An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12937 Search : far
Sedov-Taylor phase
  فاز ِ سدوف-تیلور   
fâz-e Sedov-Taylor

Fr.: phase de Sedov-Taylor   

The second phase in the evolution of a → supernova remnant (SNR) occurring after the → free expansion phase. After the passage of the → reverse shock, the interior of the SNR is so hot that the energy losses by radiation are very small (all atoms are → ionized, no → recombination). The expansion is driven by the → thermal pressure of the hot gas and can therefore be regarded as → adiabatic; the → cooling of the gas is only due to the → expansion. Pressure forces accelerate the swept-up → interstellar medium (ISM) converting → thermal energy (which came from original explosion) into → kinetic energy of the → shell of swept-up mass. As the mass of the ISM swept up by the shell increases, it eventually reaches densities which start to impede the free expansion. → Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities arise once the mass of the swept-up ISM approaches that of the ejected material. This causes the SNR's ejecta to become mixed with the gas that was just shocked by the initial → shock wave. The Sedov-Taylor phase lasts some 104 years and is followed by the radiative or → snowplow phase. Also called → adiabatic phase.

After Sedov, L. (1959, Similarity and Dimensional Methods in Mechanics, New York, Academic Press) and Taylor, G. I. (1950, Proc. Roy. Soc. London, A, 201, 159 and 175); → phase.

Seebeck effect
  اسکر ِ زیبک   
oskar-e Seebeck

Fr.: effet de Seebeck   

An → electromotive force produced in a closed electric circuit formed by connecting conductors of different metals in series when the two junctions junctions are maintained at different temperatures. The circuit constitutes a → thermocouple.

Named for the German physicist Thomas Seebeck (1770-1831), who discovered the effect; → effect.

seed
  تخم   
toxm (#)

Fr.: germe   

A small single crystal of a semiconductor from which is grown the large single crystal for the manufacture of semiconductor devices.

O.E. sed, sæd; cf. O.N. sað, O.S. sad, O.Fris. sed, M.Du. saet, O.H.G. sat, Ger. Saat; PIE base *se- "to sow."

Toxm "seed" (Tabari tim "seed; race," Laki tôm "seed"), from Mid.Pers. tôhm, tôhmak, tôm, tuxm "seed; extraction; descent;" Av. taoxman- "seed;" O.Pers. taumī:- "family;" cf. Skt. tókman- "offspring, children, race, child," tokma- "young shoot, young blade of corn."

seed nucleus
  هسته‌ی ِ تخم   
haste-ye toxm

Fr.: noyau germe   

A nucleus from which a variety of → fusion  → chain reactions derive in → stellar nucleosynthesis.

seed; → nucleus.

seeing
  شکان   
šekân

Fr.: seeing   

A measure of the blurring and degradation of the image of astronomical objects caused by → turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere, including the telescope environment. Seeing causes the images of stars to break up into → speckle patterns, which change very rapidly with time. See also → Fried parameter; → differential image motion monitor.

M.E. seen, from O.E. seon; cf. O.S., O.H.G. sehan, M.H.G., Ger. sehen, M.Du. sien, Goth. saihwan, from PIE base *sekw- "to see."

Šekân "wrinkle, plait; curl; rupture, breach," variant of šekan "fold, curl; ripples on water," from šekastan "to break, split;" Mid.Pers. škastan "to break;" Av. scind-, scand "to break, cleave;" Proto-Iranian *skand- "to break, cleave;" PIE sken- "to cut off."

seeing disk
  گرده‌ی ِ شکان، دیسک ِ ~   
gerde-ye šekân, disk-e ~

Fr.: tache de seeing   

The angular size of a stellar image for long exposures, as determined by the ratio λ/r0, where λ is the wavelength and r0 the typical size of → turbulence patches. → Fried parameter. The most common seeing measurement is the → full-width at half-maximumof the seeing disk. → Airy disk.

seeing; → disk.

seeing monitor
  پهره‌گر ِ شکان   
pahregar-e šekân

Fr.: moniteur de seeing   

An optical instrument that follows the variation of → atmospheric turbulence by continuously measuring the → seeing conditions.

seeing; → monitor.

segment
  برنک   
borank

Fr.: segment   

1) Of a line, that portion bounded by two points.
2) Of a circle, that portion of a plane bounded by an arc of the circle and its chord.
3) Of a sphere, the solid formed between two parallel planes that cut through a sphere.
4) In computer science, a portion of a program, often one that can be loaded and executed independently of other portions.

From L. segmentum "a strip or piece cut off," originally a geometric term, from secare "to cut" + -mentum "-ment."

Borank, from Kermâni borang "a slice (of fruit);" Borujerdi boleng "piece, section," ultimately from *brin-ka- (probable contracted forms Lari peng and pengi "portion or part of anything"), related to boridan "to cut off;" Mid.Pers. brīn-, blyn-, britan, brinitan "to cut off," Av. brī- "to shave, shear," brin- (with prefix pairi-); cf. Skt. bhrī- "to hurt, injure," bhrinanti "they hurt;" PIE base bhrei- "to cut, pierce."

segmented mirror
  آینه‌ی ِ برنکیده   
âyen-ye borankidé

Fr.: miroir segmenté   

A large telescope mirror consisting of smaller mirror segments designed to act as a single, larger reflecting surface. Because current monolithic mirrors cannot be constructed larger than about eight meters in diameter, the use of segmented mirrors is a key component for larger aperture telescopes.

Segmented, p.p. of → segment (v.); → mirror.

segregate
  سواییدن   
savâyidan

Fr.: séparer, isoler   

To separate or set apart from others or from the main body or group; isolate.

From M.E. segregat, from L. segregatus, p.p. of segregare "separate from the flock, isolate, divide," from se- "apart from" + greg-, ablative of grex, gregis "herd, flock, crowd," cf. Gk. gergera "swarm, flock;" maybe related to Old Khotanese -gris- in hamgris- "to assemble."

Savâyidan, from savâ "separate, apart;" probably related to Mid.Pers. s'w- "to crush," sây- "to rub, wear, tear;" cf. Kurd. (Hawramân) sawa, Roshani sêw-/sêwt, Bartangi siw-/siwd, Yazghulani saw-/sed, Bajui sâw-/sâwd "to rub, smear, grind" (Cheung 2007); Mod.Pers. sây-/sudan "to rub, wear, tear, grind, dissolve;" cf. Skt. śā- "to sharpen, whet."

segregation
  سوایش   
savâyeš

Fr.: ségrégation   

The act or practice of segregating. The state or condition of being segregated. → mass segregation.

Verbal noun of → segregate.

seismic
  لرزه‌ای   
larze-yi (#)

Fr.: sismique   

Of, subject to, or caused by → vibrations of the → Earth. → seismic wave.

From seism, → seismo-, + → -ic.

seismic wave
  موج ِ لرزه‌ای   
mowj-e laez-yi (#)

Fr.: onde sismique   

An → elastic wave generated in the → Earth by an → impulse such as an → earthquake or an → explosion. Seismic waves may travel either along or near the Earth's surface or through the Earth's interior.

seismic; → wave.

seismo-
  لرزه-   
larzé- (#)

Fr.: sismo-   

A combining form meaning "earthquake;" → seismology, → seismograph, etc.

From Gk. seismo- combining form of seismos "shock, earthquake," from seiein "to shake."

Larzé-, from larzé "shaking, trembling," from larzidan "to tremble, shiver;" Mid.Pers. larzidan "to shake, tremble;" Manichean Mid.Pers. rarz- "to shiver with fever;" Proto-Iranian *rarz- "to shake, tremble."

seismograph
  لرزه‌نگار   
larzenegâr (#)

Fr.: sismographe, séismographe   

An instrument that detects, magnifies, and records → seismic waves, especially those caused by → earthquakes or → explosions.

seismo-; → -graph.

seismology
  لرزه‌شناسی   
larzešenâsi (#)

Fr.: sismologie, séismologie   

The branch of geophysics that is concerned with the study of earthquakes and measurement of the mechanical properties of the Earth.

seismo-; → -logy.

seldom
  پرزانه   
perzâné

Fr.: rarement   

Not → often; rarely.

M.E., from O.E. seldum, variant of seldan; cognate with Ger. selten, Goth. silda-, Dutch zelden.

Adverb from perz, → rare.

select
  گزیدن   
gozidan (#)

Fr.: sélectionner, choisir   

To choose from among several.

From L. selectus, p.p. of seligere "to choose out, gather apart," from se- "apart" + legere "to gather, select."

Gozidan "to select, choose;" Mid.Pers. vicitan, wizidan, wizin- "to choose, select, discriminate," related to cin-, cidan "to gather, collect;" Av. vicidāi- "to discern," viciθa- "separation, discernment;" from vi- "apart, away from" (O.Pers. viy- "apart, away;" cf. Skt. vi- "apart, asunder, away, out;" L. vitare "to avoid, turn aside") + kay- "to choose;" cf. Skt. ci- "to gather, heap up," cinoti "gathers."

selection rule
  رزن ِ گزینش   
razan-e gozineš

Fr.: règle de sélection   

Any of a set of rules specifying the relationships between the → quantum numbers that characterize the initial and final states of a quantum-mechanical system in a → discrete transition. Transitions that do not agree with the selection rules are called → forbidden and have considerably lower probability. There are several types of selection rules (→ rigorous selection rule, → LS coupling, etc.) for → electric dipole transition (→ permitted), → magnetic dipole (forbidden), electric → quadrupole (forbidden), etc.

Selection, verbal noun of → select; → rule.

selective absorption
  درشم ِ گزینشی   
daršam-e gozineši

Fr.: absorption sélective   

Absorption which varies with the wavelength of radiation incident upon an absorbing substance.

Selective, verbal noun of → select; → absorption.

<< < -es -iv -ti 217 A s abe abs abs acc acc Ach act act ADa adi adv aff age Alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg arm art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B-t Bai Bal bar bar Be bed Bes BHB bif bim bin Bio bis bla ble blu bod Bol bor bou bra Bre bro Bul cag cal can Can car Car Cas cat CCD cel cen Cet cha cha che che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col Col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos cou cou cra cri cro cry cul cur cyc D r dar dat day dea dec dec dec def def deg del den dep des det deu dex dif dif dif dim dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom dos dou dri Dum dus dyn dyn ear eas ecl Edd eff Ein eje ele ele ele ele eli emb emi Enc ene ens eph epo equ equ eru eth Eul eve evo exc exc exi exo exp exp ext ext fab fai Fan Fea fem fer fie fil fir fis fla flo flu foc for for Fou fra fre fre fro fun G r Gal gal gam gas Gau gel gen geo geo geo Gho gla goa gra gra gra gra gre Gre gro gyr had hal har har HD Hea Hel hel Her her hid hig Hip hom hor hot Hub Hub hun hyd hyd hyg Hyp ice ide ima imm imp imp inc ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins int int int int int int int int int inv ion iro ise iso iso Jab jet Jov Jur Kel Kep kil kit Kui Lag lam lan Lar Lat law lea lem lep Li- lig lim lin lin lio lit loc lod lon Lor low Lum lun Lup Lyn mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man mar mas mas mat Max mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min mir mix mod mol mom Moo mor mov mul mur nab nar nat neb neg nes neu New New nig nod non non non Nor nua nuc nul Nun OBC obl obs occ oct off Ohm on- ope opp opt opt orb orb org Ori ort Ost out ove p m Pal par par par par Pas pat Peg Peo per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro pse pul Pup Qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rap ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot rur Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel sem sen Ser Sey Sha she sho sid sig sim sin sip ske sli smo soc sol sol sol sol sol sou spa spa spe spe spe spe Spi spi spo squ sta sta sta sta Ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub sub sun sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn T-s tar Tei tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur Tyc Typ ult unb und uni uni unr upp Urs vac van Var veg Ven ver vib vio vir vis vol VY war wat wav WC8 Web wes whi win WN1 wob wri X-r yoc zen Zhe > >>