; symbol Pt. → Atomic number 78; → atomic weight 195.08; → melting point 1,772°C; → boiling point 3,827±100°C; → specific gravity 21.45 at 20°C; → valence +2 or +4. It has several short-lived → radioactive isotopes, with the exception of 190Pt whose → half-life is 6.0 x 1011 years.

From Sp. platina diminutive of plata "silver," from O.Fr. → plate "sheet of metal." The first known reference to platinum can be found in the writing of Italian physician, scholar, and poet Julius Caesar Scaliger (1484-1558). He reported seeing the metal during a visit to Central America in 1557. Aborigines knew of no use for the metal and regarded it as a nuisance in their search for gold and silver. By the end of the 17th century, the Spanish conquistadors started developing the river soil looking for gold and found some gray looking beads together with the gold. They called those little silver beads platina "small silver." They became known as platina del Pinto "granules of silvery material from the Pinto River," a tributary of the San Juan River in the Chocó region of Colombia. The first complete description of platinum was given in 1735 by the the Spanish explorer and naval officer Antonio de Ulloa (1716-1795).

Pelâtin, loanword from Fr.

platinum group element (PGE)
  بن‌پار ِ گروه ِ پلاتین   
bonpâr-e goruh-e pelâtin

Fr.: élément du groupe du platine   

One of the six metals → platinum (Pt), → iridium (Ir), → osmium (Os), → palladium (Pd), → rhenium (Rh), and → ruthenium (Ru) that are grouped together in the → periodic table. They are relatively hard and resistant to corrosion and are used in jewellery and in some industrial applications. All are resistant to chemical attack.

platinum; → group; → element.

Platonic year
  سال ِ پلاتونی، ~ افلاتونی   
sâl-e Plâtoni, ~ Aflâtuni

Fr.: année platonique   

The time required for a complete revolution of the Earth's pole on the celestial sphere as the result of → precession. A Platonic year is equal to 25 800 years.

Of or pertaining to Gk. philosopher Plato, from Gk. Platon "broad-shouldered," from platys "broad." → year.

platykurtic
  پست‌افراشته   
past-afrâšté

Fr.: platycurtique   

A frequency distribution with negative → kurtosis, which has a smaller "peak" around the mean than the corresponding normal distribution. → leptokurtic.

From Gk. platys "flat", → plate + → kurtosis.

Past-afrâšté, literally "lowly elevated," from past "low; plain" (Mid.Pers. past; proto-Iranian *pasta- "fallen," from *pat- "to fall," cf. Av. pat- "to fall; to fly; to rush," patarəta- "winged;" Mid.Pers. opastan "to fall," patet "falls;" Mod.Pers. oftâdan "to fall," oft "fall;" Skt. patati "he flies, falls," pátra- "wing, feather, leaf;" Gk. piptein "to fall," pterux "wing;" L. penna "feather, wing;" O.E. feðer "feather;" PIE base *pet- "to fly, rush") + afrâšté "raised, elevated, erect," p.p. of afrâštan, → kurtosis.

pleasant
  آزوشا   
âzušâ

Fr.: plaisant   

Pleasing, agreeable, or enjoyable; giving pleasure.

M.E., from O.Fr. plaisant, from plaisir, → pleasure.

please
  آزوشیدن   
âzušidan

Fr.: plaire   

1) To act to the pleasure or satisfaction of.
2) To be the pleasure or will of (Dictionary.com).

From M.E. plesen, plaisen, from O.Fr. plaisir "to please, give pleasure to, satisfy," from L. placere "to be acceptable, be liked, be approved," related to placare "to soothe, quiet."

Âzušidan, from prefix â- + zušé, → pleasure, + infinitive suffix -idan.

pleasure
  زوشه   
zušé

Fr.: plaisir   

1) The state or feeling of being pleased.
2) Enjoyment or satisfaction derived from what is to one's liking; gratification; delight.
3) Worldly or frivolous enjoyment (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from O.Fr. plesir, plaisir "enjoyment, delight, desire," from plaisir "to please," from L. placere "to please, give pleasure."

Zusé, from Av. zuš- "to take pleasure;" related to O.Pers. daušta- "friend," Mid.Pers. dôš- "to love, like, choose," dôšišn "pleasure, liking;" Parthian zwš "love;" Mod.Pers. dôst, dust "friend;" cf. Skt. jos- "to like, enjoy;" Gk. geuomai "to taste;" L. gusto "I taste;" gustus "taste, enjoyment."

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- a p abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi ads aes Age Alb Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app app arb are ari art ass ast ast ast Atl ato ato Aug aut awa azi bac bal Bar Bar Bay bea Bep Bet BIC bij bin bio bir bla bla blu blu bol Boo bou Bq bre bri bub B[e cal cal can car car Cas cat cau cel cen Cer cha cha cha che chi CI cir cir cla cle clo clu co- cob coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos cou cov cra cri cro cry cum cur cyc d'A dar dat DC dea dec dec dec def def deh Del den dep des det deu dia dif dif dif dim dip Dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom dos dou dri Dum dus dyn dyn ear eas ecl Edd eff Ein eje ele ele ele ele eli emb emi Enc ene ens eph epo equ equ eru eth Eul eve evo exc exc exi exo exp exp ext ext Fab fai Fan fea fem fer fie fil fir fir fla flo flu foc For for fos fra fre fre fro fun g m Gal gal gal gas gau gel gen geo geo geo gho gla gno gra gra gra gra Gre Gre gro gyr had hal har Har HD hea hel hel Her Her Hic hig hip hol hor hos hov Hub hun hyd hyd Hyd hyp IC ide ill ima imp imp inc inc ind ind inf inf inf inf inj ins ins int int int int int int int int inv inv ion iro Isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur kel Kep kil Kle Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Mei Mer Mer met met Met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per pet pha Pho pho pho pho Pic Pis Pla pla pla pla Ple poa pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pra pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul puz qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea Rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret Rhe rid rig ris Roe Ros rot rub rut Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci sea sec sec see sel sem sen ser Sgr sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli smo soc sol sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spl spu sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str Str sub sub sub sul sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn sys Tam Tay tel ten Ter Tha the the the thi thr tib tid tim tok Tor tot tra tra tra tra Tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ ufo ult unc uni uni uni upl ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vil vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yea You zer zod > >>