An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
Coulomb force
  نیروی ِ کولن   
niru-ye Coulomb (#)

Fr.: force de Coulomb   

An attractive or repulsive → electrostatic force between objects bearing electric charge, as described by → Coulomb's law. If the charges are of opposite sign, then the force is attractive; if thy are of the same sign, the force is repulsive.

Coulomb; → force.

Coulomb gauge
  گز ِ کولن   
gaz-e Coulomb

Fr.: jauge de Coulomb   

The optimum → gauge for steady fields, defined by: ∇.A = 0, where A is the → magnetic vector potential. Also called transverse gauge.

Coulomb; → gauge.

Coulomb interaction
  اندرژیرش ِ کولن   
andaržireš-e Coulomb

Fr.: interaction de Coulomb   

The reciprocal force between two or more → charged particles according to → Coulomb's law.

coulomb; → interaction.

Coulomb pressure
  فشار ِ کولن   
fešâr-e Coulomb

Fr.: pression de Coulomb   

The repulsive interaction due to the → Coulomb energy between two ions. If the ionic charge is Z, then the Coulomb potential energy is Z2e2/a, where a is some typical separation between the ions. The Coulomb pressure is expected to become important when the ratio ΓC = Z2e2/akT is much larger than 1. In that case, Coulomb effects dominate those of → thermal agitation and the gas settles down into a → crystal.

Coulomb; → pressure.

Coulomb's law
  قانون ِ کولن   
qânun-e Coulomb (#)

Fr.: loi de Coulomb   

The electrical force between two charged objects is directly proportional to the product of the quantity of charge on the objects and inversely proportional to the square of the separation distance between the two objects

coulomb; → law.

count
  ۱) شماردن؛ ۲) شمار   
1) šomârdan (#); 2) šomâr (#)

Fr.: 1) compter; 2) coup   

1) (v.) To enumerate; reckon up; calculate; compute.
2) (n.) A single ionizing event registered by a device such as a → Geiger counter.
The indication of the total number of ionizing events registered by a device.

From O.Fr. conter "add up," from L. computare, → compute.

Šomârdan, from Mid.Pers. ôšmârtan, ôšmurtan "to reckon, calculate, enumerate, account for," from Av. base (š)mar- "to have in mind, remember, recall," pati-šmar- "to recall; to long for," hišmar-, cf. Skt. smar- "to remember, become aware," smarati "he remembers," L. memor, memoria, Gk. mermera "care," merimna "anxious thought, sorrow," martyr "witness."

countdown
  فروشمارش   
forušomâreš

Fr.: compte à rebours   

1) The backward counting in fixed time units from the initiation of a project, as a rocket launching, with the moment of firing designated as zero.
2) The final preparations made during this period (Dictionary.com).

count; → down.

counter
  شمارگر   
šomârgar (#)

Fr.: compteur   

Generally,a device for indicating a number or amount.
Any of various instruments for detecting ionizing radiation and for registering counts. → Geiger counter.

M.E. countour, from O.Fr. conteor, from L. computator, from computa(re) "to compute" + → -tor suffix forming personal agent nouns mainly from verbs.

Šomârgar, from šomâr present tense stem of šomârdan "to count," → count + agent suffix -gar.

counter-
  پاد-   
pâd- (#)

Fr.: contre-   

A prefix used with the meanings "against, contrary, opposite." → contra-.

M.E. countre-, from O.Fr. contre-, from L. contra "opposite, against;" PIE base *kom- "beside, near, by, with."

Pâd- "contrary to; against; opposing," variants pâ- (pâsox, pâzahr, pâhang, → response), paž- (pažvâk, → echo, pažâvand "the bar of a door or a gate, door lock"), baž- (bažkam, → forbidden), pat- (patvâz, → correspond), pa- (panâh, padid), from Mid.Pers. pât-, from O.Pers. paity "agaist, back, opposite to, toward, face to face, in front of," Av. paiti, akin to Skt. práti "toward, against, again, back, in return, opposite," Pali pati-, Gk. proti, pros "face to face with, toward, in addition to, near;" PIE *proti.

counterbalance
  پاتراز   
pâtarâz

Fr.: contrebalance   

An equal weight, power, or influence acting in opposition.

counter-; → balance.

counterclockwise
  پادساعت‌سو   
pâdsâ'atsu (#)

Fr.: en sens inverse des aiguilles d'une montre   

In a direction opposite to the rotating hands of a clock.

From counter- "contrary; opposite; opposing," + → clockwise.

Pâdsâ'atsu, from pâd-, → counter-, + sâ'atsu, → clockwise.

counterexample
  پادنمونه   
pâdnemuné

Fr.: contre-exemple   

Logic: An individual case or instance that falsifies a universal generalization. A counterexample to an → argument is a situation in which the → premises are → true, but the → conclusion is → false. For example, "All dogs are mammals" (true). "All cats are mammals" (true). "Therefore, all cats are dogs." (false).

counter-; → example.

counterflow
  پادتچان   
pâdtacân

Fr.: contreflot   

The movement of a fluid in the opposite direction to a fluid flowing in the same cross section of a turbulent medium.

counter-; → flow.

counterglow
  پادفروغ   
pâdforuq

Fr.: gegenschein   

Same as → gegenschein.

counterpart
  همتا   
hamtâ (#)

Fr.: contrpartie   

A person or thing that corresponds to or has the same function as another person or thing in a different place or situation (OxfordDictionaries.com).
electromagnetic counterpart, → optical counterpart, → radio counterpart.

M.E., from O.Fr. contrepartie, from contre "facing, opposite," → counter-, + partie "copy of a person or thing," originally feminine p.p. of partir "to divide."

Hamtâ "counterpart, resembling, equal," from ham- "together, with; same, equally, even," → com-, + "fold, plait, ply; piece, part," also a multiplicative suffix; Mid.Pers. tâg "piece, part."

counterweight
  پارسنگ   
pârsang (#)

Fr.: contrepoids   

A weight that balances another weight.

counter-; → weight.

Pârsang "a make-weight," from pâr-, a variant of pâd-, → counter-, + sang a variant of sanj, sanjidan "to measure; compare, put in balance," → object; alternatively, pârsang "a piece of stone," from pâr, short for pâré "piece, part," + sang, → stone, meaning "weight."

country
  ۱) کشور؛ ۲) روستا   
1) kešvar (#); 2) rustâ (#)

Fr.: pays   

1) A nation or state; the territory of a nation or state.
2) An area or expanse outside large urban areas; the countryside; rural area.

M.E. contre, contree, from O.Fr. contree, from V.L. (terra) contrata "(land) lying opposite," or "(land) spread before)," derived from L. contra "against, opposite," → contra-.

1) Kešvar "country; clime;" Mid.Pers. kišwar "region, clime, continent;" Av. karšvar-, from karš- "to furrow," karšu- "tilled ground."
2) Rustâ, → countryside.

countryside
  روستا   
rustâ (#)

Fr.: campagne   

A rural area; he inhabitants of a countryside.

country; → side.

Rustâ, from Mid.Pers. rôstâk, rôtastâk "village, district, river-bed;" loaned into Armenian rotstak, ərotastak "district."

couple
  ۱) جفت، ۲) جفت‌نیرو؛ ۳) جفتیدن، جفسر کردن   
1) joft (#), 2) joftniru (#); 3) joftidan (#), jafsar kardan

Fr.: 1, 2) couple; 3) coupler   

1) General: Two items of the same kind; a pair; something that joins or connects two things together; a link.
2) A system of two equal and opposite, parallel, but not → collinear forces acting upon a body.
3) To fasten, join together; connect. See also → coupled, → coupled system, → charge-coupled device, → coupling, → decouple, → galvanic couple, → Nasireddin couple, → pair; → parity, → thermocouple.

1) joft "pair, couple," Lori, Laki jeft, Qâyeni jof, Tabari jeft, Mid.Pers. yuxt "pair, couple," Av. yuxta- "a team of horses," from yaog- "to yoke, harness, put to; to join, unite," infinitive yuxta, Mid.Pers. jug, ayoxtan "to join, yoke," Mod.Pers. yuq "yoke," cf. Skt. yugam "yoke," Gk. zygon "yoke," zeugnyanai "to join, unite," L. jugare "to join," from jugum "yoke," P.Gmc. *yukam, E. yoke; PIE *yeug- "to join."
2) joftniru, from joft as above + niru, → force.
3) Joftidan, infinitive from joft, → couple; jafsar kardan infinitive from jafsar, → coupled, + kardan "to do, to make."

coupled
  جفسر، جفتیده   
jafsar, joftidé

Fr.: couplé   

Joined together, connected by a link. → coupled system, → charge-coupled device.

Adj. from → couple.

Jafsar "connected, joined pair," in Tâleši, from jaf, variant of joft, as above + sar "head," literally "joined by head" (Mid.Pers. sar, Av. sarah- "head," Skt. siras- "head," Gk. kara "head," keras "horn," Mod.Pers. sarun "horn," L. cerebrum "brain;" PIE *ker- "head, horn"); joftidé adj./p.p. from joftidan, → couple.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>