An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
skylight
  نور ِ آسمان   
nur-e âsmân-e

Fr.: lumière du ciel   

Solar radiation which reaches the observer from the general sky. It is sunlight which has undergone multiple scattering events with the molecules of the Earth's atmosphere (Rayleigh scattering) or with clouds or other aerosols in the atmosphere. High levels of skylight reduce the contrast of a shadow. Also known as diffuse skylight, diffuse sky radiation.

sky; → light.

slab
  تیات   
tiyât

Fr.: dalle   

A broad, flat, somewhat thick piece of stone, wood, or other solid material (Dictionary.com).

M.E sclabbe, slabbe of unknown origin, maybe related to O.Fr. escopel, escalpe "thin fragment of wood."

Tiyât, from Kurd. (Ilâm) teyat "slab."

slash
  اسلش   
eslaš

Fr.: barre oblique, slash   

An oblique line (/) used between alternatives (e.g. and/or), in fractions (e.g. 4/5), or in percent ratios (e.g. kilometer/hour).

From M.E. slaschen, perhaps from M.Fr. esclachier "to break," variant of esclater "to break, splinter."

Eslaš, loan from E.

slate
  پلمه   
palmé (#)

Fr.: ardoise   

A fine-grained rock formed by the metamorphosis of clay, shale, etc., that tends to split along parallel cleavage planes, usually at an angle to the planes of stratification (Dictionary.com).

M.E. sclate, from M.Fr. esclate, feminine of esclat "piece split off," (Fr. éclat) so called because the rock splits easily into thin plates.

Palmé "slate," "a board on which children learn to read," ultimately from Proto-Ir. *parn-, *parm- "feather," PIE *pernom-, *pornos- "feather," → tablet.

sleet
  تنگر   
tangar

Fr.: grésil   

Precipitation in the form of → transparent or → translucent ice → pellets that are 5 mm or less in diameter, created by the freezing of rain as it falls (distinguished from hail).

M.E. slete; akin to M.H.G. sloz, M.L.G. sloten (plural) "hail."

Tangar, from Gilaki tangar "fine hail."

slepton
  اسلپتون   
slepton

Fr.: slepton   

In → supersymmetry theories, a hypothetical → boson super-partner of a → lepton. See also → squark

s from → supersymmetry; → lepton.

slewing
  تند-رانش   
tond-râneš

Fr.: déplacement rapide   

The action of rapidly moving a telescope in the alpha or delta direction under computer control as it moves to point at a new position in the sky.

Slew "to turn, swing, twist," earlier slue a nautical word, of unknown origin.

Tondrâneš, literally "driving fast," from tond "swift, rapid, brisk; fierce, severe" (Mid.Pers. tund "sharp, violent;" Sogdian tund "violent;" cf. Skt. tod- "to thrust, give a push," tudáti "he thrusts;" L. tundere "to thrust, to hit" (Fr. percer, E. pierce, ultimately from L. pertusus, from p.p. of pertundere "to thrust or bore through," from per- + tundere, as explained); PIE base *(s)teud- "to thrust, to beat") + râneš, verbal noun of rândan "to push, drive, cause to go," causative of raftan "to go, walk, proceed" (present tense stem row-, Mid.Pers. raftan, raw-, Proto-Iranian *rab/f- "to go; to attack").

slewing drive
  موتور ِ تند-رانش   
motor-e tond-râneš

Fr.: moteur de déplacement rapide   

A motor designed to drive a high-speed radar antenna for slewing to monitor a target.

slewing; → drive

slice
  ۱) قاچ؛ ۲) قاچیدن   
1) qâc (#); 2) qâcidan

Fr.: 1) tranche; 2) trancher   

1) A thin, broad piece cut from something.
2) To cut into slices; divide into parts (Dictionary.com).

O.Fr. escliz "splinter, fragment" (Fr. éclisse), a back-formation from esclicier "to splinter, shatter, smash;" cf. O.H.G. slihhan.

Qâc, contraction of qârc, from karj "slice, a slice of melon; a piece cut out of the collar of a garment;" ultimately from Proto-Ir. *kartaka-, from *kart- "to cut," cf. Av. karət- "to cut;" Skt. kart- "to cut," karəta- "knife;" Mid.Pers. kârt, → knife.

slingshot effect
  اُسکر ِ فلاخن   
oskar-e falâxan

Fr.: effet de fronde gravitationnelle, gravidéviation   

An important astronautical technique whereby a spacecraft takes up a tiny fraction of the gravitational energy of a planet it is flying by, allowing it to change trajectory and speed. Also known as → gravitational slingshot or → gravitational assist.

Slingshot, from sling, from M.E. slyngen, from O.N. slyngva "to sling, fling" + shot, from M.E., from O.E. sc(e)ot, (ge)sceot; cf. Ger. Schoss, Geschoss; → effect.

Oskar, → effect; falâxan "sling;" from Av. fradaxšana- "sling," fradaxšanya- "sling, sling-stone;"

slit
  شکاف   
šekâf (#)

Fr.: fente   

A long, thin opening in a spectrograph allowing only the light studied to fall on the prism.

O.E. slitan "to cut or tear up, slit;" cf. O.S. slitan, O.N. slita, M.L.G., M.Du. sliten, Du. slijten, O.H.G. slizan, Ger. schleißen "to slit."

Šekâf "slit," from Mod./Mid.Pers. škâf- škâftan "to split, burst;" Proto-Iranian *kap-, *kaf- "to split;" cf. Gk. skaptein "to dig;" L. cabere "to scratch, scrape," P.Gmc. *skabanan (Goth. skaban; Ger. schaben; E. shave). PIE base *(s)kep- "to cut, to scrape, to hack."

slit spectrograph
  بیناب‌نگار ِ شکاف‌مند   
binâbnegâr-e šekâfmand

Fr.: spectrographe à fente   

A type of spectrograph that uses a slit to provide resolution.

slit; → spectrograp.

slitwidth
  شکاف-پهنا   
šekâf-pahnâ

Fr.: largeur de fente   

The width size of the slit which determines the spectral resolution of a spectrograph.

slit; → width.

Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)
  بردید ِ عددی ِ آسمان ِ Sloan   
bardid-e adadi-ye âsmân-e Sloan

Fr.: relevé numérique du ciel Sloan   

A major → redshift survey using a dedicated 2.5-m wide angle telescope with different modes in → imaging and → spectroscopy. The telescope, a modified → Ritchey-Chretienaltitude-azimuth type is located at Apache Point Observatory, south east New Mexico, United States. A large consortium of universities and institutions all over the world participate in the project. The telescope started its observations in 2000, taking spectra and images of about 35% of the night sky, with 3 million spectra and 500 million images coming together to form the most comprehensive astrophysical catalog in the world. This catalog contains millions of galaxies up to z = 1, bright → quasars up to z = 6, with images in five major filter bands (u, g, r, i and z). SDSS was divided into multiple surveys/projects: SDSS I (2000-2005); SDSS II (2005-2008), including the Sloan Supernova Survey; SDSS III (2008-2014), including the APO Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS); SDSS IV (2014-2020), including the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MaNGA).

Named after the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, which contributed significant funding; → digital; → sky; → survey.

slope
  شیب   
šib (#)

Fr.: pente   

1) An inclined surface; deviation from the horizontal or vertical.
2) The tangent of the angle formed by the intersection of a given straight line and the X-axis of a system of Cartesian coordinates.
3) The derivative of the function whose graph is a given curve evaluated at a designated point.
4) The exponent of the → initial mass function . See also → Salpeter slope.
5) → slope parameter.

From M.E. aslope (adv.) "on the incline," from O.E. *aslopen, p.p. of aslupan "to slip away," from a- "away" + slupan "to slip."

Šib "slope, descent, declivity," contraction of nešib, našib "declivity, descent; lowness of ground, slope of any place;" Mid.Pers. nišēp "declivity, (astrology) dejection," Av. *nixšvaēpā-, xšvaēpā- "bottom, rear."

slope parameter
  پارامون ِ شیب   
pârâmun-e šib

Fr.: paramètre de pente   

In a → power-law distribution or → regression, the → exponent that represents the effect of the → independent variable, x, on the → dependent variable, y. X has no association with y if the slope parameter = 0 and x has strong association with y if the slope parameter is large.

slope; → parameter.

slow
  آهسته   
âhesté (#)

Fr.: lent   

Moving or proceeding with little or less than usual speed or velocity.

O.E. slaw "inactive, sluggish;" cf. O.S. sleu "blunt, dull," M.Du. slee, Du. sleeuw "sour, blunt," O.H.G. sleo "blunt, dull," O.N. sljor, Dan. sløv, Swed. slö "blunt, dull."

Âhesté "slow, quiet, tender, soft," ultimately from Proto-Iranian *ā-hasta-ka-, literally "at rest, motionless, seated." The first and third components are affixes, the main component from *had- "to "sit, be seated;" cf. Av. had- "to sit" (nī...hazdiiāt "would sit down"); Pers. nešastan "to sit;" PIE base *sed- "to sit;" cf. Skt. sad- to sit," sidati "sits;" Gk. hezomai "to sit," hedra "seat, chair;" L. sedere "to sit;" O.Ir. suide "seat, sitting;" Welsh sedd "seat;" Lith. sedmi "to sit;" Rus. sad "garden;" Goth. sitan, Ger. sitzen; E. sit.

slow neutron
  نوترون ِ آهسته   
notron-e âhesté (#)

Fr.: neutron lent   

A neutron whose kinetic energy does not exceed about 10 electron-volts. Also called → thermal neutron.

slow; → neutron.

slow nova
  نو-اختر ِ آهسته   
now-axtar-e âhesté

Fr.: nova lente   

A type of nova whose light curve exhibits a characteristically slow development, having a rise time of several days, maximum of several weeks, and slower decline.

slow; → nova.

Slowly Pulsating B star (SPB)
  ستاره‌ی ِ آهسته تپنده‌ی ِ گونه‌ی ِ B   
setâre-ye âhesté tapande-ye gune-ye B

Fr.: étoile B pulsante à longue période   

A member of a class of → B stars that are situated along the → main sequence with → spectral types ranging from B2 to B9 and masses from 3 to 7 → solar masses. In the → H-R diagram the SPB group lies below → beta Cephei variables, which are more massive. SPBs show light and line-profile variations that are multi-periodic with periods of the order of days. This variability is understood in terms of non-radial → stellar pulsations, and their → oscillation modes are high-order → g modes. Theoretical models attribute the pulsational nature of SPBs to the → kappa mechanism, acting in the metal → opacity bump at 2 x 105 K. Their g-mode pulsations penetrate deep into the stellar interior, making these objects very promising for → asteroseismology. Several oscillation modes are excited simultaneously, resulting in periodicities on time scales of the order of months or even years. The prototype of this group is 53 Per. First introduced as a distinct class by Waelkens (1991, A&A 246, 453).

slow; → pulsating; → B star.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>