An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12974 Search : far
political scientist
  کاراهیکدان   
kârâhikdân

Fr.: spécialiste en sciences politiques   

A person who studies the structure and theory of government and seeks practical and theoretical solutions to political problems.

political; → scientist.

Kârâhikdân, literally "politics scientist," from kârâhik, → politics, + dân "knower," present stem of dânestan, → science.

politician
  کاراهیگر   
kârâhigar

Fr.: politicien   

1) A person who is active in party politics.
2) A person who holds a political office.
3) A person skilled in political government or administration; statesman or stateswoman (Dictionary.com).

From politic + -ian an agent noun suffix.

Kârâhigar, from kârâhi-, contraction of kârâhik, → politics, because of the k-g succession, + -gar, → -or.

politics
  کاراهیک   
kârâhik

Fr.: politique   

1) The science or art of → political  → government.
2) The practice or profession of conducting political affairs.
3) Political → principles or → opinions (Dictionary.com).

From adj. → politic modeled on Aristotle's ta politika "affairs of state," the name of his book on governing and governments; → -ics.

Kârâhik, from kârâh, → policy, + -ik, → -ics.

pollen
  گرده   
gardé (#)

Fr.: pollen   

Powdery grains that contain the male reproductive cells of most plants (Dictionary.com).

From L. pollen "mill dust; fine flour," related to polenta "peeled barley," and probably to Gk. poltos "pap, porridge."

Gardé, from gard "powder, dust."

pollution
  آلودگی   
âludegi (#)

Fr.: pollution   

The introduction of harmful substances or light into the natural environment as a consequence of human activities. → light pollution.
The act of polluting or the state of being polluted.

M.E., from O.Fr., from L.L. pollutionem "defilement," from L. polluere "to soil, defile," from pol-, variant of por- "forth, forward, before" + -luere "smear," related to lutum "mud," and to lues "filth; plague, pestilence;;" cf. Gk. luma "filth, dirt, disgrace;" O.Ir. loth "mud, dirt;" Lith. lutynas "pool, puddle;" Pers. âludan, as below.

&ACIRC;ludegi, from âludan, âlây-"to pollute, soil, stain;" Mid.Pers. âlutan; from prefixed Proto-Iranian *ā-rūta-, from rav- "to stain, soil;" Mid.Pers. Manichean Parthian rwd "rascal;" PIE base *leu- "dirty; to soil;" cf. L. lues, as above.

Pollux (β Geminorum)
  پولوکس   
Polluks (#)

Fr.: Pollux   

The brightest star in the constellation → Gemini despite its designation as β. Also known as HR 2990 and HD 62509. Pollux lies about 4 degrees apart from the blue star → Castor with which it has no physical connection. Pollux is an orange-red star with a → visual magnitude 1.14 (B - V = +1.00) located about 34 → light-years away. It is a → giant star of → spectral type K0 III, with a mass of 2 Msun, a radius of about 10Rsun, a luminosity of 43 Lsun, and an → effective temperature of 4666 K. Pollux has a large planet, → Pollux b, with a mass of at least 2.3 times the mass of Jupiter.

Pollux, Gk. Polydeucus is one of the "Heavenly Twins," brother to → Castor, sons of Leda and Zeus.

Pollux, loan from L., as above. It has a too long Ar. name: Al-Ra's-at-Tau'am-al-Mo'akhkhar (الرأس‌التوأم‌المؤخر) "the head of the posterior twin," translating the Gk. mythological figure.

Pollux b
  پولوکس b   
Polluks b

Fr.: Pollux b   

An → extrasolar planet orbiting the bright star → Pollux (β Gem). It lies approximately 34 → light-years away in the constellation → Gemini. Called also → Thestias, it has a mass of at least 2.30 → Jupiter mass, and orbits Pollux at a distance of about 1.64 → astronomical units once every 590 days.

Pollux.

poloidal magnetic field
  میدان ِ مغناتیسی ِ قطبی‌وار   
meydân-e meqnâtisi-ye qotbivâr

Fr.: champ magnétique poloïdal   

1) In → protoplanetary disk models, the magnetic field whose large-scale lines of force depart away from the → accretion disk, in the direction of the rotation axis.
2) In a → tokamak, the magnetic field produced by a current flowing in the → plasma vertically to the toroid plane. → toroidal magnetic field.

pole; → -oid; → magnetic field.

polonium
  پولونیوم   
poloniom (#)

Fr.: polonium   

A radioactive chemical element; symbol Po. Atomic number 84; mass number of most stable isotope 209; melting point 254°C; boiling point 962°C.

The name derives from Poland, the native country of Marie Sklodowska Curie. It was discovered by Pierre and Marie Curie in 1898, from its radioactivity.

poly-
  بُل-، چند-   
bol- (#); cand- (#)

Fr.: poly-   

A prefix denoting "much, many."

From Gk. poly-, combining form of polus "much," cognate with L. plus, Pers. bol-, as below; from PIE base *pel- "to be full."

Bol- "much; very; many," as in examples bolkâmé "desirous" (literally "with much desire"), bolhavas, variant porhavas "very desirous, libidinous" (literally "with much lust"); variant of por "full, much, very," Mid.Pers. purr "full;" O.Pers. paru- "much, many;" Av. parav-, pauru-, pouru- "full, much, many," from par- "to fill;" PIE base *pelu- "full," from *pel- "to be full;" cf. Skt. puru- "much, abundant;" Gk. plethos "great number, multitude;" O.E. full.
Cand-, from cand "how many, how much; so many; several; some; much;" Mid.Pers. cand "how many?, so many; much; some;" O.Pers. yāvā "as long as;" Av. yauuant- [adj.] "how great?, how much?, how many?," yauuat [adv.] "as much as, as far as;" cf. Skt. yāvant- "how big, how much;" Gk. heos "as long as, until."

polychromatic
  بُلفام   
bolfâm

Fr.: polychromatique   

Having or exhibiting a variety of colors.

poly-; → chromatic.

polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
  هیدروکربورهای ِ اروماتیک ِ پلی‌سیکلیک، ~ ~ بُل‌چرخه‌ای   
hidrocarburhâ-ye aromâtik-e polisiklik, ~ ~ bol-carxe-yi

Fr.: hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques   

1) Chemistry: A family of → organic molecules composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms (→ hydrocarbons) in which → carbon atoms appear in multiple loops (polycyclic) with strong chemical → bonds that exist between them (aromatic). PAHs are formed during the incomplete burning of coal, oil and gas, garbage, or other organic substances like tobacco or charbroiled meat. As a pollutant, they are of concern because some compounds (benzo(a)pyrene) have been identified as tending to cause cancer.
2) Astro.: Strong → infrared emission features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.2 microns, which are attributed to PAH molecules in the form of → dust grains with radii smaller than 10 Å. PAHs are common toward various sources characterized by a strong → ultraviolet radiation field (such as → active galaxies, → reflexion nebulae, → planetary nebulae, → H II regions). In particular, they trace the presence of → massive stars. The PAH features are thought to result from the fluorescent emission process of PAH molecules and ions excited by ultraviolet radiation of nearby stars. PAHs are likely produced by → photoevaporation of → very small grains.

poly-; → cyclic; → aromatic; → hydrocarbon.

polydeism
  بل‌دادارباوری، چنددادارباوری   
bol-dâdâr-bâvari, cand-dâdâr-bâvari

Fr.: polydéisme   

A kind of → deism according to which multiple deities created the Universe, but do not interact with the physical world. → polytheism.

poly-; → deism.

polygon
  چندبر   
candbar (#)

Fr.: polygone   

A one-dimensional closed figure consisting of a series of points, each of which is called a → vertex, and the line segments, called → sides, joining the vertices. Polygons of three sides are called → triangles, and of four sides → quadrilaterals.

poly- + → -gon.

polyhedron
  بلدیمه   
boldimé

Fr.: polyèdre   

1) Geometry: A three-dimensional figure formed by several → polygons.
2) A set P ⊆ ℜn is a polyhedron if there is a system of finitely many unequalities Ax ≤ b such that P = {x ∈ ℜn | Ax ≤ b}.

poly-; → hedron.

polynomial
  بُلنامین   
bolnâmin

Fr.: 1) polynôme; 2) polynomial   

1) A mathematical expression involving a sum of powers in one or more variables multiplied by coefficients.
2) Consisting of or characterized by two or more terms or names.

From → poly- + (bi)nomial, contraction of → nominal.

polynomial equation
  هموگش ِ بلنامین   
hamugeš-e bolnâmin

Fr.: équation polynomiale   

An equation of the form a0 + a1x + a2x2 + ... + anxn, where a0 ... an are → real numbers and an≠ 0. Same as → algebraic equation.

polynomial; → equation.

polysemy
  بلچمی   
bolcemi

Fr.: polisémie   

Diversity of meanings.

From N.L. polysemia, from L. polysemus "with many significations" (from Gk. polysemos, from → poly- + sem, from sema "sign," → semantic, + adj. suffix -os), + -ia.

Bolcemi, from bol, → poly-, + cem, → meaning, + noun suffix -i.

polytheism
  بل‌یزدان‌باوری، چندیزدان‌باوری   
bol-yazdân-bâvari, cand-yazdân-bâvari

Fr.: polythéisme   

The doctrine of or belief in more than one god or in many gods (Dictionary.com). → polydeism.

poly-; → theism.

polytrope
  بُلگشت   
bolgašt

Fr.: polytrope   

In astrophysics, a gaseous sphere in hydrodynamic equilibrium in which the pressure and density are related by the equation P = Kρ(n+1)/n at each point along the radius, where K is a constant and n is the → polytropic index. The constant K depends upon the nature of the polytrope. Before the advent of computing technology, the theory of polytropes played an important role in physically modeling the structure of stars. → Lane-Emden equation.

Polytrope, from → poly- + trope, from → -tropic.

Bolgašt, from bol-, → poly-, + gašt "change, alteration," → -tropic.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- a p abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi ads aes Age Alb Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app app arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att Aur aut axi azi bac Bal Bar Bar Bay Bec Ber bet bic bij bin bio Bir bla Bla blu blu bol Boo bou bra Bre bro bug C r cal Cal can car Car Cas cat cau cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che cho cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- cod coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cop Cor cor cor cos cos Cou cou CP cre cri cro CSP cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec dee def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu doc doo dou dow Dru dus dwa dyn Dys Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ Era est eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext eye fac fal Far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fit fla flo flu fol for for Fou fra fre Fre ful fuz Gal gal Gal gam gas Gau gen gen geo geo geo gib glo gos gra gra gra gra Gre gri gui H I hal Ham har Haw hea hei hel Hel her het hie hig Hob hom Hor hot Hub hum Huy hyd hyd hyp hyp ico if ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins int int int int int int int int int inv ion iro ise iso iso Jab jet Jov Jur Kee Kep kil Kis kry Lag lam lan Lar lat law lea lem lep Li lig lim lin lin lin lit loc loc lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lym mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec meg Mer Mer met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod MOL mon mor mov mul mur N66 Nap nat nea neg Ner neu New New nic nod non non non nor nov nuc nul num O-t obl obs obt och off Ohm on- opa Oph opt opt ora orb ord Ori ort osc out ove ozo pal pan par par par par pat pec pen per per per per per Pfu pha pho pho pho phy pie pla Pla Pla pla pla Plo poi pol pol pol pol por pos pot pow pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro Pro pro Pru pul pul Pyt qua qua qua qua quo rad rad rad rad rad rad ram Ran rat re- rea rec rec red red ref ref reg Reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho rif Rin Rob Rom rot rot rul S D Sai san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky Slo sno sof sol sol sol sol sor sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr SS sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str stu sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swe syn syn tad Tau tel ten ter tet the the the thi Tho thr tid tim Tit top tot tra tra tra tra tre tri Tro tru tur TW Typ U G ult unb und uni uni uns ura use val vap vec Vel Ven Ver Vie Vir vir vis vol W V war wav wav wea Wei Wez wid win WN3 Wol Wro Y d YOR zen zir > >>