An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12942 Search : far
cross
  ۱، ۲) چلیپا، خاج؛ ۳) گذشتن   
1, 2) calipâ (#), xâj (#); 3) gozštan (#)

Fr.: 1,2) croix; 3) traverser   

1a) The Southern Cross, → Crux. 1b) A figure or pattern formed by the intersection of two lines.
2a) (adj.) Involving interchange; reciprocal.
2b) Lying or passing crosswise; intersecting.
3) To move or go across (something); traverse or intersect.

M.E. cros, from O.E., probably from Old Norse kross, from O.Ir. cros, from L. crux "stake, cross."

Calipâ, loanword from Aramaic.
Xâj loanword from Arm.
Gozaštan, Mid.Pers. vitartan "to pass," Sogdian wytr "to go," O.Pers./Av. vitar- "to put across," from prefix vi- "away, apart," + tar- "to cross over" (Skt. tr- "to cross over," tarati "crosses," cf. Av. taro, Skt. tirah "through, beyond," L. trans "beyond," Ger. durch, E. through; PIE base *tr- "through").

cross correlation
  هم‌باز‌آنش ِ چلیپایی، ~ خاجی   
hamvbâzâneš-e calipâyi, ~ xâji

Fr.: corrélation croisée   

In radio astronomy, the process performed by a → cross correlator or the result of the process.

cross; → correlation.

cross correlator
  هم‌باز‌آن‌گر ِ چلیپایی، ~ خاجی   
hambâzângar-e calipâyi, ~ xâji

Fr.: corrélateur   

In radio interferometry, a device that multiplies together the signals received by each pair of antennas in an array and performs several operations on the signal (filtering out the noise added to the signal by the receiver electronics, correcting for the Doppler shift and geometric delay due to the position and motion of the antennas). The correlated signal, corresponding to the spatial frequency given by the distance between the two antennas, is then combined with the other spatial frequency to reconstruct the map of the source.

cross; → correlator.

cross disperser
  پاشنده‌ی ِ چلیپایی، ~ خاجی   
pâšande-ye calipâyi, ~ xâji

Fr.:   

A device producing cross dispersion.

cross; → disperser.

cross dispersion
  پاشش چلیپایی، ~ خاجی   
pâšeš-e calipâyi, ~ xâji

Fr.: dispersion croisée   

Dispersion of a light beam by using two dispersing elements (grating, grism), one for separating spectral orders, the other for resolving spectral features within an order.

cross; → dispersion.

cross identification
  ایدانش ِ چلیپایی   
idâneš-e calipâyi

Fr.: identification croisée   

The identification of an object in a data base or catalog and matching it with the same object identified in another catalog.

cross; → identification.

cross product
  فر‌آورد ِ برداری   
farâvard-e bordâri

Fr.: produit vectoriel   

Same as → vector product.

cross; → product.

cross reference
  بازبرد ِ دوسویه، ~ چندسویه   
bâzbord-e dosuyé (#), ~ candsuyé (#)

Fr.: référence croisée   

Reference from one part or element of a book or data catalog to something in another for further information.

cross; → reference.

cross section
  سکنج‌گاه   
sekanjgâh

Fr.: 1) section plane; 2) section efficace   

1) Math: The intersection of a plane with a geometric figure, usually at right angles to an axis of symmetry.
2) Physics: A quantity that expresses the effective area that a given particle presents as a target to another incident particle, giving a measure of the probability that the incident particle will induce a particular atomic or nuclear reaction. Also called collision cross section. The cross section has the dimensions of a surface. In nuclear and particle physics, the commonly used units for the cross section are the barn and cm2.

In classical mechanics, the cross section for the collision of a point particle with a hard sphere is just be the surface of a section through the middle of the sphere. This explains the name "cross section." → cross; → section.

cross-dispersing spectrograph
  بیناب‌نگار با پاششِ چلیپا‌یی، ~ ~ ~ خاجی   
binâbnegâr bâ pâšeâš-e chalipaayi, ~ ~ ~ xâji

Fr.: spectrographe à dispersion croisée   

A spectrograph that utilizes cross dispersion.

cross; → dispersion; → spectrograph.

crosshairs
  تاربست   
târbast (#)

Fr.: réticule   

A system of two perpendicular fine threads of wire placed in the focus of the eyepiece of an optical instrument and used as a sighting reference.

cross; → hair.

Târbast, from târ + bast. The first component târ "thread, string, wire," cognate with tanidan, tan- "to spin, twist, weave," → tension; the second component bast "to bind; to arrange" (past stem of bastan, from Mid.Pers. bastan/vastan "to bind, shut," → band.

crossing time
  زمان ِ گذر   
zamân-e gozar (#)

Fr.: temps de traversée   

A concept used for checking the stability of a group of mass such as a → cluster of galaxies or a → star cluster. The crossing time is given by tc = R/V, where R is the average projected radial distance of group members from the center of mass and V the Gaussian dispersion in internal velocity.

cross; → time.

crow
  زاغ   
zâq (#)

Fr.: corneille   

Any of several large oscine birds of the genus Corvus, of the family Corvidae, having a long, stout bill, lustrous black plumage, and a wedge-shaped tail (Dictionary.com).

O.E. crawe, imitative of the bird's cry; cf. O.Saxon kraia; Du. kraai; O.H.G. chraja; Ger. Kräke; L. corvus "a raven," Gk. korax; cognate with Pers. kalâq, → raven.

Zâq "crow, raven," of unknown origin.

crowd
  ۱) چپیره؛ ۲) چپیریدن   
1) capiré (#); 2) capiridan

Fr.: 1) foule, multitude; 2) entasser   

1a) A large number of persons gathered closely together; throng.
1b) Any large number of persons.
1c) Any group or set of persons with something in common.
2) To gather in large numbers; throng; swarm (Dictionary.com).
crowded, → crowded field, → crowding.

M.E. crowden, from O.E. crudan "to press, crush;" akin to M.Du. cruden "to press, push," M.H.G. kroten "to press, oppress," Norwegian kryda "to crowd."

Capiré (Dehxodâ), variants cabiré, capar "crowd, troop, people gathered for something." Capiré, from capir, from capar, ultimately from Proto-Ir. *ui-par-, from *par- "to fill;" cf. Av. pər- "to fill, stuff with," pouru- "full, much, many;" O.Pers. paru- "much, many;" Pers. anbâr "ricks, storehouse," por, bol "full, much, many;" PIE *pel- "to fill;" → population.

crowded
  چپیرناک، چپیریده   
capirnâk, capiridé

Fr.: encombré, bondé   

Filled so that there is little or no room for anyone or anything else. → crowded field.

Past participle of → crowd.

crowded field
  میدان ِ چپیرناک   
meydân-e capirnâk

Fr.: champ encombré   

An area on the sky where a large number of objects, commonly stars, are seen gathered together, usually as revealed by imaging.

crowded; → field.

crowding
  چپیرش، چپیرناکی   
capireš, capirnâki

Fr.: encombrement   

1) The state or action of filling a particular place in large numbers.
2) For a → field of view, state of containing a large number of objects.

Verbal noun of → crowd.

crowdsourcing
  چپیره‌خنی   
capiré-xani

Fr.: crowdsourcing   

The process of procuring needed services by soliciting a large group of people outside the demanding company, society, or institute. Two examples of crowdsourcing in astronomy involve → variable star studies and search for → meteorites.

Combination of → crowd and → outsourcing.

crown glass
  کرون، شیشه‌ی ِ ~   
crown, šiše-ye ~ (#)

Fr.: crown, crown-glass   

An optical, alkali-lime glass which is harder than → flint glass, and has a lower → index of refraction and lower → dispersion. It is used in the production of → compound lenses.

Such named because of the crown-like shape given to the blank after the process of blowing the glass; M.E. coroune, from O.Fr. corone, from L. corona "crown," originally "wreath, garland;" cf. Gk. korone "anything curved, kind of crown;" → glass.

Crussard curve
  خم ِ کروسار   
xam-e Crussard

Fr.: courbe de Crussard   

A curve, on the pressure versus specific volume plane, representing the locus of all the theoretically possible states that can be attained by the → detonation products of an → explosive. The Crussard curve relates to the → Hugoniot curve through a translation caused by the chemical energy liberated during the detonation. The Crussard curve consists of several portions characterizing various burning regimes: detonations (strong and weak), a forbidden region, and → deflagrations (weak and strong).

Named after the French engineer Jules Louis Crussard (1876-1959), who conducted several pioneering studies in mining techniques, in particular on shock waves (Ondes de choc et onde explosive, Bulletin de la Société de l'industrie minérale de Saint-Etienne, 4e série, tome VI, 1907); → curve.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou cra cre cro cru cub cur cyc Cyn dar dat day de- dec dec dec def def deg del den dep Des det deu dex die dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom Dor dou Dra duc dus dwa dyn e-t ear ecl eco eff Ein Ein ele ele ele ele ele elv emi emp ene enr epa epo equ equ Err Eta Eul eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext Fab fai fan fau fel fer fic fil fin fir fla fli flu foc for for for fra fre fre fro fun fuz Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel hep Her hex hig Him hol hor hos hov Hub Hun hyd hyd hyd hyp IC ide ill Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ini inp ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion Iri irr iso iso ite jel Jou JUp Kan Kep Kil kin Kra Lag Lam Lan Lar las law lea Leg Leo lev lig lim lin lin lin lit loc loc log Lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mec meg men mer met met Met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur n-b nan nat nea neg Ner neu new New NGC noc nom non non nor nou nuc nuc num O-p obl obs obs oce Of? ohm omn opa Oph opt opt or orb ord Ori ort osc out ove ozo pal pan par par par par pat pec pen per per per per per Pfu pha pho pho pho phy pie pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol pol pol por pos pot pow pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro Pro pro Prz pul pum Pyx qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rhy rif Rin rob Rom rot rot rum S s Sak San sav sca Sch Sch scr sec sec SED sei sel sem seq sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma SNR Sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spo squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste sto sto str str sub sub sub sum sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn syz tan tea tem ten ter the the the the thi thr tid til tip tom tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ ult umb unc uni uni unk upp urg uvb val var Veg vel ver vib vio vir vis Voi vow wan wat wav WC wea wel whi Wil wir WNh wor X-r Yer Z s zer [C > >>