An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dog Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn e-f Ear ecl eco edu eig Ein ela ele ele ele Ele elo emi emp ene Enl env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh Exo exp exp ext ext f(R fac fam fat fee Fer Fib fig fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre Fre fri fun fuz Gal gal gal Gam gau Gay gen Geo geo geo geo gim glo gov gra gra gra gra gre gro Gun hab hal han Har haz hea hel hel Hen Her het Hig hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind Ind inf inf inf inf inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv ion ion Irr iso iso iso jan jit Jul jus Kel ker kin kni La lam lan Lap las lat Lay Led Len let lif lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou low lum lun Lym M d Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man mar mas mas mat mea mea mec mem mer Mes met met mho mic Mie Mil min mis MKS MOd mol Mon moo mot mul mul myo nak Nas nat neb neg neu neu New New nit noi non non nor nor nuc nuc nul nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi pai Pan par par Par par pas Pav Pel per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy Pip Pla pla PLA pla ple plu pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pot Pra pre pre pre Pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul pur qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret RHB rid rig ris roc Ros rot rub Rut Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci Sea sec sec see sel sem sen set Sha sha shi shu sid sil sim sin SIS ski Slo smo Soc sol sol sol sol son sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi Spo squ sta sta sta sta Ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur Swa syn syn tab tar tel tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tit top tot tra tra TRA tra tre tri tri tru Tun Tus tym Typ ult unb und uni uni uns upp Urs vac van var Vei Ven ver vic Vir vir vis vol W 4 war wat wav wea wed wet wid win WN2 Wol wri xen yok zen zin > >>

Number of Results: 12955 Search : far
Draconids
  اژدهاییان   
eždahâiyân

Fr.: Draconides   

Two meteor showers with radiants in the constellation → Draco. One appears early in October and the other late in June.

Draconids, from → Draco constellation + → -ids suffix denoting "descendant of, belonging to the family of."

Eždahâyiyân, from eždahâ, → Draco, + -iyân-ids.

drag
  ۱) کره، ۲) وارانه؛ ۳) کریدن، کراندن   
1) kerré, 2) vârâné; 3) kerridan, kerrandan

Fr.: 1) traînée, entraînement; 2) traînée; 3) traîner   

1) General: The act of dragging or the state of being dragged.
2) Fluid mechanics: The → force that opposes the relative motion of an object through a → fluid. In → aeronautics, the component of aerodynamic force parallel to the relative wind tending to reduce the forward motion of the airplane. See also → lift; → thrust.
3) To pull or be pulled with force, especially along the ground or other surface.

From O.N. draga, O.E. dragan "to draw," from P.Gmc. *dragan "to draw, pull," from PIE base *dhragh- "to draw, drag on the ground" (cf. Skt. dhrajati "pulls, slides in," L. trahere "to pull," Rus. drogi "wagon."

Kerr, kerré, kerridan "drag," cf. Laki keronen, Hamadâni kerândan "to pull along, drag," Tâleši kernye, Tabari kərəš "to drag;" Lori, Hamadâni kerr "line, scratch;" related to Mid/Mod.Pers. kešidan, kašidan "to draw, protract, trail, drag, carry;" kâštan, keštan, kâridan "to cultivate, to plant, to make furrows;" Av. kar- "to strew seed, cultivate," kāraiieiti "cultivates," karš- "to draw (a furrow), till, plant;" cf. Skt. kar- "to scatter, strew, pour out," kars-, kársati "to pull, drag, plow;" Gk. pelo, pelomai "to move, to bustle;" PIE base kwels- "to plow."
Vârâné, from vâ-, opposition prefix, → de-, + râné, from rândan "to push, drive, cause to go" (causative of raftan "to go, walk, proceed," present tense stem row-, Mid.Pers. raftan, raw-, Proto-Iranian *rab/f- "to go; to attack").

Draine field
  میدان ِ درین   
meydân-e Draine

Fr.: champ de Draine   

A unit used to express the strength of → far ultraviolet (FUV) average → interstellar radiation field. It is equal to ~ 1.7 → Habing field.

Named after B. T. Draine, 1978, ApJS 36, 595.

Drake equation
  هموگش ِ دریک   
hamugeš-e Drake

Fr.: équation de Drake   

A probabilistic argument used to estimate the number of → intelligent, communicating → extraterrestrial civilizations in the → Milky Way galaxy. The Drake equation is:
N = R* . fp . ne . fl . fi . fc . L, where:
N = the number of → civilizations in our Galaxy with which → communication might be possible,
R* = the average rate of → star formation in our Galaxy,
fp = the fraction of those stars that have → planets,
ne = the average number of planets that can potentially support → life per star that has planets,
fl = the fraction of planets that could develop life at some point,
fi = the fraction of planets with life that actually go on to develop intelligent life,
fc = the fraction of civilizations that develop a technology that releases detectable signs of their existence into space,
L = the length of time for which such civilizations release detectable signals into space.
The first three terms of the equation have been successfully investigated by astronomers and are to some extent known. In contrast, values for the last four are very speculative. Drake himself estimates that N might be as high as 10,000. Carl Sagan was more optimistic, and came up with the value of a million or more for N. These estimates may be too optimistic. A pessimistic choice of parameters leads to N smaller than 1, which means that we might be the only technically sophisticated civilization in the Galaxy.

Frank Donald Drake (1930-); → equation.

dredge-up
  برونکشید   
borunkašid

Fr.: dragage, remontée   

A process by which the nucleosynthesis products inside a star are drawn to upper layers of the star. → first dredge-up; → second dredge-up; → third dredge-up.

From M.E. (Scots) dreg-, O.E. draeg- (in drægnet "dragnet"), akin to dragan "to draw" + up.

Birunkašid, past stem of birun kašidan, from birun "out, the outside" (Mid.Pers. bêron, from "outside, out, away" + rôn "side, direction," Av. ravan- "(course of a) river") + kašidan "to draw," Mid.Pers. kašitan, Av. karš- "to draw," Skt. kars-, kársati "to pull, drag, plough," Gk. pelo, pelomai "to be busy, to bustle."

Dresden codex
  دستنوشت ِ درسدن   
dastnevešt-e Dresden (#)

Fr.: codex de Dresden   

A pre-Colombian Maya manuscript consisting of numerous calendar and astronomical data, probably dating from the 12th century. It seems that it is an updated copy of a document from the period of the old Maya Empire (4th-9th centuries). It contains a table which covers over 32 years, grouping 45 successive → lunations, divided into 69 groups of 5 or 6 lunations. The data are calculated in days and correspond remarkably to the intervals in an eclipse table: each group ends at the probable date of a solar eclipse (M.S.: SDE).

Dresden refers to the Dresden Library where the original document is preserved. It was bought in 1739 by the library director, Johann Christian Götze, who found it in a private library in Vienna. Its earlier history is unknown; codex, from L. codex earlier caudex "book, book of laws," literally "tree-trunk, book (formed originally from wooden tablets)."

Dastnevešt "handwritten," from dast, → hand, + nevešt "written," from neveštan "to write," → subscript.

drift
  ۱) دلک؛ ۲) دلکیدن   
1) delek; 2) delekidan

Fr.: 1) dérive; 2) dériver   

1a) General: A driving movement or force; impulse; impetus; pressure.
1b) Physics: A slight change of a quantity with time, for example the sensitivity of an electronic detector continuously operated during a long period as an effect of continued use.
1c) A slow change in frequency of a radio transmitter.
1d) Aerospace: The gradual deviation of a rocket or guided missile from its intended trajectory.
2) (v.intr.) To be carried along by currents of water or air, or by the force of circumstances.

From M.E. drift, from O.E. drifan "to drive," or from O.N. or M.Du. drift, from P.Gmc. *driftiz, related to *dribanan "to drive."

Delek from Lori, Laki, Hamadâni, Malâyeri "push, shove, drive;" variants Gilaki duko, Tâleši dako, Baluchi dhakkk(a) "push, shove, blow," Choresmian dh- "to hit," Kurd. dân/di- "to beat, hit," Proto-Iranian *daH- "to beat, hit, strike" (Cheung 2007); PIE base *dhen- "to hit, push;" delekidan, verb from delek.

drift curve
  خم ِ دلک   
xam-e delek

Fr.: courbe de passage   

In radio astronomy, the output response as a function of position for a given filter as the source passes through the beam.

drift; → curve.

drift rate
  نرخ ِ دلک   
nerx-e delek

Fr.: taux de dérive   

The amount of drift, in any of its several senses, per unit time.

drift; → rate.

drift velocity
  تندای ِ دلک   
tond-ye delek

Fr.: vitesse de dérive   

The average velocity of a charged particle in a plasma in response to an applied electric field.

drift; → velocity.

drive
  ۱) راندن؛ ۲) رانش، رانه   
1) rândan (#); 2) râneš (#), râné (#)

Fr.: 1) entraîner; 2) entraînement   

1a) To cause to move, to force to act. → continuum-driven wind, → dust-driven wind, → line-driven wind, → radiation-driven implosion, → radiation-driven mass loss, → radiation-driven wind.
1b) To cause and → guide the → motion of a → telescope.
2a) The act of driving.
2b) The → mechanism that imparts or transfers → power to a telescope so that it can move. → alpha drive, → delta drive, → drive accuracy, → slewing drive .

M.E. driven; O.E. drifan; cf. O.N. drifa, Goth. dreiban.

Rândan "to cause to go," causative of raftan "to go, walk, proceed" (present tense stem row-, Mid.Pers. raftan, raw-, Proto-Iranian *rab/f- "to go; to attack").

drive accuracy
  رشمندی ِ رانه   
rašmandi-ye râné

Fr.: précision de guidage   

The accuracy with which a telescope is moved by alpha or delta drives.

drive; → accuracy.

drizzle
  نرمه باران   
narmé bârân (#)

Fr.: bruine, crachin   

Very small, numerous, and uniformly distributed water drops that may appear to float while following air currents. Unlike fog droplets, drizzle falls to the ground.

Drizzle, dryseling "a falling of dew," from M.E. drysning, related to dreosan "to fall," cf. O.S. driosan, Goth. driusan.

Narmé bârân literally "smooth rain," from narmé, from narm "soft; smooth; mild," Mid.Pers. narm + bârân, → rain.

drop
  ۱) چکه؛ ۲) چکیدن   
1) cekké; 2) cekidan

Fr.: 1) goutte; 2) tomber goutte à goutte   

1a) A small quantity of liquid that falls or forms in a round or pear-shaped mass.
1b) A very small quantity of liquid; a very small quantity of anything.
2) To fall in small portions, as water or other liquid.

M.E. drop(e), from O.E. dropian; related to O.H.G. triofan, Du. drop, Ger. Tropfen.

Cekké, cekidan "drop; small, minute," cekidan "to drop."

droplet
  چکه، چکک   
cekké, cekkak

Fr.: gouttelette   

A very small drop of a liquid.

drop + diminutive suffix let.

Drummond light
  نور ِ درامن   
nur-e Drummond

Fr.: lumière de Drummond   

A very brilliant white light which is the ignited flame of a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen projected against a block of calcium oxide (lime). Also called limelight. First working version produced by Lieutenant of the Royal Engineers, upon the Ordnance Trigonometrical Survey of Ireland (1826). It was used at night as a substitute for solar light. It was first employed in a theater in 1837 and was in wide use by the 1860s, among which in photography.

Named after Scottish engineer Thomas Drummond (1797-1840); → light.

dry
  خشک   
xošk (#)

Fr.: sec, aride   

1) Lacking moisture; not damp or wet.
2) Having little or no rainfall.

M.E. drie; O.E. dryge; cf. M.L.G. dröge, M.Du. druge, Du. droog, O.H.G. trucchon, Ger. trocken.

Xošk "dry;" Mid.Pers. xušk "dry;" O.Pers. uška- "mainland;" Av. huška- "dry;" cf. Skt. śuska- "dry, dried out;" Gk. auos "dry, dried up;" O.E. sēar "dried up, withered;" Lith. sausas "dry, barren."

dry merger
  تشک ِ بی‌گاز   
tašk-e bigâz

Fr.: fusion sans gaz   

A merger between → gas-poor  → early-type galaxies.

dry; → merger.

dual
  دوگانه   
dogâné (#)

Fr.: double   

Of, pertaining to, or noting two; having a twofold, or double, character or nature.

From L. dualis, from duo "two."

Dogâné, from do "two," cognate with duo + -gân plurality suffix + nuance suffix.

dual supermassive black hole
  سیه‌چال ِ ابر-پرجرم ِ دوگانه   
siyah-câl-e abar-porjerm-e dogâné

Fr.: trou noir supermassif double   

The outcome of a → merger process between two galaxies, each with its own central → supermassive black hole (SMBH), resulting in a remnant galaxy hosting two SMBHs. Simulations of → galaxy mergers show there should be lots of dual → active galactic nuclei (AGN) visible at less than 10 kpc separations. As of 2015 more than 100 known dual supermassive black holes have been found. See also → binary supermassive black hole.

dual; → supermassive; → black; → hole.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dog Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn e-f Ear ecl eco edu eig Ein ela ele ele ele Ele elo emi emp ene Enl env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh Exo exp exp ext ext f(R fac fam fat fee Fer Fib fig fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre Fre fri fun fuz Gal gal gal Gam gau Gay gen Geo geo geo geo gim glo gov gra gra gra gra gre gro Gun hab hal han Har haz hea hel hel Hen Her het Hig hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind Ind inf inf inf inf inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv ion ion Irr iso iso iso jan jit Jul jus Kel ker kin kni La lam lan Lap las lat Lay Led Len let lif lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou low lum lun Lym M d Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man mar mas mas mat mea mea mec mem mer Mes met met mho mic Mie Mil min mis MKS MOd mol Mon moo mot mul mul myo nak Nas nat neb neg neu neu New New nit noi non non nor nor nuc nuc nul nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi pai Pan par par Par par pas Pav Pel per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy Pip Pla pla PLA pla ple plu pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pot Pra pre pre pre Pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul pur qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret RHB rid rig ris roc Ros rot rub Rut Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci Sea sec sec see sel sem sen set Sha sha shi shu sid sil sim sin SIS ski Slo smo Soc sol sol sol sol son sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi Spo squ sta sta sta sta Ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur Swa syn syn tab tar tel tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tit top tot tra tra TRA tra tre tri tri tru Tun Tus tym Typ ult unb und uni uni uns upp Urs vac van var Vei Ven ver vic Vir vir vis vol W 4 war wat wav wea wed wet wid win WN2 Wol wri xen yok zen zin > >>