An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12974 Search : far
critical opalescence
  اپالستی ِ پرژنی   
opâlesti-ye paržani

Fr.: opalescence critique   

The strong → scattering that occurs in a fluid near the → critical point. Large density fluctuations bring about inhomogeneities of all sizes. This results in the scattering of light at all wavelengths giving a milky appearance to the fluid.

critical; → opalescence.

critical velocity
  تندای ِ پرژنی   
tondâ-ye paržani

Fr.: vitesse critique   

1) Velocity of → fluid through a pipe at which the motion changes from → laminar to → turbulent flow.
2) Same as → break-up velocity.

critical; → velocity.

criticism
  ۱)، ۲) پرژنش، پرژنکاری، پرژنگری؛ ۳) پرژن   
1), 2) paržaneš, paržankâri, paržangari; 3) paržan

Fr.: critique   

1) The act of passing judgment as to the merits of anything.
2) The act or art of analyzing and evaluating or judging the quality of a literary or artistic work, musical performance, art exhibit, dramatic production, etc.
3) A critical comment, article, or essay; → critique (Dictionary.com).

critic; → -ism.

criticize
  پرژنیدن   
paržanidan

Fr.: critiquer, faire la critique de   

To judge or discuss the merits and faults of.

critic; → -ize.

critique
  پرژن   
paržan

Fr.: critique   

1) An article or essay criticizing a literary or other work; detailed evaluation; review.
2) A criticism or critical comment on some problem, subject, etc.
3) The art or practice of criticism (Dictionary.com).

M.E. critick, changed to Fr. spelling, from M.Fr. critique, from L. criticus "a judge, literary critic," from Gk. kritikos "able to make judgments," from krinein "to sift, separate, decide;" cognate with Pers. qarbâl "sieve," → sieve of Eratosthenes, from PIE base *krei- "to sift, distinguish."

Paržan, from Tâti Karingâni puržen, Zazaki pirožin, Tabari parjan "sieve," related to parvizan "sieve" (Laki vežonen "to sift"); ultimately from Proto-Ir. *pari-uaicana-, from the base *uaic- "to separate, sift, select, sort out;" Av. vaēc- "to select, sort out, sift;" Mod.Pers. bixtan, biz- "to sift."

crop
  ۱) کاشار؛ ۲) کاشاردن   
1) kâšâr; 2) kâšârdan

Fr.: 1) récolte; 2) récolter, moissonner   

1a) Cultivated plants or agricultural produce, such as grain, vegetables, or fruit, considered as a group (e.g. a wheat crop, farmers harvest crop).
1b) The total yield of such produce in a particular season or place.
2) To harvest (TheFreeDictionary.com).

M.E. crop, croppe, from O.E. cropp "head or top of a sprout or herb, any part of a medicinal plant except the root," also "bird's craw," cognate with O.H.G. kropf, Du. krop "crop."

Kâšâr, literally "yield of cultivating," from kâš, contratction of kâšt-, kâštan "to cultivate, plant, sow," + âr contraction of âvar present stem of âvardan "to bring; to cause, produce," → format.

cross
  ۱، ۲) چلیپا، خاج؛ ۳) گذشتن   
1, 2) calipâ (#), xâj (#); 3) gozštan (#)

Fr.: 1,2) croix; 3) traverser   

1a) The Southern Cross, → Crux. 1b) A figure or pattern formed by the intersection of two lines.
2a) (adj.) Involving interchange; reciprocal.
2b) Lying or passing crosswise; intersecting.
3) To move or go across (something); traverse or intersect.

M.E. cros, from O.E., probably from Old Norse kross, from O.Ir. cros, from L. crux "stake, cross."

Calipâ, loanword from Aramaic.
Xâj loanword from Arm.
Gozaštan, Mid.Pers. vitartan "to pass," Sogdian wytr "to go," O.Pers./Av. vitar- "to put across," from prefix vi- "away, apart," + tar- "to cross over" (Skt. tr- "to cross over," tarati "crosses," cf. Av. taro, Skt. tirah "through, beyond," L. trans "beyond," Ger. durch, E. through; PIE base *tr- "through").

cross correlation
  هم‌باز‌آنش ِ چلیپایی، ~ خاجی   
hamvbâzâneš-e calipâyi, ~ xâji

Fr.: corrélation croisée   

In radio astronomy, the process performed by a → cross correlator or the result of the process.

cross; → correlation.

cross correlator
  هم‌باز‌آن‌گر ِ چلیپایی، ~ خاجی   
hambâzângar-e calipâyi, ~ xâji

Fr.: corrélateur   

In radio interferometry, a device that multiplies together the signals received by each pair of antennas in an array and performs several operations on the signal (filtering out the noise added to the signal by the receiver electronics, correcting for the Doppler shift and geometric delay due to the position and motion of the antennas). The correlated signal, corresponding to the spatial frequency given by the distance between the two antennas, is then combined with the other spatial frequency to reconstruct the map of the source.

cross; → correlator.

cross disperser
  پاشنده‌ی ِ چلیپایی، ~ خاجی   
pâšande-ye calipâyi, ~ xâji

Fr.:   

A device producing cross dispersion.

cross; → disperser.

cross dispersion
  پاشش چلیپایی، ~ خاجی   
pâšeš-e calipâyi, ~ xâji

Fr.: dispersion croisée   

Dispersion of a light beam by using two dispersing elements (grating, grism), one for separating spectral orders, the other for resolving spectral features within an order.

cross; → dispersion.

cross identification
  ایدانش ِ چلیپایی   
idâneš-e calipâyi

Fr.: identification croisée   

The identification of an object in a data base or catalog and matching it with the same object identified in another catalog.

cross; → identification.

cross product
  فر‌آورد ِ برداری   
farâvard-e bordâri

Fr.: produit vectoriel   

Same as → vector product.

cross; → product.

cross reference
  بازبرد ِ دوسویه، ~ چندسویه   
bâzbord-e dosuyé (#), ~ candsuyé (#)

Fr.: référence croisée   

Reference from one part or element of a book or data catalog to something in another for further information.

cross; → reference.

cross section
  سکنج‌گاه   
sekanjgâh

Fr.: 1) section plane; 2) section efficace   

1) Math: The intersection of a plane with a geometric figure, usually at right angles to an axis of symmetry.
2) Physics: A quantity that expresses the effective area that a given particle presents as a target to another incident particle, giving a measure of the probability that the incident particle will induce a particular atomic or nuclear reaction. Also called collision cross section. The cross section has the dimensions of a surface. In nuclear and particle physics, the commonly used units for the cross section are the barn and cm2.

In classical mechanics, the cross section for the collision of a point particle with a hard sphere is just be the surface of a section through the middle of the sphere. This explains the name "cross section." → cross; → section.

cross-dispersing spectrograph
  بیناب‌نگار با پاششِ چلیپا‌یی، ~ ~ ~ خاجی   
binâbnegâr bâ pâšeâš-e chalipaayi, ~ ~ ~ xâji

Fr.: spectrographe à dispersion croisée   

A spectrograph that utilizes cross dispersion.

cross; → dispersion; → spectrograph.

crosshairs
  تاربست   
târbast (#)

Fr.: réticule   

A system of two perpendicular fine threads of wire placed in the focus of the eyepiece of an optical instrument and used as a sighting reference.

cross; → hair.

Târbast, from târ + bast. The first component târ "thread, string, wire," cognate with tanidan, tan- "to spin, twist, weave," → tension; the second component bast "to bind; to arrange" (past stem of bastan, from Mid.Pers. bastan/vastan "to bind, shut," → band.

crossing time
  زمان ِ گذر   
zamân-e gozar (#)

Fr.: temps de traversée   

A concept used for checking the stability of a group of mass such as a → cluster of galaxies or a → star cluster. The crossing time is given by tc = R/V, where R is the average projected radial distance of group members from the center of mass and V the Gaussian dispersion in internal velocity.

cross; → time.

crow
  زاغ   
zâq (#)

Fr.: corneille   

Any of several large oscine birds of the genus Corvus, of the family Corvidae, having a long, stout bill, lustrous black plumage, and a wedge-shaped tail (Dictionary.com).

O.E. crawe, imitative of the bird's cry; cf. O.Saxon kraia; Du. kraai; O.H.G. chraja; Ger. Kräke; L. corvus "a raven," Gk. korax; cognate with Pers. kalâq, → raven.

Zâq "crow, raven," of unknown origin.

crowd
  ۱) چپیره؛ ۲) چپیریدن   
1) capiré (#); 2) capiridan

Fr.: 1) foule, multitude; 2) entasser   

1a) A large number of persons gathered closely together; throng.
1b) Any large number of persons.
1c) Any group or set of persons with something in common.
2) To gather in large numbers; throng; swarm (Dictionary.com).
crowded, → crowded field, → crowding.

M.E. crowden, from O.E. crudan "to press, crush;" akin to M.Du. cruden "to press, push," M.H.G. kroten "to press, oppress," Norwegian kryda "to crowd."

Capiré (Dehxodâ), variants cabiré, capar "crowd, troop, people gathered for something." Capiré, from capir, from capar, ultimately from Proto-Ir. *ui-par-, from *par- "to fill;" cf. Av. pər- "to fill, stuff with," pouru- "full, much, many;" O.Pers. paru- "much, many;" Pers. anbâr "ricks, storehouse," por, bol "full, much, many;" PIE *pel- "to fill;" → population.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- a p abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi ads aes Age Alb Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app app arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att Aur aut axi azi bac Bal Bar Bar Bay Bec Ber bet bic bij bin bio Bir bla Bla blu blu bol Boo bou bra Bre bro bug C r cal Cal can car Car Cas cat cau cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che cho cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- cod coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cop Cor cor cor cos cos Cou cou CP cre cri cro CSP cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec dee def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu doc doo dou dow Dru dus dwa dyn Dys Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ Era est eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext eye fac fal Far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fit fla flo flu fol for for Fou fra fre Fre ful fuz Gal gal Gal gam gas Gau gen gen geo geo geo gib glo gos gra gra gra gra Gre gri gui H I hal Ham har Haw hea hei hel Hel her het hie hig Hob hom Hor hot Hub hum Huy hyd hyd hyp hyp ico if ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins int int int int int int int int int inv ion iro ise iso iso Jab jet Jov Jur Kee Kep kil Kis kry Lag lam lan Lar lat law lea lem lep Li lig lim lin lin lin lit loc loc lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lym mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec meg Mer Mer met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod MOL mon mor mov mul mur N66 Nap nat nea neg Ner neu New New nic nod non non non nor nov nuc nul num O-t obl obs obt och off Ohm on- opa Oph opt opt ora orb ord Ori ort osc out ove ozo pal pan par par par par pat pec pen per per per per per Pfu pha pho pho pho phy pie pla Pla Pla pla pla Plo poi pol pol pol pol por pos pot pow pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro Pro pro Pru pul pul Pyt qua qua qua qua quo rad rad rad rad rad rad ram Ran rat re- rea rec rec red red ref ref reg Reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho rif Rin Rob Rom rot rot rul S D Sai san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky Slo sno sof sol sol sol sol sor sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr SS sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str stu sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swe syn syn tad Tau tel ten ter tet the the the thi Tho thr tid tim Tit top tot tra tra tra tra tre tri Tro tru tur TW Typ U G ult unb und uni uni uns ura use val vap vec Vel Ven Ver Vie Vir vir vis vol W V war wav wav wea Wei Wez wid win WN3 Wol Wro Y d YOR zen zir > >>