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A large, roughly circular, → crater with diameter at least three or four times depth on the summit or in the side of a → volcano. A caldera can form from a volcanic blast or the collapse of a volcanic cone into an emptied → magma chamber.
From Sp. caldera "cauldron, kettle," also name of a crater on Canary Islands, from L. caldarius "of warming," from calidus "warm, hot," → calorie.
Tiyân "large cauldron; cauldron used for warming water in a communal bathhouse," of unknown origin.
Fr.: catalogue de Caldwell
A collection of 109 impressive celestial objects compiled for amateur astronomers. These objects (→ star clusters, → nebulae, → supernova remnants, and → galaxies), selected from the → New General Catalog and the → Index Catalog, are not present in the → Messier catalog.
Named after Patrick Caldwell Moore (1923-2012), English amateur astronomer, who compiled the catalog in 1995; → catalog.
1) gâhšomâr (#), gâhšomâri (#), gâhmâr; 2) sâlnâmé (#)
1) Any of various systems for measuring and recording the passage of time
by dividing the year into days, weeks, and months.
M.E. calender, from O.Fr. calendier, from L. calendarium "account book," from kalendae "calends" the first day of the Roman month, from calare "to announce solemnly, call out," as the priests did in proclaiming the new moon that marked the calends, from PIE base *kele- "to call, shout" (cf. Skt. usakala "cock," lit. "dawn-calling;" Gk. kaleo "to call," kelados "noise," kledon "report, fame;" O.H.G. halan, O.N. kalla "to call;" O.E. hlowan "to low;" Lith. kalba "language").
ruz-e gâhšomâri, ~ gâhmâri
Fr.: jour du calendrier
A period of 24 hours, from one midnight to the following midnight.
mâh-e gâhšomâri, ~ gâhmâri
Fr.: mois du calendrier
One of the periods into which a calendar is divided, ordinarily 12, but in earlier systems 10 (the first Roman calendar under Romulus) or 13 (ancient Iranian calendar using a month intercalation).
sâl-e gâhšomâri, ~ gâhmâri
Fr.: année du calendrier
The time interval between the new year's day in a given calendar system and the day before the following new year's day. In the Gregorian system the calendar year begins on January 1 and ends on December 31. In the Iranian calendar it begins on Farvardin 1, the day closest to the spring equinox and ends on Esfand 29 or 30.
1) gug (#), gusâlé (#); 2) poviz
Fr.: 1) veau; 2) mollet
M.E., from O.E. cealf, calf, cognate with M.Du. calf, Ger. Kalb, Gothic kalbo.
1) Gug (Dehxodâ), variant gog "calf;" probably from Proto-Ir.
*gao-ka "baby cow, little caow," from *gao-
"cow, bull," → cow, + suffix -*ak.
To adjust or determine, by comparison with a standard, the response magnitude of a measuring instrument as a function of the input signal. For example, to determine line wavelengths in the spectrum of an astronomical object, or to graduate a hygrometer.
From M.Fr. calibre, via Sp. or It., from Ar. qalib "a mold, last," perhaps from Gk. kalopodion "a shoemaker's last," from kalon "wood" + podos gen. of pous "foot."
Kabizidan, verbal form of kabiz (varianats kaviz, kaviž, kafiz) "a measure for grain, a bushel," from Mid.Pers. kabiz "a grain measure," loaned in Arm. kapic "a grain measure," and in Gk. kapithe, as attested in Xenophon.
Fr.: étalonnage, calibration
1) The act or process of calibrating or the state of being calibrated.
Calibration, noun from → calibrate.
Kabizeš, noun from kabizidan, → calibrate.
Fr.: courbe d'étalonnage
An empirical curve obtained through appropriate exposures in order to determine the instrument's response. For example, a curve allowing the conversion of relative intensities of an observed object into absolute fluxes, or a curve relating the detector's pixel positions to wavelengths.
Fr.: erreur d'étalonnage
A systematic error in the constant values to be applied to a measuring instrument.
Fr.: pose d'étalonnage
An exposure obtained with an instrument mounted on the telescope using an artificial illuminating source in order to calibrate the instrument.
Fr.: lampe d'étalonnage
A lamp used for instrument calibration, such as an internal He-Ar arc for wavelength calibration or an external source of light placed in the telescope dome for flat-field exposures.
→ calibration; lamp, from O.Fr. lampe, L. lampas, from Gk. lampas "torch, lamp, light, meteor," from lampein "to shine."
Kabizeš, → calibration; lâmp, from Fr., as above.
A general term for certain reference astronomical sources that allow determining the characteristics (magnitude, distance, velocity, etc.) of other sources. → primary calibrators, → secondary calibrators.
Kabizandé, agent noun from kabizidan, → calibrate.
Fr.: période callipique
A period of 76 years after which the new and full moons would return to the same day of the solar year. This was intended as an improvement of the → Metonic cycle because the 6940 days of the Metonic cycle exceeded 19 years by about a quarter of a day, and exceeded 235 → lunations by a larger amount of time.
Named after Calippus of Cyzicus (about 370-300 BC), a Greek astronomer and mathematician.
Callisto (Jupiter IV)
The eighth of → Jupiter's known moons and the second brightest and the outermost of the four → Galilean satellites. With a diameter of 4800 km (0.38 Earths), Castillo is roughly the same size as Mercury. It orbits Jupiter in 16.689 days at a distance of 1,883,000 km from the planet, beyond Jupiter's main → radiation belts. It is the third largest moon in the entire solar system. Its mass is 10.76 × 1022 kg (about 1.5 Earth Moons) and its mean → surface temperature is -155 °C. The most prominent feature of Callisto is its craters, as it has the most craters of any object in the solar system. Due to its orbit being further away from Jupiter, it is not under the same → tidal heating influences as → Io, → Europa, or → Ganymede. Callisto's thin → atmosphere is composed of → carbon dioxide and likely some → molecular oxygen. Callisto is thought to have formed as a result of slow → accretion from the → protoplanetary disk of gas and dust that surrounded Jupiter after its formation.
Callisto, an attendant of Artemis in Greek mythology. Because of her love affair with Zeus, she was transformed into a bear by Artemis. According to another legend she was changed into a bear by the jealous Hera. Zeus transferred her to the heavens as the → constellation → Ursa Major (great bear).
1) Thermodynamics: The amount of → heat, in the
→ CGS system, required to raise the temperature of one
gram of water from 14.5 °C to 15.5 °C at standard pressure. It is equal
to 4.1858 → joules, a quantity called the 15° calorie.
Also called gram-calorie, small calorie.
From Fr. calorie, from L. calor "heat," calidus "warm;" PIE base *kelə- "cold; warm;" Av. sarəta- "cold;" Mod.Pers. sard "cold, cool;" Skt. śiśira- "cold;" Ossetian sald "cold," Lith. šaltas "cold," silti "become warm;" Welsh clyd "cool."
The measurement of the amount of → heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formation of solutions.
M.E. calven, O.E. (Anglian) *calfian, from → calf.
Gugidan, infinitive from gug "cow, bull," → cow.
Calypso (Saturn XIV)
A satellite of Saturn discovered in 1980 on the images taken by Voyager 1. It shares the same orbit as Telesto and Tethys at a distance of 294,660 km and turns around the planet with a period of 1.888 days. It is 34 x 22 x 22 km in size.
In Greek mythology, Calypso was a sea nymph and the daughter of the Titan Atlas.