An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
classical bulge
  کوژ ِ کلاسیک   
kuž-e kelâsik

Fr.: bulbe classique   

A → galaxy bulge that appears protruding from the disk plane when seen at an appropriate → inclination. Classical bulges are somewhat → spheroidal, featureless (no → spiral arms, → bars, → rings, etc.), contain mostly → old stars (not much dust or star-forming regions), and are kinematically hot, i.e. dynamically supported by the → velocity dispersion of their stars. Their → surface brightness profile follows the → de Vaucouleurs law. Currently, they are thought to form through → gravitational collapse or → mergers in violent events, inducing a fast → burst of star formation if gas is available. An example is the → Sombrero galaxy bulge (D. A. Gadotti, 2012, astro-ph/1208.2295).

classical; → bulge.

classical field theory
  نگره‌ی ِ کلاسیک ِ میدان   
negare-ye klâsik-e meydân

Fr.: théorie classique des champs   

The theory that studies distributions of → energy, → matter, and other physical quantities under circumstances where their discrete nature is unimportant. Classical field theory traditionally includes → Newtonian mechanics, Maxwell's → electromagnetic theory, and Einstein's theory of → general relativity. The main scope of classical field theory is to construct the mathematical description of → dynamical systems with an infinite number of degrees of freedom. The word "classical" is used in contrast to those field theories that incorporate → quantum mechanics (→ quantum field theory). Classical field theories are usually categorized as → non-relativistic and → relativistic.

classical; → field; → theory.

classical logic
  گوییک ِ کلاسیک   
guyik-e kelâsik

Fr.: logique classique   

The traditional logic in which → sets are sharply defined (→ crisp set) for example, the number of students registered for a course, or the names beginning with P in a given telephone directory. Classical logic also defines relations between sets of → propositions. Consider for example two sets: elephants and mammals, a simple proposition would be the assertion that all elephants are mammals, that is E ⊂ M, where E is the elephant set and M is the mammal set. The classical logic proposition is either true or false. Compare with → fuzzy logic.

classical; → logic.

classical mechanics
  مکانیک کلاسیک   
mekânik kelâsik (#)

Fr.: mécanique classique   

The branch of physical science which deals with the motions of bodies travelling at velocities that are very much less than that of light in a vacuum. Same as → Newtonian mechanics.

classical; → mechanics.

classical physics
  فیزیک ِ کلاسیک   
fizik-e kelâsik (#)

Fr.: physique classique   

Physics not taking into account → quantum mechanics or Einstein's → relativity theory. Classical physics includes the branches developed before the beginning of the 20th cantury: Mechanics, Acoustics, Optics, Thermodynamics, and Electricity and Magnetism. Most of classical physics is concerned with matter and energy on the normal scale of observation.

classical; → physics.

classical T Tauri star
  ستاره‌ی ِ T-گاو ِ کلاسیک   
setâre-ye T-Gâv-e kelâsik

Fr.: étoile T Tauri classique   

A → T Tauri star in which → accretion from a → circumstellar disk is responsible for ultraviolet and infrared excess emission and for a moderate to strong emission line spectrum superimposed on the photospheric spectrum. Classical T Tauri stars probably evolve into → weak-line T Tauri stars when their disks are fully accreted by the stars.

classical; → T Tauri star.

classification
  رده بندی   
radebandi (#)

Fr.: classification   

The systematic grouping of astronomical objects into categories on the basis of physical, morphological, or evolutionary characteristics.

Classification, from O.Fr., from classifier, from → class + -fier, from L. -ficare, root of facere "to make, do;" PIE base *dhe- "to put, to do" (cf. Skt. dadhati "puts, places;" Av. dadaiti "he puts," O.Pers. ada "he made," Gk. tithenai "to put, set, place."

Radebandi, from radé, → class, + bandi, verbal noun of bastan "to bind, shut; to get, acquire, incur," from Mid.Pers. bastan/vastan "to bind, shut;" Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie;" cf. Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten;" Ger. binden, E. bind, → band; PIE base *bhendh- "to bind."

clathrate
  کلاترات   
klâtrât

Fr.: clathrate   

A chemical substance in which a molecule of one compound fills a cavity within the crystal lattice of another compound. An example is clathrate hydrate, a special type of gas hydrate in which small molecules (typically gases) are trapped inside "cages" of hydrogen bonded water molecules. Large amounts of methane have been discovered both in permafrost formations and under the ocean floor. Similarly oceans contain large quantities of trapped CO2, which dissociate when the temperature rises sufficiently.

From L. clathratus, p.p. of clathrarer "to fit with bars," from clathra "bars, lattice," from Gk. kleithron " bar," from kleiein "to close."

clause
  بند   
band (#)

Fr.: clause   

1) Grammar: A syntactic construction containing a subject and predicate and forming part of a sentence or constituting a whole simple sentence.
2) A distinct article or provision in a contract, treaty, will, or other formal or legal written document (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from O.Fr. clause, from M.L. clausa "conclusion," used in the sense of classical L. clausula "the end, a closing, termination," also "end of a sentence or a legal argument," from clausa, from p.p. of claudere "to close, to shut, to conclude," → closure.

Band present stem of bastan "to close, to fasten, to bind," → closure.

Clausius equation
  هموگش ِ کلاؤزیوس   
hamugeš-e Clausius

Fr.: équation de Clausius   

A first-order improvement on the → ideal gas law that corrects for the finite volume of molecules.

After Rudolf Clausius (1822-1888), a German physicist and mathematician, → equation.

Clausius's postulate
  فراوس ِ کلاؤزیوس   
farâvas-e Clausius

Fr.: postulat de Clausius   

If heat flows by conduction from body A to another body B, then a transformation whose only final result is to transfer heat from B to A is impossible. Clausius's postulate is a formulation of the → second law of thermodynamics. It is also equivalent to → Kelvin's postulate.

Clausius equation; → postulate.

Clausius-Clapeyron equation
  هموگش ِ کلاؤزیوس-کلاپرون   
hamugeš-e Clausius-Clapeyron

Fr.: équation de Clausius-Clapeyron   

An approximation of the → Clapeyron equation for liquid-vapor equilibrium that incorporates the → ideal gas law and states that the logarithm of vapor pressure is inversely proportional to temperature.

Clausius equation; → Clapeyron equation.

clay
  رُس   
ros (#)

Fr.: argile   

A broad class of hydrous → silicate minerals that has the tetrahedral silicate groups linked in sheets. Clay commonly forms as a product of rock weathering. Deposits of phyllosilicates, such as chamosite and nontronite, recently identified on Mars are attributed to the action of liquid water in the past history of this planet.

O.E. clæg "stiff, sticky earth; clay," from PIE base *glei- "to stick together;" cf. Gk. gloios "sticky substance," L. glus, gluten "glue," O.Slav. glina "clay." The Pers. gel "clay, mud," Mid.Pers. gil "clay" may belong to this family.

Ros, variant rost "clay," of unknown origin.

clear
  رونه   
runé (#)

Fr.: clair   

1) Free from darkness, obscurity, or cloudiness.
2) Transparent; pellucid.
3) Without discoloration, defect, or blemish (Dictionary.com). → clear night.

M.E. clere, from O.Fr. cler, from L. clarus "clear, bright, distinct."

Runé, from Kurd. (Sorani) rûn "bright, clear," rûn kirdin "to explain," variant of rowšan, → bright.

clear night
  شب ِ رونه   
šab-e runé

Fr.: nuit claire   

A night sky without clouds, mist, or haze, atmospheric dust particles, and without city lights in which a sixth magnitude star is visible by naked-eye.

clear; → night.

clepsydras
  پنگان، پنگ   
pangân, pang

Fr.: clepsydre   

An ancient device for measuring time by marking the regulated flow of water through a small opening. A water clock.

L., from Gk. klepsudra, from kleptein "to steal" + hudor "water," PIE *wed- "water."

Pangân or pang was a clepsydra in Iran. It consisted of "a copper bason with a small hole in the bottom, for water in which it is placed to flow through, used for measuring time;" etymology unknown.

cliff
  تندان   
tondân (#)

Fr.: falaise   

A very high steep rock or ice face, especially one that runs along a coastline. → scarp.

M.E., O.E. clif (cf. O.S. clif, O.N. klif, O.H.G. klep, M.Du. klippe, Ger. Klippe "cliff, steep rock").

Tondân, from tond "swift, rapid, brisk," → scarp + -ân a suffix of nuance/relation.

climate
  کلیما، آب-و-هوا   
kelimâ, âb-o-havâ (#)

Fr.: climat   

The characteristic meteorological conditions (temperature, precipitation, and wind) and their extremes, of any place or region. In other words, weather patterns averaged over a given period of time to obtain a consistent pattern of the expected atmospheric conditions.

M.E. climat, from M.Fr. climat, from L. clima, climat- "region, slope of the Earth," from Gk. klima "region, zone," from base of klinein "to slope," thus "slope of the Earth from equator to pole," from PIE base *klei- "to lean," → inclination.

Kelimâ, loan from Fr., as above.
Âbohavâ, from âb, → water, + -o- "and" + havâ "weather" → air.

climatology
  کلیماشناسی   
kelimâšenâsi

Fr.: climatologie   

The scientific study of climates. More specifically, the analysis of weather condition trends over a relatively long period of time (past, present or future). Climatology is distinct from meteorology, which is associated with short-term weather system studies.

climate; → -logy.

clock
  ساعت   
sâat (#)

Fr.: horloge   

A device (not carried or worn) for measuring and showing the time. See also: → hour, → gnomon, → clepsydra.

M.E. clokke "clock with bells," from O.Fr. cloque "bell" (Fr. cloche, Du. klok, Ger. Glocke), M.L. clocca "bell," of Celtic origin.

Sâat from Ar.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>