An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12955 Search : far
star formation quenching
  اسرش ِ دیسش ِ ستارگان   
osereš-e diseš-e setâregân

Fr.: assèchement de formation d'étoiles   

The premature termination of star formation process in some galaxies. The ultimate quenching of star formation is caused by stripping of the gas reservoir which will finally turn into stars. A wide variety of mechanisms have been proposed to provide quenching. For example, → major mergers can transform spiral galaxies into ellipticals, and may also quench future star formation by ejecting the → interstellar medium from the galaxy via starburst, → active galactic nucleus, or shock-driven winds. In rich clusters, where merging is less efficient because of the large relative velocities of galaxies, rapid encounters or fly-bys may cause the formation of a bar and growth of a spheroidal component instead of larger scale star formation. Also, cold gas can be stripped out of the galaxy both by tidal forces and ram pressure in the intracluster medium. Similarly, the hot halo that provides future fuel for cooling and star formation may be efficiently stripped in dense environments, thus quenching further star formation (see, e.g., Kimm et al., 2009, MNRAS 394, 1131, arXiv:0810.2794).

star; → formation; → quench.

star formation rate
  نرخ ِ دیسش ِ ستاره   
nerx-e diseš-e setâré

Fr.: taux de formation d'étoiles   

The rate at which a molecular cloud or a galaxy is currently converting gas into stars. It is given by the ratio of the number of stars to the star formation time-scale.

star formation; → rate.

star formation region
  ناحیه‌ی ِ دیسش ِ ستاره   
nâhiye-ye diseš-e setâré

Fr.: région de formation d'étoiles   

A region in the → interstellar medium where processes of → star formation are going on or have occurred in the past.

star; → formation; → region.

star formation time scale
  مرپل ِ زمانی ِ دیسش ِ ستاره   
marpel-e zamâni-ye diseš-e setâre

Fr.: échelle de temps de formation d'étoiles   

The time necessary for a star to form. It depends inversely on the stellar mass.

star formation; → time scale.

star S2
  ستاره S2   
setâré S2

Fr.: étoile S2   

A → main sequenceB-type star that orbits the → supermassive black hole candidate → Sgr A* in the → Galactic center. The star S2, which is bright enough for making detailed measurements, has a highly elliptical, 16-year-period orbit around Sgr A*. Near → pericenter at 120 → astronomical units, ~ 1400 → Schwarzschild radii, the star has an orbital speed of ~ 7650 km s-1, such that the first-order effects of → special relativity and → general relativity have become detectable with current capabilities (Auber et al., 2018, A&A 615, L15).

star.

star system
  راژمان ِ ستاره‌ای   
râžmân-e setâre-yi

Fr.: système stellaire   

Same as → stellar system.

stellar; → system.

star trail
  رد ِ ستاره   
radd-e setâré

Fr.: traînées stellaires   

A curved → path left by a star on an → imaging detector attached to a → telescope when the telescope does not keep up with the → rotation of the → Earth.

star; → trail.

star-forming galaxy
  کهکشان ِ دیسنده‌ی ِ ستاره   
kahkešân-e disnade-ye setâré

Fr.: galaxie de formation d'étoiles   

A galaxy that is located on the → galaxy main sequence in the plane relating → star formation rates to total stellar masses.

star; → formation; → galaxy.

star-forming region
  ناحیه‌ی ِ دیسش ِ ستاره   
nâhiye-ye diseš-e setâré

Fr.: région de formation d'étoiles   

A region in which → star formation is going on.

star; → formation; → region.

starburst
  ستاره-بلک، بلک ِ ستاره   
setâre-belk, belk-e setâré

Fr.: flambée d'étoiles   

Simultaneous formation of a large number of stars in a region of a galaxy at an exceptionally high rate, compared to the usual star formation rates seen in most galaxies.

star; → burst.

starburst galaxy
  کهکشان ِ ستاره-بلک   
kahkešân-e setâre-belk

Fr.: galaxie à flambée d'étoiles   

A galaxy showing a short-lived intense period of star formation that is unsustainable over the → Hubble time due to the limited supply of gas within a galaxy. Starburst galaxies were first classified by Searle & Sargent (1972) and Searle et al. (1973), based on the blue colors produced by the → massive stars formed during the burst. In the local Universe, starbursts create approximately 10% of the radiant energy and 20% of the massive stars. At z = 1, starburst characteristics are found in 15% of galaxies, presumably attributable to the greater amounts of gas typically present in young galaxies and increased galactic interactions. The starburst's impact on a galaxy and the surrounding → intergalactic medium is primarily due to the consumption of gas that fuels the burst and the feedback from massive stars formed in the burst (McQuinn et al. 2010, astro-ph/1008.1589).

starburst; → galaxy.

Stark effect
  اُسکر ِ اشتارک   
oskar-e Stark

Fr.: effet Stark   

The → splitting of spectral lines of atoms and molecules due to the presence of an external electric field, which slightly changes the → energy levels of the atom. → Zeeman effect.

Named after Johannes Stark (1874-1957), a German physicist, and Physics Nobel Prize laureate (1919); → effect.

starquake
  ستاره-لرزه   
setâre-larze

Fr.: tremblement d'étoile   

An astrophysical phenomenon that occurs when the → crust of a → neutron star undergoes a sudden adjustment, analogous to an → earthquake on Earth. Starquakes are thought to be caused by huge → stresses exerted on the surface of the neutron star produced by twists in the ultra-strong interior → magnetic fields. They are thought to be the source of the intense → gamma-ray bursts that come from → soft gamma repeaters.

star; → quake.

starspot
  ستاره-لک   
setâre-lak

Fr.: tache stellaire   

A phenomenon similar to a → sunspot but occurring on the surface of a star other than Sun. Due to spatial resolution constraints, starspots so far observed are in general much larger than those on the Sun, up to about 30% of the stellar surface may be covered, corresponding to sizes 100 times greater than those on the Sun.

star; → spot.

stat-
  استات-   
estât- (#)

Fr.: stat-   

A prefix attached to the name of a practical electrical unit indicating that it is part of the → CGS electrostatic system, e.g. statcoulomb, statvolt. These units are also indicated by the notation → esu (as in "volt esu").

Combining form representing → electrostatic, → -stat

statcoulomb
  استات-کولن   
estât-coulomb

Fr.: stat-coulomb   

A unit of → electric charge in the electrostatic → cgs system of units; equal to the charge that exerts a force of 1 → dyne on an equal charge at a distance of 1 cm under vacuum; equal to 3.3356 x 10-10 → coulombs. Same as → electrostatic unit (esu).

stat-; → coulomb.

state
  ۱) استات، حالت؛ ۲) استاتیدن، استات کردن   
1) estât, hâlat (#); 2) estâtidan, estât kardan

Fr.: 1) état; 2) déclarer, affirmer   

1a) The → condition of a → system characterized by a particular set of values for its properties.
1b) The → phase of matter; → solid, → liquid, or → gas.
See also:
eigenstate, → energy state, → equation of state, → equation of state parameter, → equilibrium state, → excited state, → ground state, → Hartle-Hawking initial state, → Hoyle state, → macroscopic state, → macrostate, → metastable state, → microscopic state, → microstate, → normal state, → quantum state, → singlet state, → solid state, → solid state physics, → steady state theory, → triplet state, → virial equation of state.
2a) To declare definitely or specifically.
2b) To set forth formally in speech or writing (to state a hypothesis).
2c) To set forth in proper or definite form (Dictionary.com).

M.E. stat, partly from M.Fr. estat, partly from L. status "manner of standing, position, condition," noun of action from p.p. stem of stare "to stand;" cognate with Pers. istâdan "to stand," as below.
The sense of "declare in words" (1640s) comes from the notion of "placing (something on the record), setting in a position."

Estât, from istâdan "to stand;" Mid.Pers. êstâtan; O.Pers./Av. sta- "to stand, stand still; to set" (Sogd. ôštât "to stand"); Av. hištaiti; cf. Skt. sthâ- "to stand;" Gk. histemi "put, place, weigh," stasis "a standing still;" L. stare "to stand;" Lith. statau "place;" Goth. standan; PIE base *sta- "to stand"); hâlat, from Ar. Hâlat "state, quality."

statement
  استاتمان   
estâtmân

Fr.: déclaration, affirmation   

1) Something stated.
2) A communication or declaration in speech or writing, setting forth facts, particulars, etc.
3) A single sentence or assertion (Dictionary.com).

Verbal noun of → state (v.)

statesman
  استاتمرد   
estâtmard

Fr.: homme d'Etat   

A person who is experienced in the art of government or versed in the administration of government affairs (Dictionary.com).

From state's man, translation of Fr. homme d'Etat; → state; → man.

static
  ایستا   
istâ (#)

Fr.: statique   

1) Pertaining to bodies, forces, charges, etc. that act in equilibrium; at rest; stationary.
2) Pertaining to → statistics.

From Mod.L. statica, from Gk. statikos "causing to stand," from stem of histanai "to cause to stand," cognate with Pers. istâdan "to stand," as below.

Istâ "standing, static," from istâdan "to stand" (Mid.Pers. êstâtan; O.Pers./Av. sta- "to stand, stand still; set;" Av. hištaiti; cf. Skt. sthâ- "to stand;" Gk. histemi "put, place, weigh," stasis "a standing still;" L. stare "to stand;" Lith. statau "place;" Goth. standan; PIE base *sta- "to stand").

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dog Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn e-f Ear ecl eco edu eig Ein ela ele ele ele Ele elo emi emp ene Enl env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh Exo exp exp ext ext f(R fac fam fat fee Fer Fib fig fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre Fre fri fun fuz Gal gal gal Gam gau Gay gen Geo geo geo geo gim glo gov gra gra gra gra gre gro Gun hab hal han Har haz hea hel hel Hen Her het Hig hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind Ind inf inf inf inf inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv ion ion Irr iso iso iso jan jit Jul jus Kel ker kin kni La lam lan Lap las lat Lay Led Len let lif lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou low lum lun Lym M d Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man mar mas mas mat mea mea mec mem mer Mes met met mho mic Mie Mil min mis MKS MOd mol Mon moo mot mul mul myo nak Nas nat neb neg neu neu New New nit noi non non nor nor nuc nuc nul nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi pai Pan par par Par par pas Pav Pel per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy Pip Pla pla PLA pla ple plu pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pot Pra pre pre pre Pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul pur qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret RHB rid rig ris roc Ros rot rub Rut Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci Sea sec sec see sel sem sen set Sha sha shi shu sid sil sim sin SIS ski Slo smo Soc sol sol sol sol son sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi Spo squ sta sta sta sta Ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur Swa syn syn tab tar tel tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tit top tot tra tra TRA tra tre tri tri tru Tun Tus tym Typ ult unb und uni uni uns upp Urs vac van var Vei Ven ver vic Vir vir vis vol W 4 war wat wav wea wed wet wid win WN2 Wol wri xen yok zen zin > >>