An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
woman
  زن   
zan (#)

Fr.: femme   

The → female human being.

M.E. womman, wimman, O.E. wifman, from wif "female" + man "human being."

Zan "woman, wife" (variants Baluci, Zâzâ jan, Gorgâni cen, Baxtiyâri zine, Sangesari, Tâti, Kurd. žen, Kurd. kenâ, Karingâni yan); Mid.Pers. zan "woman, wife;" kaniz "maid, virgin, girl;" Av. jəni- "woman, wife;" cf. Skt. jáni- "woman, wife;" Gk. gyne "woman, wife;" O.E. cwen "queen, woman, wife" (E. queen; Arm. kin "woman;" PIE base *gwenh- "woman, wife."

word
  واژه   
vâžé (#)

Fr.: mot   

A unit of language, consisting of one or more sounds or their written representation, that communicates a meaning. → stopword

M.E., from O.E. word; cf. Du. woord, O.H.G., Ger. wort, Goth. waurd; related to verb, from L. verbum "verb;" from PIE *wer- "to speak, say."

Vâžé "word;" Mid.Pers. vâc, vâcak "word, speech;" related to âva "voice, sound," âvâz "voice, sound, song," bâng "voice, sound, clamour" (Mid.Pers. vâng); Av. vacah- "word," vaocanghê "to decalre" (by means of speech), from vac- "to speak, say;" cf. Skt. vakti "speaks, says," vacas- "word;" Gk. epos "word;" L. vox "voice;" PIE base *wek- "to speak."

work
  کار   
kâr (#)

Fr.: travail   

If a force F acting on a body moves its point of application through a distance r, the work is defined by the product F.r.cosθ, where θ is the angle between the line of action of the force and the displacement. Work can be positive, negative, or zero.

M.E.; O.E. weorc, worc "something done, action, military fortification," from P.Gmc. *werkan (cf. O.S., O.Fris., Du. werk, O.N. verk, O.H.G. werah, Ger. Werk), from PIE base *werg- "to work;" cognate with Pers. varz-, varzidan "to labor, practise," → erg.

Kâr "work," Mid.Pers kâr; Mod./Mid.Pers. kardan "to do, to work," Mid.Pers. kardan; O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build," Av. kərənaoiti "he makes;" cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "he makes, he does," karoti "he makes, he does," karma "act, deed;" PIE base kwer- "to do, to make."

work function
  کریای ِ کار   
karyâ-ye kâr

Fr.: travail d'extraction   

The least amount of energy required to remove an electron from the surface of a solid, to a point just outside the solid where the electron has zero kinetic energy. See also → photoelectric effect.

work; → function.

work-energy principle
  پروَز ِ کار-کاروژ   
parvaz-e kâr-kâruž

Fr.: principe travail-énergie   

The → work of the resultant force exerted on a particle equals the change in kinetic energy of the particle.

work; → energy; → principle.

working group
  کار-گروه   
kâr-goruh (#)

Fr.: groupe de travail   

A group of people working together to achieve a stated goal.

work; → -ing; → group.

working surface
  زنار ِ اندر-آژیرش   
zonâr-e andar-âžireš

Fr.: zone d'interaction   

The double shock structure formed in any two fluids that collide supersonically. A working surface consists of two → shocks, a → bow shock where the ambient material is shocked and accelerated, and a jet shock or → Mach disk, where the → jet material is decelerated. It is common to find multiple working surfaces along the axis of an → Herbig-Haro jet, testifying to recurrent eruptions of the underlying source.

work; → -ing; → surface.

workshop
  کارگاه   
kârgâh (#)

Fr.: atelier   

1) A place where manual work is done, especially manufacturing or repairing.
2) A group of people working on a creative project, discussing a topic, or studying a subject.

work + shop M.E. shoppe, O.E. sceoppa; cf. O.H.G. scopf "porch," Ger. Schuppen "a shed").

Kârgâh "workshop," from kâr, → work, + gâh "place; time" (Mid.Pers. gâh, gâs "time;" O.Pers. gāθu-; Av. gātav-, gātu- "place, throne, spot;" cf. Skt. gâtu- "going, motion; free space for moving; place of abode;" PIE *gwem- "to go, come").

world
  جهان   
jahân (#)

Fr.: monde   

1) The Earth with its inhabitants. Compare → cosmos and → Universe.
2) Other planets, particularly → exoplanets.
3) Any realm, or domain, with all pertaining to it.
4) Physics: The → space-time in four dimensions, as distinguished from three-dimensional space. → world line.

M.E.; O.E. woruld, weorold; cf. O.S. werold, O.Fris. warld, Du. wereld, O.N. verold, O.H.G. weralt, Ger. Welt.

Jahân, variants keyhân, geyhân "world," giti "world, material world, time;" Mid.Pers. gêhân "world," gêtig "the material world; wordly," Manichean Mid.Pers. gyh "world," gyh'n "worlds;" Av. gaēθā- "being, world, matter, mankind" (O.Pers. gaiθā- "livestock"), gaya- "life, manner of living," root gay- "to live" (present tense jiva-), cognate with Skt. jīv- "to live," jīva- "alive, living;" Gk. bios "life," L. vivus "living, alive," vita "life;" PIE base *gwei- "to live" (cf. O.E. cwic "alive;" O.C.S. zivo "to live;" Lith. gyvas "living, alive;" O.Ir. bethu "life," bith "age, life, world;" Welsh byd "world"). The Pers. words zistan "to live," zendé "alive," zendegi "life," and jân "vital spirit, soul; mind" belong to this family.

world line
  خط ِ جهان، جهان-خط   
xatt-e jahân, jahân-xatt (#)

Fr.: ligne d'univers   

In relativity, the path traced out in four-dimensional → space-time that represents a continuous sequence of events relating to a given particle. A point on a world line is called an → event. Any straight world line corresponds to an → inertial motion. Curved world lines represent → accelerated motion. A world line that curves corresponds to an accelerated observer. World lines are shown on space-time diagrams.

world; → line.

wormhole
  کرم-سوراخ، سوراخ ِ کرم   
kerm-surâx, surâx-e kerm

Fr.: trou de ver   

A hypothetical topological feature, based on → general relativity, that connects two different points like a "tunnel" in → space-time. The most common concept of a wormhole is an → Einstein-Rosen bridge. A trip through the wormhole could take much less time than a journey between the same starting and ending points in normal space. Wormholes have various types, intra-universe wormholes (connecting two distant regions of our Universe with each other) and inter-universe wormholes (that connect our Universe with another universe).

The term was coined by the Princeton physicist John Wheeler (1911-2008), from worm, M.E., O.E. wurm "serpent, dragon;" cf. O.S., O.H.G., Ger. wurm, O.Fris., Du. worm, Goth. waurms "serpent, worm;" akin to Pers. kerm "worm," as below; → hole.

Kerm "worm;" Mid.Pers. kirm "worm, snake, dragon;" cf. Skt. krmi- "worm, maggot;" O.Ir. cruim "worm;" Lith. kirmis "worm;" L. vermis "worm;" E. worm, as above; surâx, → hole.

wrinkle ridge
  روک ِ چروکدار   
ruk-e corukdâr

Fr.:   

A low, sinuous tectonic ridge on a planetary surface that resembles a wrinkle in skin or cloth. These features were first detected on the Moon, but they have also been identified on other planetary bodies such as Mars, Mercury, and Venus.

M.E., back formation from wrinkled, from O.E. gewrinclod "wrinkled, crooked," p.p. of gewrinclian "to wind, crease," from perfective prefix ge- + -wrinclian "to wind;" → ridge

Ruk, → ridge; corukdâr, from coruk "wrinkle" + dâr "having, possessor" (from dâštan "to have, to possess," Mid.Pers. dâštan, O.Pers./Av. root dar- "to hold, keep back, maitain, keep in mind;" cf. Skt. dhr-, dharma- "law;" Gk. thronos "elevated seat, throne;" L. firmus "firm, stable;" Lith. daryti "to make;" PIE *dher- "to hold, support").

wrist
  مچ   
moc (#)

Fr.: poignet   

1) The carpus or lower part of the forearm where it joins the hand.
2) The joint or articulation between the forearm and the hand (Dictionary.com).

M.E., O.E.; cognate with Ger. Rist "back of hand," O.Norse rist "instep;" akin to writhe.

Moc "wrist," related to mošt "fist;" Mid.Pers. mušt, must "fist;" Av. mušti- "fist;" cf. Skt. musti-, Pali mutthi-, L. manus (?).

write
  نوشتن   
neveštan (#)

Fr.: écrire   

To trace or form (letters, words, or other symbols) on a surface, typically paper, with a pen, pencil, or other similar instrument.

M.E. writen, O.E. writan "to score, outline, draw," later "to set down in writing;" cf. O.Frisian writa "to write," O.Saxon writan "to tear, scratch, write," O.Norse rita "write, scratch," O.H.G. rizan "to write, scratch, tear," Ger. reissen "to tear, pull, sketch, draw."

Neveštan, nevis- "to write," variants Kurd. (Sor.) nus, nusen, Lori nisane "to write," Kurd. (Kurm.) âvîtin, âvêntin, (Sor.) havîštin, hâvîtin "to compose (a song), to change (color);" Mid.Pers. (+ → ni-) nibištan, nebês- "to write," pēsīdan "to adorn;" O.Pers. pais- "to cut, adorn, engrave;" Av. paēs- "to paint, adorn," paēsa- "adornment;" cf. Skt. piśáti "adorns; cuts;" Gk. poikilos "multicolored;" L. pingit "embroiders, paints;" O.C.S. pisati "to write;" O.H.G. fēh "multicolored;" Lith. piēšti "to draw, adorn;" PIE base *peik- "colored, speckled."

wrong
  نادرست   
nâdorost (#)

Fr.: faux   

1) Not in accordance with what is morally right or good: a wrong deed.
2) Deviating from truth or fact; erroneous: a wrong answer.
3) Not correct in action, judgment, opinion, method, etc., as a person; in error (Dictionary.com).
See also: → false, → invalid.

M.E. wrong, wrang, O.E. wrang "twisted, crooked," from O.N. rangr "crooked, wry, wrong;" cf. Dan. vrang "crooked, wrong," Du. wrang "sour, bitter."

Nâdorost, from nâ- "not," → a-, + dorost, → right.

Wronskian
  ورونسکی   
Wronski

Fr.: Wronskien   

The → determinant of order n associated with a set of n functions, in which the first row consists of the functions, the second row consists of the first → derivatives of the functions, the third row consists of their second derivatives, and so on. For example, If y1 and y2 are functions of x, the determinant W(y1,y2) = y1 . y2' - y1' . y2 is called the Wronskian of the given function.

Named after the Polish mathematician Józef Hoene-Wroński (1776-1853).

WZ Sagittae
   WZ نیم‌اسب   
WZ nimasp

Fr.: WZ Sagittae   

The prototype of a subclass of → dwarf novae with an extremely long outburst period, comparable with that of a → recurrent nova.

variable star designation; → Sagittarius.

X-point
  نقطه‌ی ِ X   
noqte-te X

Fr.: point X   

A configuration of magnetic field lines around a → magnetic null point resembling a cross. See also → O-point.

X, the letter of alphabet whose shape evokes the configuration; → point.

X-ray
  پرتو ِ ایکس   
partow-e iks (#)

Fr.: rayon X   

The → electromagnetic radiation with → wavelengths shorter than that of → ultraviolet radiation and greater than that of → gamma rays. Typical X-rays have a wavelength ranging from 0.1 to 100 Å (0.01 to 10 → nanometers), corresponding to frequencies in the range 3 × 1016 to 3 × 1019 Hz and energies in the range 100 eV to 100 → keV. X-rays are produced artificially when high-speed → electrons collide with a heavy metal target such as tungsten. Astrophysical sources of X-rays include → plasmas with → temperatures in the range 106-108 K, and deceleration process of rapidly moving charges upon interaction with matter (→ bremsstrahlung). X-rays were discovered in 1895 by Wilhelm Röntgen, a German physics professor (→ roentgen). For this discovery he won the first Nobel prize in physics in 1901. See also: → soft X-rays, → hard X-rays.

X stand for "unknown," since Röntgen was not sure what they were; → ray.

X-ray astronomy
  اخترشناسی ِ پرتوهای ِ ایکس   
axtaršenâsi-ye partowhâ-ye iks (#)

Fr.: astronomie en rayons X   

The study of celestial bodies using their X-ray emission. X-ray astronomy deals mainly with Galactic and extragalactic phenomena involving very high-energy photon emissions, covering a band of energies between 0.1 keV and 500 keV. The research field includes: → X-ray binaries, → cataclysmic variables, → pulsars, → black holes, → dark matter, → active galaxies, → galactic clusters → X-ray transients. The Earth's atmosphere absorbs most X-rays coming from outer space. X-ray astronomy therefore requires observations to be done above atmosphere. The first rocket flight which successfully detected a cosmic source of X-ray emission was launched in 1962 by an American research group. A very bright source was detected that they named → Scorpius X-1. Since then several dedicated X-ray astronomy satellites have been launched, among which: Uhuru, INTEGRAL, ROSAT, Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), → Chandra X-ray Observatory, and → XMM-Newton, which have contributed to important advances in astronomy.

X-ray; → astronomy.

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