An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
spatial resolution
  واگشود ِ فضایی   
vâgošud-e fazâyi

Fr.: résolution spatiale   

The smallest detail that can be seen in an image. Same as → angular resolution.

spatial; → resolution.

Spörer minimum
  کمینه‌ی ِ اشپورر   
kamine-ye Spörer

Fr.: minimum de Spörer   

A period of low → solar activity that lasted from about A.D. 1420 to 1570. It occurred before → sunspots had been studied, and was discovered by analysis of the proportion of carbon-14 in tree rings, which is strongly correlated with solar activity.

Named for the German astronomer Gustav Spörer (1822-1895); → minimum.

Spörer's law
  قانون ِ اشپورر   
qânun-e Spörer

Fr.: loi de Spörer   

The empirical law that predicts the variation of → sunspot latitudes during a → solar cycle. At the start of a sunspot cycle, sunspots tend to appear around 30° to 45° latitude on the Sun's surface. As the cycle progresses, they appear at lower and lower latitudes, until 5° to 10°, at the end of the cycle. This tendency is revealed on a → butterfly diagram. Although named after Gustav Spörer, the "law" was first discovered by Richard Carrington.

Sporer minimum; → law.

special
  ویژه   
vižé (#)

Fr.: spécial, particulier   

Of a distinct or particular kind or character; having a particular function or purpose; not common, usual, or general.

M.E., from O.Fr. especial, from L. specialis "individual, particular," from → species "appearance, kind, sort."

Vižé, from Mid.Pers. apēcak "pure, sacred," from *apa-vēcak "set apart," from prefix apa- + vēcak, from vēxtan (Mod.Pers. bixtan) "to detach, separate, sift, remove," Av. vaēk- "to select, sort out, sift," pr. vaēca-, Skt. vic-, vinakti "to sift, winnow, separate; to inquire."

special relativistic
  بازانیگی‌مند ِ ویژه   
bâzânigimand-e vižé

Fr.: de relativité restreinte   

Of, relating to, or subject to the theory of → special relativity.

special; → relativistic.

special relativity
  بازانیگی ِ ویژه   
bâzanigi-ye vižé

Fr.: relativité restreinte   

The theory formulated by A. Einstein in 1905, which is based on the following two → postulates:
1) → Principle of relativity: The laws of physical phenomena are the same when studied in terms of two reference systems moving at a constant velocity relative to each other.
2) → Principle of constancy: The → velocity of light in free space is the same for all observers and is independent of the relative velocity of the source of light and the observer.
The term "special theory of relativity" refers to the restriction in the first postulate to reference systems moving at a constant velocity relative to each other (→ inertial reference frame). See also → general relativity.

special; → relativity.

species
  آرز   
âraz

Fr.: espèce   

1) A class of individuals having some common characteristics or qualities; distinct sort or kind.
2) Biology: The major subdivision of a genus or subgenus, regarded as the basic category of biological classification, composed of related individuals that resemble one another, are able to breed among themselves, but are not able to breed with members of another species.
3) Logic: One of the classes of things included with other classes in a genus. The set of things within one of these classes (Dictionary.com).

From L. species "a particular sort, kind, or type," originally "a sight, look, view, appearance," from specere "to look at, to see, behold;" PIE root spek- "to look around," → scope.

Âraz, from intensive/nuance â- + raz-, from Av. razan "order, → rule," from rāz- "to put in line, direct set," cf. Mod.Pers. raj "line, row," variants raž, rak, râk, rezg (Lori), radé, râdé "line, rule, row," rasté, râsté "row, a market with regular ranges of shops;" ris, risé "straight;" → right.

specific
  آبیزه   
âbizé

Fr.: précis, explicite, spécifique   

1) Clearly defined or identified; precise; particular.
2) Belonging or relating uniquely to a particular subject; not general.
3) Biology: Relating to species or a species.
4) Physics: Of or denoting a physical quantity expressed in terms of a unit mass, volume, or other measure, in order to give a value independent of the properties or scale of the particular system studied. → specific angular momentum; → specific charge; → specific density; → specific gravity; → specific heat; → specific humidity; → specific intensity; → specific volume.

From Fr. spécifique and directly from L.L. specificus "constituting a kind or sort," from L. species "kind, sort," → species.

Âbizé, from Mid.Pers. apēcak "pure, sacred" (older form of vižé, → special), from *apa-vēcak "set apart," from prefix apa- + vēcak, from vēxtan (Mod.Pers. bixtan) "to detach, separate, sift, remove," Av. vaēk- "to select, sort out, sift," pr. vaēca-, Skt. vic-, vinakti "to sift, winnow, separate; to inquire."

specific angular momentum
  جنباک ِ زاویه‌ای ِ آبیزه   
jonbâk-e zâvie-yi-ye âbizé

Fr.: moment angulaire spécifique   

Angular momentum per unit mass.

specific; → angular; → momentum.

specific charge
  بار ِ آبیزه   
bâr-e âbizé

Fr.: charge spécifique   

The electric charge to mass ratio of an elementary particle.

specific; → charge.

specific density
  چگالی ِ آبیزه   
cagâli-ye âbizé

Fr.: densité spécifique   

Same as → relative density.

specific; → density.

specific gravity
  گرانی ِ آبیزه   
gerâni-ye âbizé

Fr.: gravité spécifique   

The ratio of the density of a substance at the temperature under consideration to the density of water at the temperature of its maximum density (4 °C).

specific; → gravity.

specific heat
  گرمای ِ آبیزه   
garmâ-ye âbizé

Fr.: chaleur spécifique   

1) The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gm of a substance through 1 °C. More generally, the → heat capacity of a unit mass of a substance. For a homogeneous body it is expressed as: C = dQ/M dT, where dQ is the quantity of heat transferred to a mass of M to raise the temperature by dT. It is often convenient to use the gram-mole as a unit of mass, → molar heat capacity.
2) For a gas there are two principal specific heats depending on the way in which the temperature is increased: i) that measured at constant pressure, CP, and ii) that measured at constant volume, CV. The specific heat CP is greater than CV, because a gas heated at constant pressure expands, and heat energy must be supplied equivalent to the work done in the expansion. The ratio γ = CP/CV is called the → adiabatic index. It varies from 1.66 for mono-atomic gases to a little over 1 for gases with complex molecules.

specific; → heat.

specific humidity
  نم ِ آبیزه   
nam-e âbizé

Fr.: humidité spécifique   

The dimensionless ratio of the mass of water vapor to the total mass in a particular volume. → humidity

specific; → humidity.

specific intensity
  درتنویی ِ آبیزه   
dartanuyi-e âbizé

Fr.: intensité spécifique   

A measure of the amount of radiation received per unit solid angle per unit time per unit area normally from an element of surface.

specific; → intensity.

specific star formation rate (sSFR)
  نرخ ِ آبیزه‌ی ِ دیسش ِ ستارگان   
nerx-e âbize-ye diseš-e setâregân

Fr.: taux de formation d'étoiles spécifique   

Star formation rate per unit → mass. More specifically, the → star formation rate in a galaxy divided by the → stellar mass of the galaxy. Observations of galaxies over a wide range of → redshifts suggest that the slope of the SFR-M* relation is about unity, which implies that their sSFR does not depend strongly on stellar mass. Specific star formation rates increase out to z ~ 2 and are constant, or perhaps slowly increasing, from z = 2 out to z = 6, though with a large scatter, sSFR ~ 2-10 Gyr-1 (Lehnert et al., 2015, A&A 577, A112, and references therein).

specific; → star; → formation; → rate.

specific volume
  گنج ِ آبیزه   
gonj-e âbizé

Fr.: volume spécifique   

The volume occupied by unit mass of a substance. Specific volume is the reciprocal of density.

specific; → volume.

specification
  آبیزش   
âbizeš

Fr.: précision, spécification   

1) The act of specifying.
2) A particular item, aspect, calculation, etc., in such a description.
3) Something specified, as in a bill of particulars; a specified particular, item, or article (Dictionary.com).

Verbal noun of → specify.

specifity
  آبیزگی   
âbizegi

Fr.: spécifité   

The state or character of being → specific.

specific; → -ity.

specify
  ۱) پرسونیدن؛ ۲) آبیزیدن   
1) parsunidan; 2) âbizidan

Fr.: préciser, spécifier   

1) To mention or name specifically or definitely; state in detail.
2) To give a specific character to; to set forth as a specification (Dictionary.com).

specific; → -fy.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>