An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13070 Search : far
crepe ring
  حلقه‌ی ِ پرنیان   
halqe-ye parniyân

Fr.: anneau de crèpe   

An alternative name for Saturn's C ring, which is a wide but faint ring located inside the B Ring. Discovered in 1850 by William and George Bond, it was termed "crepe" because it seemed to be composed of darker material than the brighter A and B Rings.

Crepe, from Fr. crêpe, from O.Fr. crespe, from L. crispa, fem. of crispus "curled;" → ring.

Halqé, → ring; parniyân "a kind of fine painted silk, a mantle of such silk."

crepuscular rays
  پرتوهای ِ نیمتابی   
partwohâ-ye nimtâbi

Fr.: rayons crépusculaire   

Rays of sunlight that appear to diverge from a single point in the sky when parallel columns of light, partially blocked by clouds, pour through gaps in clouds. They result from light scattering and an optical effect called perspective.

Crepuscular "of, pertaining to, or resembling twilight," from L. crepuscul(um), "twilight, dusk," from crepus-, from creper "dusky, dark."

Partowhâ "rays," from partow, → ray; nimtâbi "of, pertaining to, or resembling nimtâb" → twilight.

crescent
  هلال، برن   
helâl (#), barn (#)

Fr.: croissant   

The figure of the → Moon or an → inferior planet when it is less than half illuminated, as seen by the → observer.

From O.Fr. croissant, from L. crescentum, p.p. of crescere "to grow, increase; spring forth," from PIE base *ker- "to grow" (cf. Gk. kouros "boy," kore "girl," Pers. dialects Laki korr "son, boy," Lori kor "son, boy," Malayeri kora "boy," Kordi kur "son," Arm. serem "bring forth," serim "be born").

Helâl from Ar. Barn "the new moon," from Proto-Iranian *aparnâ- "unfilled," from negation prefix → a- + parnâ- "full;" cf. Mid.Pers. purr mâh "full moon," Av. pərənô-mâh- "full moon," Skt. purna-mâs- "full moon;" → full; → moon.

crescent Moon visibility
  دیاری ِ هلال ِ ماه   
diyâri-ye helâl-e mâh

Fr.: visibilité du croissant lunaire   

The first sighting of the → New Moon after its → conjunction with the Sun. Although the date and time of each New Moon can be computed exactly, the visibility of the lunar → crescent as a function of the → Moon's age depends upon many factors and cannot be predicted with certainty. The sighting within one day of New Moon is usually difficult. The crescent at this time is quite thin, has a low surface brightness, and can easily be lost in the → twilight. Generally, the lunar crescent will become visible to suitably-located, experienced observers with good sky conditions about one day after New Moon. However, the time that the crescent actually becomes visible varies from one month to another. The visibility depends on sky conditions and the location, experience, and preparation of the observer. Ignoring atmospheric conditions, the size and brightness of the lunar crescent depend on the → elongation which in turn depends on several factors: 1) The Moon's elongation at New Moon (the elongation of the Moon at New Moon is not necessarily 0). 2) The speed of the Moon in its elliptical orbit. 3) The distance of the Moon, and 4) The observer's location (parallax). The combined effect of the first three factors gives geocentric elongation of the Moon from the Sun at an age of one day which can vary between about 10 and 15 degrees. This large range of possible elongations in the one-day-old Moon is critical (US Naval Observatory).

crescent; → moon; → visibility.

crescent width
  پهنای ِ هلال، ~ برن   
pahnâ-ye helâl, ~ barn

Fr.: largeur de croissant   

The width of the lit area of the → Moon measured along the Moon's diameter.

crescent; → width.

crest
  ستیغ   
setiq (#)

Fr.: crête   

The highest point or upper part of a wave.

From O.Fr. creste "tuft, comb," from L. crista "tuft, plume; rooster's comb."

Setiq "summit; anything standing upright," from O.Pers./Av. sta- "to stand, stand still; set," Mod.Pers. istâdan "to stand" (cf. Skt. sthâ- "to stand," Gk. histemi "put, place, weigh," stasis "a standing still," L. stare "to stand") + adj. suffix -iq, variants -ig, -ik, → -ics.

Cretaceous
  گچاسا   
Gacâsâ

Fr.: Crétacé   

A period of → geologic time which began at the end of the → Jurassic period approximately 145 million years ago and extended to approximately 65 million years ago.

From L. cretaceus, from cret(a) "chalk, clay," + → -aceous, because the geological remains of this period contain heightened chalk deposits.

Gacâsâ, from gac "chalk," Mid.Pers. gac + -âsâ, → -aceous.

Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event
  رویداد ِ خاموشی ِ گچاسا-پارینزاد   
ruydâd-e xâmuši-ye Gacâsâ-Pârinzâd

Fr.: extinction Crétacé-Tertiaire   

The → mass extinction event that destroyed the dinosaurs and a majority of other species on Earth approximately 65 million years ago. This event is believed to have been the impact of a 10 km-size → asteroid or → comet nucleus and its aftereffects, including a severe → impact winter. The collision would have released the energy equivalent to 100 million megatonnes (teratonnes) of → TNT, i.e. more than 109 times the energy of the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945. Same as the → Cretaceous-Tertiary event.

Cretaceous; → Paleogene; → extinction; → event.

Cretaceous-Tertiary event
  رویداد ِ K-T   
ruydâd-e K-T (#)

Fr.: événement K-T   

See → Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event.

K, representing the "→ Cretaceous period," and T the "→ Tertiary;" → event.

crew
  کرن   
koran

Fr.: équipage, équipe   

A group of persons acting or working together.

M.E. crewe "augmentation, reinforcement, body of soldiers," from M.Fr. crue, from O.Fr. creue "an increase, recruit, military reinforcement," from p.p. of creistre "grow," from L. crescere "grow, arise," → crescent.

Koran, variants korand, korang "a troop, a circle of people" (Dehxodâ).

crime
  بزه   
bazah (#)

Fr.: crime   

An action or an instance of negligence that is deemed injurious to the public welfare or morals or to the interests of the state and that is legally prohibited (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from O.Fr. crimne, from L. crimen "charge, indictment, accusation; offense."

Bazah, from Mid.Pers. bazag "crime, misdeed," bazagkâr "evil-doer," Parthian bzg "evil, wicked."

criminal
  ۱) بزهی؛ ۲) بزه‌کار   
1) bazahi; 2) bazahkâr

Fr.: criminel   

1) Of the nature of or involving crime.
2) A person guilty or convicted of a crime.

L. criminalis, → crime; → -al.

crisis
  پرژنه   
paržané

Fr.: crise   

A decisive stage or turning point in the course of something, especially in a sequence of events or an acute disease.

M.E., from Latinized from of Gk. krisis "turning point in a disease," literally "judgment, selection," from krinein "to separate, decide, judge;cf. " L. cribrum "sieve," crimen "judgment, crime;" → critique.

Paržané, from paržan, present stem of paržanidan "to separate, sift, → critique," + a suffix of relation.

crisp
  توج   
tuj

Fr.: net   

1) Notably sharp, clear-cut, and clear.
2) Noticeably neat (Merriam-Webster.com).

M.E, from O.E., from L. crispus "curled," cognate with Walsh crych "curly."

Tuj (Kurmanji Kurd.) variant of tiz, → sharp.

crisp set
  هنگرد ِ توج   
hangard-e tuj

Fr.: ensemble net   

A classical set that allows only full membership or no membership at all for its elements, as contrasted with a → fuzzy set. Crisp set can be viewed as a restricted case of the more general fuzzy set concept.

criterion
  سنجیدار   
sanjidâr (#)

Fr.: critère   

A standard or rule that can serve as basis for a judgment or decision.

From Gk. kriterion "means for judging, standard," from krites "judge," from krinein "to separate, distinguish, judge." L. cribrum "sieve" *krei- "to sieve, discriminate, distinguish."

Sanjidâr verbal noun from sanjid- past tense stem of sanjidan "to compare; to measure" (Mid.Pers. sanjidan "to weigh," from present tense stem sanj-, Av. θanj- "to draw, pull;" Proto-Iranian *θanj-) + suffix -âr.

critic
  پرژنکار، پرژنگر   
paržankâr, paržangar

Fr.: critique   

A person who judges, evaluates, or criticizes.

M.E., from M.Fr. critique, from L. criticus "a judge, literary critic," → critique.

Paržangar, from paržan present stem of paržanidan, "criticize", → critique, + -kâr, -gar suffixes of agent nouns, → -or.

critical
  پرژنی   
paržani

Fr.: critique   

1) Of or pertaining to → critics or → criticism.
2) Of, relating to, or being a state or level at which a significant change takes place (Dictionary.com).

critic; → -al.

critical angle
  زاویه‌ی ِ پرژنی   
zâviyeh-ye paržani

Fr.: angle critique   

Angle of incidence of light proceeding from a denser medium toward a thinner, at which grazing refraction occurs (angle of refraction 90°).

critical; → angle.

critical Bonnor-Ebert mass
  جرم ِ پرژنی ِ بونور-ابرت   
jerm-e paržani-ye Bonnor-Ebert

Fr.: masse critique de Bonnor-Ebert   

The upper value of mass that a → Bonnor-Ebert sphere must have in order that → hydrodynamic equilibrium be maintained. This → critical mass is given by: Mcrit = 1.18 (a4/G3/2)Pext-1/2, where a = (kT/m)1/2 is the isothermal → sound speed inside the sphere, G is the → gravitational constant, and Pext the pressure of the external medium (see, e.g., F. H. Shu, 1977, ApJ 214, 488).

critical; → Bonnor-Ebert mass.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut aut axi Baa bal Bal bar bar bea beh Bes bia big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo Cal cal Can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CGS cha cha che che chr cir cir cis cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos Cou cou cov cre cri cro cry cur cut Cyg DA dar dat de deb dec dec ded def def dei dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dig Dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis div dom dou dow dri dur dus dyn dyn ear eav ecl Edd eff Ein Ekm ele ele ele ele ell emb emi enc ene ent eph equ equ equ eru eth eup eve EX exc exe exi exo exp ext ext ext fab fai far Fec fem fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu foc for for Fou fra fre fre fro fun G r Gal gal gam gas Gau gel gen geo geo geo Gho gla goa gra gra gra gra gre Gre gro gyr had hal har har HD Hea Hel hel Her her hid hig hip hol hor hos hov Hub Hun hyd hyd hyd hyp IC ide ill ima imp imp inc inc ind ind inf inf inf inf inj InS ins int int int int int int int int int inv ion iro ise iso iso ite jet Jou Jup kap Kep kil Kip Kra Lag Lam Lan Lar las law lea Leg Leo lev lig lim lin lin lin lit loc loc log Lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea med men mer Mes met met mic Mic Mie Mil min mis mJy mod mol mon moo mot mul mul mut nad nas nat neb neg net neu New New nig Noe non non non Nor nov nuc nul num OB obl obs occ Ock off Ohm on- ope opi opt opt orb orb ord Ori ort osm out ove ozo pal pan par par par par pat pec pen per per per per per Pfu pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran Ras Ray rea rec rec rec red red ref reg reg rel rel rel rep res res res res Reu rhe Rie rig ris Roe Ros rot Rud ryd Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci Sea sec sec see sel sem sen ser Sey Sha she sho sid sig sim sim sin ske sle smo Sob sof sol sol sol sol sou Sou spa Sp spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver ver vin vir vis Vog von wal wat wav wax wea wei Whi wil win WN7 wor X-r Yar You zer zod > >>