An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12937 Search : far
Castor (α Geminorum)
  کاستور   
Kâstor

Fr.: Castor   

The second brightest star in the → constellation  → Gemini. This star has the identifier "alpha," but it is fainter than β Geminorum (→ Pollux). Castor was known as a main sequence, blue star of magnitude 1.98 and → spectral type A1. However, it is actually a → gravitationally bound family of six stars. The two brightest of the six, Castor A and Castor B, revolve around one another over a period of about 445 years. Castor A, the brighter of the two, is magnitude 1.9, while its companion is 3.0. Castor A is of spectral type A1 V and Castor B is Am. They are hotter than the Sun and about three times more massive, and lie 51 → light-years from Earth. Castor A and B are orbited by a third star called Castor C. It's a 9th magnitude → red dwarf (dMe1) and lies about one arc minute to the south. Castor C is about 1,000 → astronomical units from the bright pair and takes 14,000 years to orbit around them. Each of the three is a → spectroscopic binary making Castor a → sextuplet. Castor C is a → binary star of red dwarf stars a little more than half the size of the Sun. They revolve around one another evry 19 hours. The companions of Castor A and B are also smaller dwarf stars.

In Gk. mythology, Castor and → Pollux were twin heroes called the Dioscuri. Castor was the son of Leda and Tyndareus, Pollux the son of Leda and Zeus. They were great warriors and were noted for their devotion to each other. After Castor was killed by Lynceus, Pollux implored Zeus to allow his brother to share his immortality with him. Zeus created the constellation Gemini in their honor.

cata-
  کتا-، کاتا-، کات-، کت-   
katâ-, kâtâ-, kât-, kat-

Fr.: cata-   

A prefix meaning "down," also "against; back; by, about; with, along," occurring originally  in loanwords from Greek; variants cat- and cath-, as in catalog, cataclysm, cataract, cathode, catastrophe, etc.

From Gk. kata-, before vowels kat-, from kata "down from, down to."

Katâ-, kâtâ-, kât-, kat-, loan from Gk., as above.

cataclysm
  گتلور   
gatlur

Fr.: cataclysme   

1) A devastating flood; deluge.
2) Any violent upheaval that brings about great changes or causes great demolition. See also: → catastrophe.

From Fr. cataclysme, from L. cataclysmos "deluge," from Gk. kataklysmos, from kataklyzein "to inundate," from kata "down" + klyzein "to wash."

Gatlur "great flood," from gat "great, large, big" [Mo'in, Dehxodâ] + lur "flood" [Mo'in, Dehxodâ], cf. Gk. louein "to wash," L. luere "to wash," Bret. laouer "trough," PIE *lou- "to wash." Variants of lur in Pers. dialects are: Lori, Kordi laf, lafow, lafaw, Tabari , all meaning "flood."

cataclysmic
  گتلوری   
gatluri

Fr.: cataclysmique   

1) Of, pertaining to, or resulting from a → cataclysm.
2) Having the effect of, or of the nature of, a cataclysm. → cataclysmic variable.

cataclysm; → -ic.

cataclysmic variable
  ورتنده‌ی ِ گتلوری   
vartande-ye gatluri

Fr.: variable cataclysmique   

A → variable star that shows a sudden and dramatic change in brightness, including → flare stars, → novae, and some types of → symbiotic stars. They are believed to be very → close binary systems consisting of an → accreting → white dwarf  → primary and an evolved → late-type secondary star that has filled its → Roche lobe. For systems with an → accretion disk, it is believed that a thermal instability is the cause of repetitive outbursts observed in cataclysmic variables called → dwarf novae.

cataclysmic; → variable.

catalog
  کاتالوگ   
kâtâlog (#)

Fr.: catalogue   

A list or record of items systematically arranged with descriptive details. → Index Catalogue; → Messier catalog; → New General Catalogue.

M.E. cathaloge, cateloge, from M.Fr. catalogue, from L.L. catalogus, from Gk. katalogos "a list, register," from kata "down, completely" + legein "to say, count," → -logy.

Kâtâlog, loan from Fr., as above.

catalog place
  جای ِ کاتالوگی   
jâ-ye kâtâlogi

Fr.: position catalogue   

Same as catalog position and → mean catalog place.

catalog; → place.

catalog position
  نهش ِ کاتالوگی   
neheš-e kâtâlogi

Fr.: position catalogue   

Same as catalog place and → mean catalog place.

catalog; → position.

catastrophe
  نگونزار   
negunzâr

Fr.: catastrophe   

A great, often sudden calamity; a complete failure; a sudden violent change in the earth's surface. → cataclysm.

From Gk. katastrophe "an overturning, ruin," from katastrephein "to overturn, ruin" from kata "down" + strephein "to turn."

Negunzâr, from negun "overturned, inverted" + -zâr suffix denoting profusion, abundance, as in kârzâr "a field of battle; combat" šurezâr "unfertile, salty ground; nitrous earth," xoškzâr "arid land," and so forth.

catastrophism
  نگونزارباوری   
negunzârbâvari

Fr.: catastrophisme   

The doctrine that certain vast geological changes in the Earth's history were caused by sudden, short-lived, violent events rather than gradual evolutionary processes. Catastrophism explains the differences in → fossil forms encountered in successive → stratigraphic levels. This doctrine is associated with the French naturalist Baron Georges Cuvier (1769-1832). Catastrohism is contrasted to the → uniformitarianism.

catastrophe; → -ism.

categorical
  کتاگری، کتاگریک   
katâgori, katâgorik

Fr.: catégorique   

1) Unambiguously explicit and direct, without exceptions or conditions.
2) Relating to or included in a → category.
3) Logic: Of a → proposition (→ syllogism), consisting of a → subject and a → predicate, each of which denotes a class, and having one of the → Aristotelian forms.

category; → -ic; → -al.

categorical proposition
  گزاره‌ی ِ کتاگریک   
gozâre-ye katâgorik

Fr.: proposition catégorique   

In a → syllogism, a → proposition or statement that deals with inclusion or exclusion of members of → subject classes in → predicate classes. Categorical propositions are of four basic forms, see → Aristotelian form.

categorical; → proposition.

categorical syllogism
  باهمشماری ِ کتاگریک   
bâhamšomâri-ye katâgorik

Fr.: syllogisme catégirique   

A standard → syllogism that consists of three → categorical propositions in which there are three terms, and each term appears exactly twice. The three terms in a standard categorical syllogism are the → major term, → mino term, and → middle term.

categorical; → syllogism.

categorize
  کتاگریدن   
katâgoridan

Fr.: catégorise   

To place in a → category or class.

category; → -ize.

category
  کتاگر   
katâgor

Fr.: catégorie   

1) A group of things that are similar in some way.
2a) Philo.: In Aristotelian logic, any of the ten different ways (substance, quantity, quality, relation, place, time, position, possession, doing, and undergoing) in which the subject of a proposition may relate to its predicate. For example, the proposition "All men are mortal" belongs to the Category of Quality since it tells us what "all men" are like, namely mortal.
2b) Philo.: In Kant's system, any of the twelve (four groups of three each) pure concepts of the understanding that constitute necessary conditions of experience and correspond with the classes of judgements treated in formal logic. According to Kant, the categories are results of the mind's activity, and are distinguished from sensation. The categories have, furthermore, like space and time relations, a peculiar universality. They are, in other words, a priori.
3) Math.: An entity consisting of a class of objects and a class of → morphisms between those objects that satisfy certain properties.

M.Fr. catégorie, from L.L. categoria, from Gk. kategoria, from kategorein "to speak against; to accuse, assert, predicate," from kata "down, against, back," → cata-, + agorein "to speak before public assembly," from agora "marketplace, public square" (from ageirein "to gather"); cognate with L. grex, gregis "herd, troop, crowd;" Skt. gramah- "heap, crowd, community;" Old Icelandic kremja "to squeeze;" O.E. crammian "to cram;" Latvian  gùrste "bundle of flask;" Polish garnac "to gather;" Russ. gorst' "cupped hand;" cf. Pers. gor-, gal-, etc., as below; PIE base *ger- "to gather."

Katâgor, from katâ-, → cata-, + gor- "to gather," ultimately from PIE *ger-, as above. We put forward that the following Iranian words derive from the above PIE base *ger- "to gather":
goruh "crowd, troop, band;"
gallé (conversion of r to l) "herd, flock;"
jarra (Laki) "group; stick bundle;"
gerd in gerd âvardan "to collect, bring together" probably not related to gerd "round, circular;"
xalam (štiyâni) "herd, flock;"
xelima (Qâyeni) "herd;"
korand, korang "a ring made by hunters or troops;"
korka (Laki) "bundle of harvested ears of wheat;"
gola, golé "bundle of hair; bunch"
gola-gâh "place of gathering;"
gurâb "market place in a village, agora;"
There are dozens of villages all-over Iran named Gorâb, Gurâb, Gela, Gola, Gala and their combinations with other words (e.g. Galadeh, Galazan, Galavand) that probably refer to places of gathering.
One can also mention village names such as Agora, Gore, Gere(kalâ), Garaku, Oger, and so on in Mâzandarân;
Khotanese (prefixed ham-) gris "to assemble."

category theory
  نگره‌ی ِ کتاگر   
negare-ye katâgor

Fr.: théorie des catégories   

A theory that deals with the concept of → category and generalizes the → set theory.

category; → theory.

cathode
  کاتود   
kâtod (#)

Fr.: cathode   

A negatively charged electrode that is the source of electrons in an electrical device.

Gk. kathodos "descent, a way down," from kata- "down" + hodos "way, path."

cathode ray
  پرتو ِ کاتودی   
partw-e kâtodi (#)

Fr.: rayon cathodique   

A kind of ray generated at the cathode in a vacuum tube, by the electrical discharge.

cathode; →ray.

catholic astrolabe
  اسطرلاب ِ هرگانی   
ostorlâb-e hargâni

Fr.: astrolabe catholique   

Same as → universal astrolabe.

Catholic, M.E., from Fr. catholique, from Church Latin catholicus "universal, general," from Gk. katholikos, from phrase kath' holou "on the whole, in general," from kata "about," → cata-, + genitive of holos "whole," → holo-; → astrolabe.

Ostorlâb, → astrolabe; hargâni, → universal.

cation
  کاتیون   
kâtion (#)

Fr.: cation   

Chemistry: A → positively charged → ion that is attracted to the → cathode in electrolysis. Any positively charged atom or group of atoms (opposed to → anion).

From cat-, → cathod, + → ion.

<< < -es -iv -ti 217 A s abe abs abs acc acc Ach act act ADa adi adv aff age Alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg arm art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B-t Bai Bal bar bar Be bed Bes BHB bif bim bin Bio bis bla ble blu bod Bol bor bou bra Bre bro Bul cag cal can Can car Car Cas cat CCD cel cen Cet cha cha che che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col Col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos cou cou cra cri cro cry cul cur cyc D r dar dat day dea dec dec dec def def deg del den dep des det deu dex dif dif dif dim dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom dos dou dri Dum dus dyn dyn ear eas ecl Edd eff Ein eje ele ele ele ele eli emb emi Enc ene ens eph epo equ equ eru eth Eul eve evo exc exc exi exo exp exp ext ext fab fai Fan Fea fem fer fie fil fir fis fla flo flu foc for for Fou fra fre fre fro fun G r Gal gal gam gas Gau gel gen geo geo geo Gho gla goa gra gra gra gra gre Gre gro gyr had hal har har HD Hea Hel hel Her her hid hig Hip hom hor hot Hub Hub hun hyd hyd hyg Hyp ice ide ima imm imp imp inc ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins int int int int int int int int int inv ion iro ise iso iso Jab jet Jov Jur Kel Kep kil kit Kui Lag lam lan Lar Lat law lea lem lep Li- lig lim lin lin lio lit loc lod lon Lor low Lum lun Lup Lyn mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man mar mas mas mat Max mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min mir mix mod mol mom Moo mor mov mul mur nab nar nat neb neg nes neu New New nig nod non non non Nor nua nuc nul Nun OBC obl obs occ oct off Ohm on- ope opp opt opt orb orb org Ori ort Ost out ove p m Pal par par par par Pas pat Peg Peo per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro pse pul Pup Qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rap ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot rur Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel sem sen Ser Sey Sha she sho sid sig sim sin sip ske sli smo soc sol sol sol sol sol sou spa spa spe spe spe spe Spi spi spo squ sta sta sta sta Ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub sub sun sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn T-s tar Tei tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur Tyc Typ ult unb und uni uni unr upp Urs vac van Var veg Ven ver vib vio vir vis vol VY war wat wav WC8 Web wes whi win WN1 wob wri X-r yoc zen Zhe > >>