An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13009 Search : far
cross identification
  ایدانش ِ چلیپایی   
idâneš-e calipâyi

Fr.: identification croisée   

The identification of an object in a data base or catalog and matching it with the same object identified in another catalog.

cross; → identification.

cross product
  فر‌آورد ِ برداری   
farâvard-e bordâri

Fr.: produit vectoriel   

Same as → vector product.

cross; → product.

cross reference
  بازبرد ِ دوسویه، ~ چندسویه   
bâzbord-e dosuyé (#), ~ candsuyé (#)

Fr.: référence croisée   

Reference from one part or element of a book or data catalog to something in another for further information.

cross; → reference.

cross section
  سکنج‌گاه   
sekanjgâh

Fr.: 1) section plane; 2) section efficace   

1) Math: The intersection of a plane with a geometric figure, usually at right angles to an axis of symmetry.
2) Physics: A quantity that expresses the effective area that a given particle presents as a target to another incident particle, giving a measure of the probability that the incident particle will induce a particular atomic or nuclear reaction. Also called collision cross section. The cross section has the dimensions of a surface. In nuclear and particle physics, the commonly used units for the cross section are the barn and cm2.

In classical mechanics, the cross section for the collision of a point particle with a hard sphere is just be the surface of a section through the middle of the sphere. This explains the name "cross section." → cross; → section.

cross-dispersing spectrograph
  بیناب‌نگار با پاششِ چلیپا‌یی، ~ ~ ~ خاجی   
binâbnegâr bâ pâšeâš-e chalipaayi, ~ ~ ~ xâji

Fr.: spectrographe à dispersion croisée   

A spectrograph that utilizes cross dispersion.

cross; → dispersion; → spectrograph.

crosshairs
  تاربست   
târbast (#)

Fr.: réticule   

A system of two perpendicular fine threads of wire placed in the focus of the eyepiece of an optical instrument and used as a sighting reference.

cross; → hair.

Târbast, from târ + bast. The first component târ "thread, string, wire," cognate with tanidan, tan- "to spin, twist, weave," → tension; the second component bast "to bind; to arrange" (past stem of bastan, from Mid.Pers. bastan/vastan "to bind, shut," → band.

crossing time
  زمان ِ گذر   
zamân-e gozar (#)

Fr.: temps de traversée   

A concept used for checking the stability of a group of mass such as a → cluster of galaxies or a → star cluster. The crossing time is given by tc = R/V, where R is the average projected radial distance of group members from the center of mass and V the Gaussian dispersion in internal velocity.

cross; → time.

crow
  زاغ   
zâq (#)

Fr.: corneille   

Any of several large oscine birds of the genus Corvus, of the family Corvidae, having a long, stout bill, lustrous black plumage, and a wedge-shaped tail (Dictionary.com).

O.E. crawe, imitative of the bird's cry; cf. O.Saxon kraia; Du. kraai; O.H.G. chraja; Ger. Kräke; L. corvus "a raven," Gk. korax; cognate with Pers. kalâq, → raven.

Zâq "crow, raven," of unknown origin.

crowd
  ۱) چپیره؛ ۲) چپیریدن   
1) capiré (#); 2) capiridan

Fr.: 1) foule, multitude; 2) entasser   

1a) A large number of persons gathered closely together; throng.
1b) Any large number of persons.
1c) Any group or set of persons with something in common.
2) To gather in large numbers; throng; swarm (Dictionary.com).
crowded, → crowded field, → crowding.

M.E. crowden, from O.E. crudan "to press, crush;" akin to M.Du. cruden "to press, push," M.H.G. kroten "to press, oppress," Norwegian kryda "to crowd."

Capiré (Dehxodâ), variants cabiré, capar "crowd, troop, people gathered for something." Capiré, from capir, from capar, ultimately from Proto-Ir. *ui-par-, from *par- "to fill;" cf. Av. pər- "to fill, stuff with," pouru- "full, much, many;" O.Pers. paru- "much, many;" Pers. anbâr "ricks, storehouse," por, bol "full, much, many;" PIE *pel- "to fill;" → population.

crowded
  چپیرناک، چپیریده   
capirnâk, capiridé

Fr.: encombré, bondé   

Filled so that there is little or no room for anyone or anything else. → crowded field.

Past participle of → crowd.

crowded field
  میدان ِ چپیرناک   
meydân-e capirnâk

Fr.: champ encombré   

An area on the sky where a large number of objects, commonly stars, are seen gathered together, usually as revealed by imaging.

crowded; → field.

crowding
  چپیرش، چپیرناکی   
capireš, capirnâki

Fr.: encombrement   

1) The state or action of filling a particular place in large numbers.
2) For a → field of view, state of containing a large number of objects.

Verbal noun of → crowd.

crowdsourcing
  چپیره‌خنی   
capiré-xani

Fr.: crowdsourcing   

The process of procuring needed services by soliciting a large group of people outside the demanding company, society, or institute. Two examples of crowdsourcing in astronomy involve → variable star studies and search for → meteorites.

Combination of → crowd and → outsourcing.

crown glass
  کرون، شیشه‌ی ِ ~   
crown, šiše-ye ~ (#)

Fr.: crown, crown-glass   

An optical, alkali-lime glass which is harder than → flint glass, and has a lower → index of refraction and lower → dispersion. It is used in the production of → compound lenses.

Such named because of the crown-like shape given to the blank after the process of blowing the glass; M.E. coroune, from O.Fr. corone, from L. corona "crown," originally "wreath, garland;" cf. Gk. korone "anything curved, kind of crown;" → glass.

Crussard curve
  خم ِ کروسار   
xam-e Crussard

Fr.: courbe de Crussard   

A curve, on the pressure versus specific volume plane, representing the locus of all the theoretically possible states that can be attained by the → detonation products of an → explosive. The Crussard curve relates to the → Hugoniot curve through a translation caused by the chemical energy liberated during the detonation. The Crussard curve consists of several portions characterizing various burning regimes: detonations (strong and weak), a forbidden region, and → deflagrations (weak and strong).

Named after the French engineer Jules Louis Crussard (1876-1959), who conducted several pioneering studies in mining techniques, in particular on shock waves (Ondes de choc et onde explosive, Bulletin de la Société de l'industrie minérale de Saint-Etienne, 4e série, tome VI, 1907); → curve.

crust
  پوسته   
pusté (#)

Fr.: croûte   

Any more or less hard or stiff outer covering or surface. → Earth's crust.

M.E., from O.Fr. crouste from L. crusta "rind, crust, shell, bark;" cf. Skt. krud- "make hard, thicken;" Av. xruzdra- "hard;" Gk. kryos "icy cold," krystallos "ice, crystal;" Lett. kruwesis "frozen mud;" O.H.G. hrosa "ice, crust;" O.E. hruse "earth;" PIE base *kreus- "to begin to freeze, form a crust."

Pusté, → shell.

Crux
  چلیپا   
Calipâ (#)

Fr.: Croix   

The Southern Cross. A small but brilliant → constellation in the southern hemisphere, at 12h 30m right ascension, 60° south declination. Also known as → Southern Cross. The constellation contains four bright stars so situated that they depict the extremities of a Latin cross. Abbreviation Cru; genitive Crucis.

L. crux "cross, gibbet" is a rendering of the Gk. stauros "an upright stake or pole," in the Vulgate, the Latin translation of the Bible attributed to Saint Jerome at the end of the fourth century A.D.

Calipâ, loanword from Aramean.

cryogenics
  زمزاییک، زمزایی   
zamzâyik (#), zamzâyi (#)

Fr.: cryogénie   

A branch of physics that studies the methods of producing very low temperatures (below 150 °C) and the behavior of materials and processes at those temperatures.

From cryo- "freezing" + -gen(y) "having to do with production" + -ics.
Cryo-, from Gk. kryos "icy cold," krystallos "ice, crystal," PIE base *kreus- "to begin to freeze, form a crust;" cf. L. crusta "crust, shell, bark," Skt. krud- "make hard, thicken;" Av. xruzdra- "hard," Lett. kruwesis "frozen mud;" O.H.G. hrosa "ice, crust;" O.E. hruse "earth."
-geny, from Gk. geneia, from genes "born," cf. Av. zan- "to bear, give birth to a child, be born," infinitive zazâite, zâta- "born," cf. Skt. janati "begets, bears," L. gignere "to beget," PIE base *gen- "to give birth, beget."
-ics.

Zamâzâyik, from zam "cold (weather)" + zâyi "generating" + -ik.
Mod.Pers. zam "cold," Mid.Pers. zam "winter," Av. zimô "winter," Skt. hima- "cold, frost," Ossetic zymæg/zumæg "winter," Gk. xeimon "winter," L. hiems "winter," Lith. ziema "winter," PIE *gheim- "snow, winter."
Zâyi, from zâ- present tense stem of zâdan "to give birth," Mid.Pers. zâtan, Av. zan- "to bear, give birth to a child, be born," infinitive zazâite, zâta- "born," cf. Skt. janati "begets, bears," L. gignere "to beget," PIE base *gen- "to give birth, beget," as above.
-ics.

cryostat
  زمپا   
zampâ (#)

Fr.: cryostat   

An apparatus for maintaining an enclosed area at a stable low temperature especially below 0°C.

Cryostat, from cryo- "freezing," → cryogenics + suffix → -stat.

crystal
  بلور   
bolur (#)

Fr.: cristal   

A solidified substance in which the constituent atoms, ions, or molecules form a three-dimensionally periodic arrangement.

O.E. cristal "clear ice, clear mineral," from O.Fr. cristal, from L. crystallum "crystal, ice," from Gk. krystallos, from kryos "frost," from PIE base *kreus- "to begin to freeze, form a crust," → cryogenics.

Bolur, from Mid.Pers. bêlûr "crystal," Manichean Parthian bylwr, maybe of Indian origin, Pali veluriya- "a precious stone;" cf. Skt. vaidurya-, perhaps related to Tamil veliru, vilar "to become pale," or to the southern Indian city Velur, modern Belur. The Mid.Pers. word is perhaps the carrier between the Indian word and the Gk. beryllos, which has given rise to L. beryllus, O.Fr. beryl, E. beryl "the beryllium aluminum silicate, Be3Al2Si6O18."

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- a p abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi ads aes Age Alb Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app app arb are ari art ass ast ast ast Atl ato ato Aug aut awa azi bac bal Bar Bar Bay bea Bep Bet BIC bij bin bio bir bla bla blu blu bol Boo bou Bq bre bri bub B[e cal cal can car car Cas cat cau cel cen Cer cha cha cha che chi CI cir cir cla cle clo clu co- cob coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos cou cov cra cri cro cry cum cur cyc d'A dar dat DC dea dec dec dec def def deh Del den dep des det deu dia dif dif dif dim dip Dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom dos dou dri Dum dus dyn dyn ear eas ecl Edd eff Ein eje ele ele ele ele eli emb emi Enc ene ens eph epo equ equ eru eth Eul eve evo exc exc exi exo exp exp ext ext Fab fai Fan fea fem fer fie fil fir fir fla flo flu foc For for fos fra fre fre fro fun g m Gal gal gal gas gau gel gen geo geo geo gho gla gno gra gra gra gra Gre Gre gro gyr had hal har Har HD hea hel hel Her Her Hic hig hip hol hor hos hov Hub hun hyd hyd Hyd hyp IC ide ill ima imp imp inc inc ind ind inf inf inf inf inj ins ins int int int int int int int int inv inv ion iro Isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur kel Kep kil Kle Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Mei Mer Mer met met Met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per pet pha Pho pho pho pho Pic Pis Pla pla pla pla Ple poa pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pra pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul puz qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea Rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret Rhe rid rig ris Roe Ros rot rub rut Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci sea sec sec see sel sem sen ser Sgr sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli smo soc sol sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spl spu sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str Str sub sub sub sul sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn sys Tam Tay tel ten Ter Tha the the the thi thr tib tid tim tok Tor tot tra tra tra tra Tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ ufo ult unc uni uni uni upl ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vil vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yea You zer zod > >>