An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
carbon crisis
  پرژنه‌ی ِ کربون   
paržane-ye karbon

Fr.: crise du carbone   

A problem raised in the past by observations suggesting that the amount of carbon necessary for standard → dust models was larger than what actually observed for the → interstellar medium (ISM) (Snow & Witt 1995). The problem was especially acute for the → 2175 A bump in the ultraviolet part of the → extinction curve. The so-called "crisis" was finally solved by, on the one hand, revising downward the → solar abundances, thought to represent the ISM abundances (Asplund et al. 2009, arXiv:0909.0948, and references therein), and, on the other hand, revising upward the ISM carbon abundances (Sofia et al., 2011, AJ 141, 22S).

carbon; → crisis.

carbon cycle
  چرخه‌ی ِ کربون   
carxe-ye karbon (#)

Fr.: cycle du carbone   

1) A complex series of processes through which all the carbon atoms on Earth is cycled through the air, ground, plants, animals, and fossil fuels. During the cycle, plants absorb → carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere and through → photosynthesis incorporate the associated carbon atoms into sugars and other molecules necessary for growth. Plants return carbon atoms back to the atmosphere in the form of CO2. However, much of the carbon absorbed remains "locked up" in the living organisms until decomposition or fire releases it back to the atmosphere.
2) For nuclear fusion in stars → CNO cycle.

carbon; → cycle.

carbon dioxide
  دی‌اکسید ِ کربون، گاز کربونیک   
dioksid-e karbon, gâz karbonik (#)

Fr.: dioxyde de carbone   

CO2, also called carbonic acid gas. A colorless gas which occurs in the atmosphere playing an essential part in animal respiration and the growth of green plants. → photosynthesis, → carbon cycle. It is formed by the → oxidation of carbon and carbon compounds. Carbon dioxide is the most important → greenhouse gas produced by human activities, primarily through the combustion of fossil fuels. Its concentration in the Earth's atmosphere has risen by more than 30% since the Industrial Revolution. CO2 forms a solid at -78.5 °C at atmospheric pressure, and is used as a refrigerant in this form as a dry ice for the preservation of frozen foods. As carbon dioxide gas is heavier than air and does not support combustion, it is used in fire extinguishers.
CO2 is present in the → interstellar medium and is one of the main → molecules in → comets.

carbon; → dioxide.

carbon monoxide (CO)
  مونوکسید ِ کربون   
monoksid-e karbon (#)

Fr.: monoxyde de carbone   

A colorless, odorless, very poisonous gas which burns in air with a bright blue flame to form → carbon dioxide. CO gives rise to a violent explosion when ignited in air in certain proportions. It occurs in coal gas and in the exhaust fumes of motor engines. Melting point -207 °C; boiling point -191.1 °C.
Carbon monoxide is the most important → molecule found in the → interstellar medium, and is produced through several chemical reactions, → CO formation. It was discovered in 1970 by R. Wilson and A. Penzias of Bell Laboratories, using the 11-m telescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in the direction of the → Orion nebula. Because the CO line is so intense and widely distributed in space, this molecule is a most useful tool for tracing the ISM. In addition, measurement of its rare isotopes have shown that the main line 12C16O (wavelength 2.6 mm, 115 GHz) is → optically thick, that is the → column density of the molecule is so high that the material becomes opaque at the transition frequency. Moreover, the upper-energy levels of the CO molecule are easily excited by collision with → molecular hydrogen. The combination of high → optical depth and the ease of → excitation imply that CO emission brightness will accurately reflect the local gas temperature. CO is also one of the principal molecules detected in → comet nuclei.

carbon; → mono-; → oxide.

carbon star
  ستاره‌ی ِ کربونی   
setâre-ye karboni

Fr.: étoile carbonée   

A class of → red giant stars whose spectra show strong → molecular bands of → carbon compounds.

carbon; → star.

carbon-14
  کربن-۱۴   
karbon-14

Fr.: carbon-14   

A radioactive isotope of carbon, whose nucleus contains 6 protons and 8 neutrons; also called → radiocarbon. 14C is naturally produced in the atmosphere when a neutron created by a cosmic ray hits the nucleus of an atom of nitrogen-14. The nucleus absorbs the neutron and ejects a proton, thereby transforming itself into 14C. It decays back to nitrogen, with a half-life is 5730 years, after emitting an electron (146C → 147N + e- + νe). See also → radiocarbon dating.

carbon; → four + -teen, an inflected form of the root of → ten.

carbon-enhanced metal-poor star (CEMP)
  ستاره‌ی ِ کم‌فلز ِ کربون بلندیده   
setâre-ye kamfelez-e karbon bolandidé

Fr.: étoile pauvre en métaux enrichie en carbon   

A star that presents very low → iron  → abundances [Fe/H] < -4 but an → anomalous richness in carbon. CEMP stars have been defined as a subset of → metal-poor stars that exhibit elevated [C/Fe] ≥ +1.0. It has been recognized that ~15-20% of stars with [Fe/H] < -2.0 are carbon enhanced. This fraction rises to 30% for [Fe/H] < -3.0, to 40% for [Fe/H] < -3.5, and ~75% for [Fe/H] < -4.0. This increasing trend of CEMP-star frequency with declining [Fe/H] is confirmed by the observation of many thousands of CEMP stars (Daniela Carollo + ApJ 2014, 788, 180). See also → extremely metal-poor star (EMPS)

carbon; → enhance; → metal; → metal; → poor; → star.

carbonaceous
  کربونی، کربندار   
karboni, karbondâr

Fr.: carboné   

Containing or composed of carbon.

From → carbon + -aceous, from L. -aceus "-ous."

Karboni, adj. from karbon, → carbon; karbondâr "having carbon," with -dâr "having, possessor," from dâštan "to have, to possess;" O.Pers./Av. root dar- "to hold, keep back, maintain, keep in mind;" cf. Skt. dhr-, dharma- "law;" Gk. thronos "elevated seat, throne;" L. firmus "firm, stable;" Lith. daryti "to make;" PIE base *dher- "to hold, support."

carbonaceous chondrite
  کوندریت ِ کربونی   
kondrit-e karboni

Fr.: chondrite carbonée   

A rare type of → stony meteorite having a higher → carbon content than other classes of meteorite. They represent only ~5% of the known meteorites. Their bulk composition is mainly → silicates, → oxides and sulfides, whilst the minerals → olivine and serpentine are characteristic. The six classes of carbonaceous chondrites are: → CI chondrites, CM chondrites, CV chondrites, CO chondrites, CK chondrites, CR chondrites, CH chondrites, and CB chondrites.

carbonaceous; → chondrite.

carbonyl group
  گروه ِ کربونیل   
goruh-e karbonil (#)

Fr.: groupe carbonyl   

The radical -C=O, which occurs in several compounds, such as → aldehydes and ketones.

From → carbon + -yl a suffix used in the names of some radicals; → group.

carboxyl radical (COOH)
  رادیکال ِ کربوکسیل   
râdikâl-e karboksil (#)

Fr.: radical carboxyl   

Chem.: The -COOH group, regarded as the essential and characteristic constituent of organic acids.

From carb-, variant of carbo- before a vowel, from → carbon, + ox, from → oxygen, + -yl a suffix used in the names of radicals.

cardinal
  اگرا   
agrâ

Fr.: cardinal   

1) Fundamentally → important; → principal.
2) → cardinal number.

M.E., from L.L. cardinalis "principal, pivotal," lit. "serving as a hinge," from cardo, cardin- "door hinge."

Agrâ, from Av. aγra-, aγrya- "the highest, the first, foremost" cf. Skt. agra- "foremost, first, prominent," PIE *agro- "top, first, beginning."

cardinal direction
  سوی ِ اگرا   
su-ye agrâ

Fr.: point cardinal   

Any of the four principal directions or points of the compass, → north, → east, → south, and → west. See also: → cardinal point.

cardinal; → direction.

cardinal number
  عدد ِ اگرا   
adad-e agrâ

Fr.: nombre cardinal   

An ordinary number such as 0, 1, 2, or 3, as opposed to an → ordinal number such as 1st, 2nd, or 3rd. Cardinal numbers can be → zero or → positive and are used for counting the things that are assumed to be not divisible.

cardinal; → number.

cardinal point
  نقطه‌ی ِ اگرا   
noqte-ye agrâ

Fr.: point cardinal   

One of the four points where the → meridian and the → prime vertical intersect the → horizon. See also: → cardinal direction.

cardinal; → point.

cardinality
  اگرایی   
agrâyi

Fr.: cardinalité   

Math.: The → cardinal number indicating the → number of → elements in a → set. For example, the set A = {a, b, c, d} contains 4 elements, and therefore it has a cardinality of 4 (denoted |A| = 4).

cardinal; → -ity.

care
  ۱) تیمار؛ ۲) تیماردن   
1) timâr (#); 2) timârdan

Fr.: soin, souci, attention; 2) se soucier, s'intéresser   

1a) A state of mind in which one is troubled; worry, anxiety, or concern; a cause or object of worry, anxiety, concern, etc.
1b) Serious attention; solicitude; heed; caution.
2a) To be concerned or solicitous; have thought or regard.
2b) To be concerned or have a special preference (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from O.E. caru, cearu "sorrow, anxiety, grief," cognate with Gothic kara, O.H.G. chara lament; M.En. caren, O.E. cearian, carian "be anxious, grieve."

Timâr "care, attendance on the sick; custody; sorrow;" Mid.Pers. têmâr "care; grief"

careful
  تیمارمند   
timârmand

Fr.: consciecieux, soigneux, soigné   

1) Cautious in one's actions.
2) Taking pains in one's work; exact; thorough.
3) (of things) Done or performed with accuracy or caution (Dictionary.com).

care; + -ful, a suffix meaning "characterized by; full of; able to;" → full.

Carina
  افزل، شاه‌تخته   
afzal, šâh-taxté (#)

Fr.: Carène   

The Keel. A major → constellation in the southern sky, home to → Canopus (α Carinae), the second brightest star after → Sirius. Approximate position: RA 9h, Dec. -60° The constellation resulted from the division of a very large constellation representing → Argo Navis, the mythological Jason's ship. The partition into the constellations → Carina, → Puppis, → Vela, and → Pyxis appeared first on a sky map by Nicholas Louis de Lacaille (1763). Carina represents the bottom of the Ship Argo. Abbreviation: Car; genitive form: Carinae.

L. carina "the keel of a ship, i.e. the principal structural member of a ship, running lengthwise along the center line from bow to stern, to which the frames are attached."

Afzal "keel" in the jargon of the Caspian sea fishermen of Gilan province. Šâh-taxté "main plank."

Carina arm
  بازوی ِ افزل   
bâzu-ye Afzal

Fr.: bras de Carène   

A → spiral arm in the Milky Way galaxy seen at its best in the → constellation → Carina, but also crossing the constellations → Vela, → Crux, and → Centaurus. It may be a continuation of the → Sagittarius arm; the combined feature is called Sagittarius-Carina arm.

Carina; → arm.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>