An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- a p abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi ads aes Age Alb Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app app arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att Aur aut axi azi bac Bal Bar Bar Bay Bec Ber bet bic bij bin bio Bir bla Bla blu blu bol Boo bou bra Bre bro bug C r cal Cal can car Car Cas cat cau cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos Cou cou cow cre cri cro cry cur cut Cyg dam dar dat de deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dig dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis div don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ Equ esc eth Eur eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext eye fac fal Far fed fer fer fie fin fir fit fla flo flu fol for for Fou fra fre Fre fro fuz gai Gal Gal gam gas Gau gen gen geo geo geo gia glo gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I hai Ham har Hau hea hec hel hel her HES hie hig his hom hor hot Hub hum Huy hyd hyd hyl hyp ice ide ima imp imp imp inc ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iro irr iso iso ite jel Jou Jup kao Kep kil Kip Kra Lag Lam lan lar las law lea leg Leo lex lig lim lin lin lin lit Loc loc log Lor low lum lun lun Lym mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mec meg men mer met met met mic mic Mik min min mis mob mod mol mon moo mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ odd OH Ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai Pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phl pho pho pho pi pip Pla pla pla pla ple poa pol Pol pol pol pop pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul puz qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea Rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret Rhe rid rig ris Roe Ros rot rub rut Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci sea sec sec see sel sem sen ser Sh2 sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sol sol sol sol sol sou spa spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spo Squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub sub sum sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn T d tap tec tem ten tes the the the the thi thr tid tim tip ton tor tow tra tra tra tra tri tri tru tub tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unp upp urg V20 Van var veg vel ver vib vio vir vis Vol Vul wan wat wav WC4 wea wel whi Wil wis WNL wor X-r Yer Z s zer [C > >>

Number of Results: 12982 Search : far
co-orbital motion
  جنبش ِ هم‌مداری   
jonbeš-e ham-madâri

Fr.: mouvement co-orbital   

The motion of two or more bodies around the Sun on different orbits when it takes them the same amount of time to complete one revolution. There are three possible types of co-orbital motions of a small body associated with a planet: → tadpole orbits, → horseshoe orbits, and → quasi-satellite orbits.

co-orbital; → motion.

co-orbital satellite
  ماهواره‌ی ِ هم‌مدار، بنده‌وار ِ ~   
mâhvâre-ye ham-madâr, bandevâr-e ~

Fr.: satellite co-orbital   

Any of satellites which either share the same orbit or which occupy immediately adjacent orbits that change periodically as the satellites approach one another (Ellis et al., 2007, Planetary Ring Systems, Springer).

co-orbital; → satellite.

co-orbiting
  هم‌مداری؛ هم‌مدار   
ham-madâri; ham-madâr

Fr.: co-orbitage; c-orbitant, co-orbiteur   

The action or quality of a → co-orbiting asteroid.

From co- "together," → com- + → orbit + → -ing.

From ham- "together," → com- + madârorbit + -i noun suffix.

co-orbiting asteroid
  سیارک ِ هم‌مدار   
sayyârak-e ham-madâr

Fr.: astéroïde co-orbiteur   

An asteroid having a → co-orbital motion.

co-orbiting; → asteroid.

coagulate
  ماسیدن، رچیدن، لخته بستن   
mâsidan, rocidan, laxté bastan

Fr.: coaguler   

1) (v.int.) Generally, of liquids, to change into a thickened mass, curdle; congeal.
2) Biology, Medicine: of blood, to form a clot.
3) Physical chemistry: of colloidal particles, to flocculate or cause to flocculate.
4) Astrophysics: of dust grains in the interstellar medium and protoplanetary disks, to grow into larger entities. → dust coagulation.

Mâsidan "to coagulate, clot," originally "of milk, to turn into yogurt," mâst "clotted milk, yogurt;" Gilaki mas, Lori mâs, Kurd. mâzd, mâst, Sangesari must, Baluchi madhagh, mastagh; Mid.Pers. mâs- "to coagulate, become hard;" cf. Skt. mástu- "milk cream," Arm. macum "soar milk," macanim "to clot, congeal."
Rocidan from Lori roc "congealed," rocesse "to congeal, clot."
Laxté bastin lit. "coagulate into (solid) piece," from laxté "piece, part, portion," + bastan "to coagulate, congeal; to bind, shut" (Mid.Pers. bastan/vastan "to bind, shut," Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie," Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten," PIE *bhendh- "to bind," cf. Ger. binden, E. bind).

coagulation
  ماسش، رچش، لخته بندی   
mâseš, roceš, laxté bandi

Fr.: coagulation   

Verbal noun from → coagulate.
Physical chemistry: A separation or precipitation of particles from a dispersed state in a colloid solution.
Astrophysics: The mechanism by which dust grains grow into larger entities in the interstellar medium and protoplanetary disks. → dust coagulation.

Verbal noun from → coagulate.

coal
  زغال‌سنگ   
zoqâlsang (#)

Fr.: charbon, houille   

A black, hard mineral consisting of carbon and various carbon compounds. Coal is formed from the decomposition of ancient plants buried deep in the Earth's crust for millions of years. It is currently the most widely used substance to generate electricity and heat. Its combustion products are used as raw material for a variety of products including cement, asphalt, and plastics. Due to the harmful gases that it releases, the use of coal is constantly being reduced as alternative fuels are found.

M.E. cole, from O.E. col "charcoal, live coal;" (cf. O.Fr. kole, M.Du. cole, Du. kool, O.H.G. chol, Ger. Kohle, from PIE root *g(e)u-lo- "live coal" (cf. Irish gual "coal").

From zoqâl, → charcoal, + sang, → stone.

Coal Sack
  گونی ِ زغال   
Guni-ye Zoqâl (#)

Fr.: sac de charbon   

A prominent → dark nebula visible to the naked eye as a dark patch silhouetted against the starry band of → Milky Way in the Southern sky. It obscures an area of about 5 by 7 degrees on the sky and extends beyond the borders of → Crux into neighboring → constellations → Centaurus and → Musca. It lies at a distance of approximately 500 → light-years.

coal; sack, from M.E., from O.E. sacc, from L. saccus, from Gk. sakkos, of Semitic origin (cf. Heb. saq "sack").

Guni "sack;" zoqâl, → charcoal.

coalesce
  آهمیدن   
âhamidan

Fr.: fusionner   

To grow together; to come together so as to form one whole, to fuse. → merge; → fusion.

From L. coalescere, from co- + al-, stem of alere "to nourish, make grow" + -esce, from -escere, a suffix conveying an inchoative meaning.

Âhamidan, from â- nuance prefix + ham "together" (Av. hama- "similar, the same;" Skt. samah "even, level, similar, identical;" Gk. hama "together with, at the same time," homos "one and the same," PIE *samos "same," from base *sem- "one, together") + -idan infinitive suffix.

coalescence
  آهمش   
âhameš

Fr.: coalescence   

1) General: The act or state of growing together, as similar parts; the act of uniting by natural affinity or attraction; the state of being united.
2) Merging of the stars composing a → binary system after having undergone → supernova explosion. General relativity predicts that binary systems of → compact objects will emit energy in the form of → gravitational radiation, and that this loss of energy eventually will lead to the coalescence of the system.

Verbal noun from → coalesce.

coalescence model
  مدل ِ آهمش   
model-e âhameš

Fr.: modèle de coalescence   

A scenario for building up → massive stars through merging of → intermediate-mass protostars. It occurs in the cores of dense stellar clusters that have undergone core contraction due to rapid → accretion of gas with low → specific angular momentum. The required densities are, however, very high, 108 stars pc-3, which are extremely rare (Bonnell et al. 1998, MNRAS 298, 93).

coalescence; → model.

coast
  رهارفتن   
rahâraftan

Fr.: accoster   

To move without further use of propelling power. → coasting flight, → coasting Universe.

M.E. coste, from O.Fr., from L. costa "rib, side," cf. Mid.Pers. kust, kustag "side, direction; district," Mod.Pers. xost, xwast "a beaten road; island;" PIE *kost- "leg, bone."

Rahâraftan, from rahâ "free, set free" (O.Pers. rad- "to leave," Skt. rah-, rahati "separates, leaves," Av. razah- "isolation;" PIE *redh-) + raftan "to go, walk" (Mid.Pers. raftan, raw-, Proto-Iranian *rab/f- "to go; to attack").

coasting flight
  پرواز ِ رهارو   
parvâz-e rahârow

Fr.: vol d'accostage   

The unpowered flight of a spacecraft or missile after propulsion cutoff or between the burnout of one stage and the ignition of the next.

Coasting, verbal adjective from → coast; → flight.

coasting Universe
  گیتی ِ رهارو   
giti-ye rahârow

Fr.: Univers à densité critique   

A Universe whose density is just less than or equal to the critical value and expands forever with no change in the expansion rate.

Coasting, verbal adjective from → coast; → Universe.

coat
  اندودن   
andudan (#)

Fr.: revêtir, couvrir   

To → cover with a → thin  → layer of a → substance, as → aluminum over the → surface of a → mirror, → aluminize.

Verb from noun coat, from M.E. cote, from O.Fr. cote "coat, robe," from some Germanic source; cf. O.S. kot "woolen mantle," O.H.G. chozza "cloak of coarse wool," Ger. Kotze "a coarse coat," of unknown origin.

Andudan, variant andâyidan, from Mid.Pers. handudan, from O.Iranian *ham-dâvaya-, from ham- "together" + *dâvaya-, from dav- "to rub, clear," cf. Av. dav- "to clean, polish," Skt. dhâv-, PIE *dheu- "to shine".

Coathanger
  رخت‌آویز   
raxtâviz (#)

Fr.: amas du Cintre   

An open cluster of about 40 stars at the border of → Vulpecula and → Sagitta. It has an apparent size of about 1° and lies 420 → light-years away. Also called Collinder 399 and → Brocchi's Cluster. Six of its brighter stars, of sixth and seventh magnitude, are lined up in a nearly perfect row, from the center of which four stars form a hook to resemble the coathanger shape. To the naked eye, it appears as an unresolved patch first recorded by the Persian astronomer Sufi in A.D. 964. It was later rediscovered by Giovanni Battista Hodierna (1597-1660). The Coathanger shares roughly the same motion with several other clusters, including the → Pleiades.

coat; hanger, from hang, M.E. han(i)gen, fusion of O.E. hon "suspend" and hangian "be suspended;" also probably influenced by O.N. hengja "suspend" and hanga "be suspended" (cf. O.Frisian hangia, Du. hangen, Germ. hängen).

Raxtâviz, from raxt "clothes, garment, wearing apparel" + âviz "hang," → pendulum.

coating
  اندود   
andud (#)

Fr.: revêtement   

A → thin → layer of a → substance spread over a → surface.

Noun from → coat; → -ing.

cobalt
  کوبالت   
kobâlt (#)

Fr.: cobalt   

A silver gray, brittle, hard metallic → chemical element which is highly magnetic; symbol Co. → Atomic number 27; → atomic weight 58.9332; → melting point 1,495°C; → boiling point about 2,870°C; → specific gravity 8.9 at 20°C. It is used in many → alloys, and in particular its compounds have been used since ancient times (Egyptians, Persians, Greeks) to produce a blue color in glass and ceramics. Cobalt was discovered in 1735 by the Swedish chemist Georg Brandt (1694-1768). It has several radioactive isotopes, including Co-56, half-life about 77 days, Co-57, 272 days, Co-58, 71 days, Co-60, 5.27 years. The → light curve of → type I supernovae is explained by the radioactive decay of nickel-56 through cobalt-56 to iron-56.

From Ger. kobold "evil spirits or goblins," who were superstitiously thought to cause trouble for miners, since the mineral contained arsenic which injured their health and the metallic ores did not yield metals when treated with the normal methods.

cobweb
  کرو، کاتنه   
karu (#), kâtené (#)

Fr.: toile d'arraignée   

A web spun by a spider to entrap its prey; a single thread spun by a spider; something resembling a cobweb; anything finespun, flimsy, or insubstantial (Dictionary.com).

M.E. coppeweb, derivative of O.E. -coppe "spider" in atorcoppe "poison spider;" + → web.

Karu "cobweb, web," variants kari, kartané, kartiné, kârtanak, kârtané, kare tan (all in Dehxodâ), (Malâyeri, Hamadâni) kâtena, (Gilaki) kârtang, (Kermâni) kerâš, (Qêyeni) kalaš, (Qomi) kârye, (Tabari) kel, kuli, (Yazdi) kare, from *kar-, *kâr-, *kel- "to weave;" cf. (Ormuri, in Pakistan, Afghanistan) gal-/galôk- "to weave;" PIE base *ker- "to weave; rope."

Cocoon Nebula (IC 5146)
  میغ ِ پیله   
miq-e pilé

Fr.: nébuleuse du cocon   

An emission nebula located about 3,000 light-years away toward the → constellation  → Cygnus. It is thought to be a region of active → star formation.

Cocoon, from Provençal Fr. coucoun, from O.Fr. coque "egg shell, nut shell," L. coccum "berry," from Gk. kokkos "berry, seed;" → star; → nebula.

Miq, → nebula; pilé "the silkworm's cocoon; a purse", cf. Skt. patta- "woven silk."

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- a p abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi ads aes Age Alb Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app app arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att Aur aut axi azi bac Bal Bar Bar Bay Bec Ber bet bic bij bin bio Bir bla Bla blu blu bol Boo bou bra Bre bro bug C r cal Cal can car Car Cas cat cau cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos Cou cou cow cre cri cro cry cur cut Cyg dam dar dat de deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dig dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis div don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ Equ esc eth Eur eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext eye fac fal Far fed fer fer fie fin fir fit fla flo flu fol for for Fou fra fre Fre fro fuz gai Gal Gal gam gas Gau gen gen geo geo geo gia glo gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I hai Ham har Hau hea hec hel hel her HES hie hig his hom hor hot Hub hum Huy hyd hyd hyl hyp ice ide ima imp imp imp inc ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iro irr iso iso ite jel Jou Jup kao Kep kil Kip Kra Lag Lam lan lar las law lea leg Leo lex lig lim lin lin lin lit Loc loc log Lor low lum lun lun Lym mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mec meg men mer met met met mic mic Mik min min mis mob mod mol mon moo mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ odd OH Ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai Pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phl pho pho pho pi pip Pla pla pla pla ple poa pol Pol pol pol pop pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul puz qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea Rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret Rhe rid rig ris Roe Ros rot rub rut Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci sea sec sec see sel sem sen ser Sh2 sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sol sol sol sol sol sou spa spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spo Squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub sub sum sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn T d tap tec tem ten tes the the the the thi thr tid tim tip ton tor tow tra tra tra tra tri tri tru tub tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unp upp urg V20 Van var veg vel ver vib vio vir vis Vol Vul wan wat wav WC4 wea wel whi Wil wis WNL wor X-r Yer Z s zer [C > >>