An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13070 Search : far
polarization
  قطبش   
qotbeš (#)

Fr.: polarisation   

1) Optics: A process or state in which the directions of the electric or magnetic fields of an → electromagnetic radiation change in a regular pattern. Light can be polarized by a variety of ways, involving the following processes: reflection, transmission, double refraction, and scattering. See also → unpolarized light; → linear polarization; → circular polarization; → elliptical polarization. The study of the polarization of light from astronomical sources can yield unique information in particular related to the properties of magnetic fields.
2) Electricity: A process or state in which the → dipole moments of → polar molecules in a → dielectric material get aligned under the action of an external electric field. Actually thin layers of bound charges with opposite signs appear on the surfaces of the dielectric.
3) Electricity: The accumulation of ions, produced during electrolysis, on the electrodes of a cell, increasing the resistance of the cell.

Verbal noun of → polarize.

polarization angle
  زاویه‌ی ِ قطبش   
zâviye-ye qotbeš (#)

Fr.: angle de polarisation   

Same as → polarizing angle and → Brewster angle.

polarization; → angle.

polarization charge
  بارِ قطبش   
bâr-e qotbeš

Fr.:   

Same as → bound charge.

polarization; → charge.

polarization degree
  درجه‌ی ِ قطبش   
daraje-ye qotbeš (#)

Fr.: degré de polarisation   

degree of polarization.

polarization; → degree.

polarization fraction
  برخه‌ی ِ قطبش   
barxe-ye qotbeš

Fr.: fraction de polarisation   

The ratio expressed by P = (Ipar - Iper) / (Ipar + Iper), where Ipar and Iper are the light intensities with the electric field vector respectively parallel and perpendicular to the incident beam.

polarization; → fraction.

polarize
  قطبیدن   
qotbidan (#)

Fr.: polariser   

To cause → polarization. To undergo polarization.

Infinitive of → polarization.

polarized
  قطبیده   
qotbidé (#)

Fr.: polarisé   

Of or pertaining to a medium or physical phenomenon that exhibits → polarization.

P.p. of → polarize.

polarized light
  نور ِ قطبیده   
nur-e qotbidé (#)

Fr.: lumière polarisée   

Electromagnetic radiation in the optical region which has undergone → polarization.

Past participle of → polarize; → light.

polarizer
  قطبنده   
qotbandé (#)

Fr.: polariseur   

An optical device capable of transforming natural light into polarized light, usually by selective transmission of polarized rays.

Agent noun of → polarize.

polarizing angle
  زاویه‌ی ِ قطبش   
zâviye-ye qotbeš (#)

Fr.: angle de polarisation   

The angle of → incidence for which the reflected light is completely polarized. Also called the → Brewster angle and → polarization angle. See also → Brewster's law.

Polarizing, adj. of → polarize; → angle.

polarizing filter
  پالایه‌ی ِ قطبنده   
pâlâye-ye qotbandé (#)

Fr.: filtre polarisant   

A filter that polarizes light passing through it.

Polarizing, adj. of → polarize; → filter.

polarizing prism
  منشور ِ قطبنده   
manšur-e qotbandé

Fr.: prisme polarisant   

A prism that is used to produce or analyze plane-polarized light.

Polarizing, adj. of → polarize; → prism.

pole
  قطب   
qotb (#)

Fr.: pôle   

1) Either extremity of the axis of the Earth or of any spherical body.
2) Either of the two regions or parts of an electric battery, magnet, or the like, at which the magnetic flux density is concentrated.
3) → pole of a mirror.
4) The fixed point in a system of polar coordinates that serves as the origin.

M.E., from L. polus "end of an axis, the sky," from Gk. polos "pivot, pole," polein "move around;" from PIE base *kwel- "to turn, move around, sojourn, dwell;" cognate with Pers. carx "every thing performing a circulatory motion; a wheel; a cart;" Av. caxra- "wheel," caraiti "he moves, approaches;" cf. Skt. cakra- "wheel, circle; cycle," carati "he moves, wanders;" Gk. kyklos "circle, wheel" (loaned L.L. cyclus); L. colere "to dwell in, to cultivate, move around," colonus "farmer, settler;" O.E. hweol "wheel;" Rus. koleso "wheel."

Qotb, from Ar. quTb.

pole of a mirror
  قطب ِ آینه   
qotab-e âyene

Fr.: pôle de mirroir   

The point where the → principal axis passes through the mirror.

pole; → mirror.

pole star
  ستاره‌ی ِ قطبی   
setâre-ye qotbi (#)

Fr.: étoile polaire   

A star that lies in the direction pointed to by the Earth's → rotation axis. The term usually refers to the star → Polaris, which is the current → north celestial pole star. The → south celestial pole is not associated with any bright star.

pole; → star.

polhode
  قطبراه   
qotbrâh

Fr.: polhodie   

Mechanics: For a rotating rigid body not subject to external torque, the closed curve described on the → inertia ellipsoid by the intersection with this ellipsoid of an axis parallel to the angular velocity vector and through the center.
Astro.: The path described by the North pole of the Earth in a reference frame attached to the Earth. The rotation axis of our planet is not fixed with respect to the Earth's crust. It describes a motion within a square with an amplitude reaching 20 m.

Polhode, from Fr. polhodie, coined by Louis Poinsot (1777-1859), a French mathematician and physicist, the inventor of geometrical mechanics, from → pole + Gk. hodos "way."

Qotbrâh, from gotb, → pole, + râh "way, path" (from Mid.Pers. râh, râs "way, street," also rah, ras "chariot;" from Proto-Iranian *rāθa-; cf. Av. raθa- "chariot;" Skt. rátha- "car, chariot," rathyā- "road;" L. rota "wheel," rotare "to revolve, roll;" Lith. ratas "wheel;" O.H.G. rad; Ger. Rad; Du. rad; O.Ir. roth; PIE *roto- "to run, to turn, to roll").

policy
  کاراه، کارراه   
kârâh, kârrâh

Fr.: 1) ligne d'action; 2) politique   

1) A definite course of action adopted for the sake of expediency, facility, etc.
2) A course of action adopted and pursued by a government, ruler, political party, etc. (Dictionary.com).

M.E. policie "government, civil administration," from O.Fr. policie "political organization, civil administration," from L.L. politia "the state, civil administration," from Gk. politeia "state, administration, government, citizenship," from polites "citizen," from polis "city, state."

Kârâh, contraction of kâr râh, or râh-e kâr literally "way of doing, ~ ~ action," from râh, → way, + kâr "doing, action, → work."

policy maker
  کاراه‌پرداز   
kârâh pardâz

Fr.: responsable politique, décideur   

A person responsible for making policy, especially in government (Dictionary.com).

policy; → make; → -er.

polish
  نسوکردن   
nasu kardan

Fr.: polir   

To make smooth and glossy by rubbing with something.

M.E. polishen, from O.Fr. poliss-, pr.p. stem of polir "to polish," from L. polire "to polish, make smooth," of unknown origin.

Nasu kardan (Dehxodâ) "to polish, smooth, brighten," from nasu "smooth, bright" (mirror, sword), Mid.Pers. Manichean Parthian nswg "tender," from Proto-Iranian *ni-sau-, from prefix ni- "down," → ni- (PIE), + *sau- "to rub;" cf. Mod.Pers. sâbidan, variants sâyidan, pasâvidan "to touch, to rub;" Khotanese sauy- "to rub;" Sogdian ps'w- "to touch."

polishing
  نسوکرد   
nasukard

Fr.: polissage   

A stage in the process of mirror making after grinding that puts a highly finished, smooth and apparently amorphous surface on a mirror. → figuring; → grinding.

Verbal noun of → polish.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut aut axi Baa bal Bal bar bar bea beh Bes bia big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo Cal cal Can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CGS cha cha che che chr cir cir cis cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos Cou cou cov cre cri cro cry cur cut Cyg DA dar dat de deb dec dec ded def def dei dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dig Dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis div dom dou dow dri dur dus dyn dyn ear eav ecl Edd eff Ein Ekm ele ele ele ele ell emb emi enc ene ent eph equ equ equ eru eth eup eve EX exc exe exi exo exp ext ext ext fab fai far Fec fem fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu foc for for Fou fra fre fre fro fun G r Gal gal gam gas Gau gel gen geo geo geo Gho gla goa gra gra gra gra gre Gre gro gyr had hal har har HD Hea Hel hel Her her hid hig hip hol hor hos hov Hub Hun hyd hyd hyd hyp IC ide ill ima imp imp inc inc ind ind inf inf inf inf inj InS ins int int int int int int int int int inv ion iro ise iso iso ite jet Jou Jup kap Kep kil Kip Kra Lag Lam Lan Lar las law lea Leg Leo lev lig lim lin lin lin lit loc loc log Lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea med men mer Mes met met mic Mic Mie Mil min mis mJy mod mol mon moo mot mul mul mut nad nas nat neb neg net neu New New nig Noe non non non Nor nov nuc nul num OB obl obs occ Ock off Ohm on- ope opi opt opt orb orb ord Ori ort osm out ove ozo pal pan par par par par pat pec pen per per per per per Pfu pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran Ras Ray rea rec rec rec red red ref reg reg rel rel rel rep res res res res Reu rhe Rie rig ris Roe Ros rot Rud ryd Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci Sea sec sec see sel sem sen ser Sey Sha she sho sid sig sim sim sin ske sle smo Sob sof sol sol sol sol sou Sou spa Sp spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver ver vin vir vis Vog von wal wat wav wax wea wei Whi wil win WN7 wor X-r Yar You zer zod > >>