An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13009 Search : far
categorize
  کتاگریدن   
katâgoridan

Fr.: catégorise   

To place in a → category or class.

category; → -ize.

category
  کتاگر   
katâgor

Fr.: catégorie   

1) A group of things that are similar in some way.
2a) Philo.: In Aristotelian logic, any of the ten different ways (substance, quantity, quality, relation, place, time, position, possession, doing, and undergoing) in which the subject of a proposition may relate to its predicate. For example, the proposition "All men are mortal" belongs to the Category of Quality since it tells us what "all men" are like, namely mortal.
2b) Philo.: In Kant's system, any of the twelve (four groups of three each) pure concepts of the understanding that constitute necessary conditions of experience and correspond with the classes of judgements treated in formal logic. According to Kant, the categories are results of the mind's activity, and are distinguished from sensation. The categories have, furthermore, like space and time relations, a peculiar universality. They are, in other words, a priori.
3) Math.: An entity consisting of a class of objects and a class of → morphisms between those objects that satisfy certain properties.

M.Fr. catégorie, from L.L. categoria, from Gk. kategoria, from kategorein "to speak against; to accuse, assert, predicate," from kata "down, against, back," → cata-, + agorein "to speak before public assembly," from agora "marketplace, public square" (from ageirein "to gather"); cognate with L. grex, gregis "herd, troop, crowd;" Skt. gramah- "heap, crowd, community;" Old Icelandic kremja "to squeeze;" O.E. crammian "to cram;" Latvian  gùrste "bundle of flask;" Polish garnac "to gather;" Russ. gorst' "cupped hand;" cf. Pers. gor-, gal-, etc., as below; PIE base *ger- "to gather."

Katâgor, from katâ-, → cata-, + gor- "to gather," ultimately from PIE *ger-, as above. We put forward that the following Iranian words derive from the above PIE base *ger- "to gather":
goruh "crowd, troop, band;"
gallé (conversion of r to l) "herd, flock;"
jarra (Laki) "group; stick bundle;"
gerd in gerd âvardan "to collect, bring together" probably not related to gerd "round, circular;"
xalam (štiyâni) "herd, flock;"
xelima (Qâyeni) "herd;"
korand, korang "a ring made by hunters or troops;"
korka (Laki) "bundle of harvested ears of wheat;"
gola, golé "bundle of hair; bunch"
gola-gâh "place of gathering;"
gurâb "market place in a village, agora;"
There are dozens of villages all-over Iran named Gorâb, Gurâb, Gela, Gola, Gala and their combinations with other words (e.g. Galadeh, Galazan, Galavand) that probably refer to places of gathering.
One can also mention village names such as Agora, Gore, Gere(kalâ), Garaku, Oger, and so on in Mâzandarân;
Khotanese (prefixed ham-) gris "to assemble."

category theory
  نگره‌ی ِ کتاگر   
negare-ye katâgor

Fr.: théorie des catégories   

A theory that deals with the concept of → category and generalizes the → set theory.

category; → theory.

cathode
  کاتود   
kâtod (#)

Fr.: cathode   

A negatively charged electrode that is the source of electrons in an electrical device.

Gk. kathodos "descent, a way down," from kata- "down" + hodos "way, path."

cathode ray
  پرتو ِ کاتودی   
partw-e kâtodi (#)

Fr.: rayon cathodique   

A kind of ray generated at the cathode in a vacuum tube, by the electrical discharge.

cathode; →ray.

catholic astrolabe
  اسطرلاب ِ هرگانی   
ostorlâb-e hargâni

Fr.: astrolabe catholique   

Same as → universal astrolabe.

Catholic, M.E., from Fr. catholique, from Church Latin catholicus "universal, general," from Gk. katholikos, from phrase kath' holou "on the whole, in general," from kata "about," → cata-, + genitive of holos "whole," → holo-; → astrolabe.

Ostorlâb, → astrolabe; hargâni, → universal.

cation
  کاتیون   
kâtion (#)

Fr.: cation   

Chemistry: A → positively charged → ion that is attracted to the → cathode in electrolysis. Any positively charged atom or group of atoms (opposed to → anion).

From cat-, → cathod, + → ion.

catoptric light
  نور ِ بازتابیک   
nur-e bâztâbik

Fr.: lumière catoptrique   

Light that is reflected from a curved surface mirror.

catoprtics; → light.

catoptric system
  راژمان ِ بازتابیک   
râžmân-e bâztâbik

Fr.: système catoprtique   

An optical system in which the light is reflected only.

catoprtics; → system.

catoptrics
  بازتابیک   
bâztâbik

Fr.: catroptique   

The area of → optics which treats of the laws and properties of light reflected from reflective surfaces.

From Gk. katoptrikos, from katoptron "mirror" (from kat-, → cata-, + op- "to see," → optics, + -tron suffix of instruments) + -ikos, → -ics.

Bâztâbik, from bâztâb, → reflection, + -ik, → -ics.

cattle
  دام   
dâm (#)

Fr.: bétail   

Domesticated quadrupeds held on a farm, especially oxen, bulls, and cows.

M.E. catel, from M.Fr. catel "property" (O.Fr. chatel), from M.L. capitale "property, stock," from L. capitalis "principal, chief," literally "of the head," from caput, → head.

Dâm, originally "nonferocious animal," especially "herbivorous quadrupeds such as cows, sheep, etc.;" Mid.Pers. dâm "creature, creation;" O.Pers. dā- "to put, make, create;" Av. dā- "to place, put, create," dāmay- "creation; creating; creator," dāmi.dāt- "creating the creation;" cf. Skt. dhā- "to put, to place;" Gk. tithemi "to put, to place;" L. facere "to do;" O.H.G. tuon; E. to do.

Cauchy's equation
  هموگش ِ کوشی   
hamugeš-e Cauchy

Fr.: équation de Cauchy   

A relationship between the → refractive index (n) and the wavelength of light (λ) passing through a medium. It is commonly stated in the following form: n = A + B2 + C4, where A, B, and C are constants characterizing the medium. The two-component Cauchy equation is n = A + B2, from which the dispersion becomes dn/dλ = -2B3 showing that dispersion varies approximately as the inverse cube of the wavelength. The dispersion at 4000 A will be about 8 times as large as at 8000 Å.

Named after Augustin Louis Cauchy (1789-1857), French mathematician and physicist who found the first equation of dispersion in 1836; → equation.

Cauchy's theorem
  فربین ِ کوشی   
farbin-e Cauchy

Fr.: théorème de Cauchy   

If f(x) and φ(x) are two → continuous functions on the → interval [a,b] and → differentiable within it, and φ'(x) does not vanish anywhere inside the interval, there will be found, in [a,b], some point x = c, such that [f(b) - f(a)] / [φ(b) - φ(a)] = f'(c) / φ'(c).

Cauchy's equation; → theorem.

causal
  بناری، بنارمند   
bonârmand, bonâri

Fr.: causal   

Of, involving, or constituting a cause; indicative of or expressing a cause.

Adj. from → cause.

causal structure
  ساختار ِ بنارمند   
sâxtâr-e bonârmand

Fr.: structure causale   

In → special relativity, the causal relationship between → events involving a → light cone.

causal; → structure.

causality
  بنارمندی   
bonârmandi

Fr.: causalité   

The relationship between causes and effects

Causality, from → causal + -ity.

Bonârmandi, from bonârcause + -mand suffix denoting relation, affinity + -i noun forming suffix.

causality principle
  پروز ِ بنارمندی   
parvaz-e bonârmandi

Fr.: principe de causalité   

The principle that cause must always precede effect.

causality; → principle.

causation
  بنارش   
bonâreš

Fr.: relation de cause à effet   

1) The act or process of causing; the act or agency which produces an effect.
2) The relation of → cause to → effect.

Verbal noun from → cause.

causative
  بنارنده   
bonârandé

Fr.: causatif, causal, responsable   

1) Effective or operating as a cause or agent.
2) Grammar: Expressing → causation; specifically, being a linguistic form that indicates that the subject causes an act to be performed or a condition to come into being (Merriam-Webster.com).

Ultimately from L. causativus, → cause; → -ive.

cause
  ۱) بنار؛ ۲) بناریدن   
1) bonâr; 2) bonâridan

Fr.: 1) cause; 2) causer   

1) A → reason for an → action or → condition; something that brings about an → effect or a → result.
2) To be the cause of; bring about.

From L. causa "reason, purpose," of unknown origin.

Bonâr, from bon "basis, root, origin, ground", from Mid.Pers. bun "base, root, origin;" Av. buna- "ground" (cf. Skt. budhna- "ground, bottom, depth", L. fundus "bottom", PIE base *bhud-/*bhund-) + âr short form of âvar present stem of âvardan "to cause or produce; to bring," → production; compare with Ger. die Ursache "cause," from ur- "primal" + die Sache "thing, matter."

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- a p abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi ads aes Age Alb Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app app arb are ari art ass ast ast ast Atl ato ato Aug aut awa azi bac bal Bar Bar Bay bea Bep Bet BIC bij bin bio bir bla bla blu blu bol Boo bou Bq bre bri bub B[e cal cal can car car Cas cat cau cel cen Cer cha cha cha che chi CI cir cir cla cle clo clu co- cob coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos cou cov cra cri cro cry cum cur cyc d'A dar dat DC dea dec dec dec def def deh Del den dep des det deu dia dif dif dif dim dip Dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom dos dou dri Dum dus dyn dyn ear eas ecl Edd eff Ein eje ele ele ele ele eli emb emi Enc ene ens eph epo equ equ eru eth Eul eve evo exc exc exi exo exp exp ext ext Fab fai Fan fea fem fer fie fil fir fir fla flo flu foc For for fos fra fre fre fro fun g m Gal gal gal gas gau gel gen geo geo geo gho gla gno gra gra gra gra Gre Gre gro gyr had hal har Har HD hea hel hel Her Her Hic hig hip hol hor hos hov Hub hun hyd hyd Hyd hyp IC ide ill ima imp imp inc inc ind ind inf inf inf inf inj ins ins int int int int int int int int inv inv ion iro Isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur kel Kep kil Kle Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Mei Mer Mer met met Met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per pet pha Pho pho pho pho Pic Pis Pla pla pla pla Ple poa pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pra pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul puz qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea Rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret Rhe rid rig ris Roe Ros rot rub rut Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci sea sec sec see sel sem sen ser Sgr sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli smo soc sol sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spl spu sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str Str sub sub sub sul sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn sys Tam Tay tel ten Ter Tha the the the thi thr tib tid tim tok Tor tot tra tra tra tra Tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ ufo ult unc uni uni uni upl ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vil vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yea You zer zod > >>