An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
drag
  ۱) کره، ۲) وارانه؛ ۳) کریدن، کراندن   
1) kerré, 2) vârâné; 3) kerridan, kerrandan

Fr.: 1) traînée, entraînement; 2) traînée; 3) traîner   

1) General: The act of dragging or the state of being dragged.
2) Fluid mechanics: The → force that opposes the relative motion of an object through a → fluid. In → aeronautics, the component of aerodynamic force parallel to the relative wind tending to reduce the forward motion of the airplane. See also → lift; → thrust.
3) To pull or be pulled with force, especially along the ground or other surface.

From O.N. draga, O.E. dragan "to draw," from P.Gmc. *dragan "to draw, pull," from PIE base *dhragh- "to draw, drag on the ground" (cf. Skt. dhrajati "pulls, slides in," L. trahere "to pull," Rus. drogi "wagon."

Kerr, kerré, kerridan "drag," cf. Laki keronen, Hamadâni kerândan "to pull along, drag," Tâleši kernye, Tabari kərəš "to drag;" Lori, Hamadâni kerr "line, scratch;" related to Mid/Mod.Pers. kešidan, kašidan "to draw, protract, trail, drag, carry;" kâštan, keštan, kâridan "to cultivate, to plant, to make furrows;" Av. kar- "to strew seed, cultivate," kāraiieiti "cultivates," karš- "to draw (a furrow), till, plant;" cf. Skt. kar- "to scatter, strew, pour out," kars-, kársati "to pull, drag, plow;" Gk. pelo, pelomai "to move, to bustle;" PIE base kwels- "to plow."
Vârâné, from vâ-, opposition prefix, → de-, + râné, from rândan "to push, drive, cause to go" (causative of raftan "to go, walk, proceed," present tense stem row-, Mid.Pers. raftan, raw-, Proto-Iranian *rab/f- "to go; to attack").

Draine field
  میدان ِ درین   
meydân-e Draine

Fr.: champ de Draine   

A unit used to express the strength of → far ultraviolet (FUV) average → interstellar radiation field. It is equal to ~ 1.7 → Habing field.

Named after B. T. Draine, 1978, ApJS 36, 595.

Drake equation
  هموگش ِ دریک   
hamugeš-e Drake

Fr.: équation de Drake   

A probabilistic argument used to estimate the number of → intelligent, communicating → extraterrestrial civilizations in the → Milky Way galaxy. The Drake equation is:
N = R* . fp . ne . fl . fi . fc . L, where:
N = the number of → civilizations in our Galaxy with which → communication might be possible,
R* = the average rate of → star formation in our Galaxy,
fp = the fraction of those stars that have → planets,
ne = the average number of planets that can potentially support → life per star that has planets,
fl = the fraction of planets that could develop life at some point,
fi = the fraction of planets with life that actually go on to develop intelligent life,
fc = the fraction of civilizations that develop a technology that releases detectable signs of their existence into space,
L = the length of time for which such civilizations release detectable signals into space.
The first three terms of the equation have been successfully investigated by astronomers and are to some extent known. In contrast, values for the last four are very speculative. Drake himself estimates that N might be as high as 10,000. Carl Sagan was more optimistic, and came up with the value of a million or more for N. These estimates may be too optimistic. A pessimistic choice of parameters leads to N smaller than 1, which means that we might be the only technically sophisticated civilization in the Galaxy.

Frank Donald Drake (1930-); → equation.

dredge-up
  برونکشید   
borunkašid

Fr.: dragage, remontée   

A process by which the nucleosynthesis products inside a star are drawn to upper layers of the star. → first dredge-up; → second dredge-up; → third dredge-up.

From M.E. (Scots) dreg-, O.E. draeg- (in drægnet "dragnet"), akin to dragan "to draw" + up.

Birunkašid, past stem of birun kašidan, from birun "out, the outside" (Mid.Pers. bêron, from "outside, out, away" + rôn "side, direction," Av. ravan- "(course of a) river") + kašidan "to draw," Mid.Pers. kašitan, Av. karš- "to draw," Skt. kars-, kársati "to pull, drag, plough," Gk. pelo, pelomai "to be busy, to bustle."

Dresden codex
  دستنوشت ِ درسدن   
dastnevešt-e Dresden (#)

Fr.: codex de Dresden   

A pre-Colombian Maya manuscript consisting of numerous calendar and astronomical data, probably dating from the 12th century. It seems that it is an updated copy of a document from the period of the old Maya Empire (4th-9th centuries). It contains a table which covers over 32 years, grouping 45 successive → lunations, divided into 69 groups of 5 or 6 lunations. The data are calculated in days and correspond remarkably to the intervals in an eclipse table: each group ends at the probable date of a solar eclipse (M.S.: SDE).

Dresden refers to the Dresden Library where the original document is preserved. It was bought in 1739 by the library director, Johann Christian Götze, who found it in a private library in Vienna. Its earlier history is unknown; codex, from L. codex earlier caudex "book, book of laws," literally "tree-trunk, book (formed originally from wooden tablets)."

Dastnevešt "handwritten," from dast, → hand, + nevešt "written," from neveštan "to write," → subscript.

drift
  ۱) دلک؛ ۲) دلکیدن   
1) delek; 2) delekidan

Fr.: 1) dérive; 2) dériver   

1a) General: A driving movement or force; impulse; impetus; pressure.
1b) Physics: A slight change of a quantity with time, for example the sensitivity of an electronic detector continuously operated during a long period as an effect of continued use.
1c) A slow change in frequency of a radio transmitter.
1d) Aerospace: The gradual deviation of a rocket or guided missile from its intended trajectory.
2) (v.intr.) To be carried along by currents of water or air, or by the force of circumstances.

From M.E. drift, from O.E. drifan "to drive," or from O.N. or M.Du. drift, from P.Gmc. *driftiz, related to *dribanan "to drive."

Delek from Lori, Laki, Hamadâni, Malâyeri "push, shove, drive;" variants Gilaki duko, Tâleši dako, Baluchi dhakkk(a) "push, shove, blow," Choresmian dh- "to hit," Kurd. dân/di- "to beat, hit," Proto-Iranian *daH- "to beat, hit, strike" (Cheung 2007); PIE base *dhen- "to hit, push;" delekidan, verb from delek.

drift curve
  خم ِ دلک   
xam-e delek

Fr.: courbe de passage   

In radio astronomy, the output response as a function of position for a given filter as the source passes through the beam.

drift; → curve.

drift rate
  نرخ ِ دلک   
nerx-e delek

Fr.: taux de dérive   

The amount of drift, in any of its several senses, per unit time.

drift; → rate.

drift velocity
  تندای ِ دلک   
tond-ye delek

Fr.: vitesse de dérive   

The average velocity of a charged particle in a plasma in response to an applied electric field.

drift; → velocity.

drive
  ۱) راندن؛ ۲) رانش، رانه   
1) rândan (#); 2) râneš (#), râné (#)

Fr.: 1) entraîner; 2) entraînement   

1a) To cause to move, to force to act. → continuum-driven wind, → dust-driven wind, → line-driven wind, → radiation-driven implosion, → radiation-driven mass loss, → radiation-driven wind.
1b) To cause and → guide the → motion of a → telescope.
2a) The act of driving.
2b) The → mechanism that imparts or transfers → power to a telescope so that it can move. → alpha drive, → delta drive, → drive accuracy, → slewing drive .

M.E. driven; O.E. drifan; cf. O.N. drifa, Goth. dreiban.

Rândan "to cause to go," causative of raftan "to go, walk, proceed" (present tense stem row-, Mid.Pers. raftan, raw-, Proto-Iranian *rab/f- "to go; to attack").

drive accuracy
  رشمندی ِ رانه   
rašmandi-ye râné

Fr.: précision de guidage   

The accuracy with which a telescope is moved by alpha or delta drives.

drive; → accuracy.

drizzle
  نرمه باران   
narmé bârân (#)

Fr.: bruine, crachin   

Very small, numerous, and uniformly distributed water drops that may appear to float while following air currents. Unlike fog droplets, drizzle falls to the ground.

Drizzle, dryseling "a falling of dew," from M.E. drysning, related to dreosan "to fall," cf. O.S. driosan, Goth. driusan.

Narmé bârân literally "smooth rain," from narmé, from narm "soft; smooth; mild," Mid.Pers. narm + bârân, → rain.

drop
  ۱) چکه؛ ۲) چکیدن   
1) cekké; 2) cekidan

Fr.: 1) goutte; 2) tomber goutte à goutte   

1a) A small quantity of liquid that falls or forms in a round or pear-shaped mass.
1b) A very small quantity of liquid; a very small quantity of anything.
2) To fall in small portions, as water or other liquid.

M.E. drop(e), from O.E. dropian; related to O.H.G. triofan, Du. drop, Ger. Tropfen.

Cekké, cekidan "drop; small, minute," cekidan "to drop."

droplet
  چکه، چکک   
cekké, cekkak

Fr.: gouttelette   

A very small drop of a liquid.

drop + diminutive suffix let.

Drummond light
  نور ِ درامن   
nur-e Drummond

Fr.: lumière de Drummond   

A very brilliant white light which is the ignited flame of a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen projected against a block of calcium oxide (lime). Also called limelight. First working version produced by Lieutenant of the Royal Engineers, upon the Ordnance Trigonometrical Survey of Ireland (1826). It was used at night as a substitute for solar light. It was first employed in a theater in 1837 and was in wide use by the 1860s, among which in photography.

Named after Scottish engineer Thomas Drummond (1797-1840); → light.

dry
  خشک   
xošk (#)

Fr.: sec, aride   

1) Lacking moisture; not damp or wet.
2) Having little or no rainfall.

M.E. drie; O.E. dryge; cf. M.L.G. dröge, M.Du. druge, Du. droog, O.H.G. trucchon, Ger. trocken.

Xošk "dry;" Mid.Pers. xušk "dry;" O.Pers. uška- "mainland;" Av. huška- "dry;" cf. Skt. śuska- "dry, dried out;" Gk. auos "dry, dried up;" O.E. sēar "dried up, withered;" Lith. sausas "dry, barren."

dry merger
  تشک ِ بی‌گاز   
tašk-e bigâz

Fr.: fusion sans gaz   

A merger between → gas-poor  → early-type galaxies.

dry; → merger.

dual
  دوگانه   
dogâné (#)

Fr.: double   

Of, pertaining to, or noting two; having a twofold, or double, character or nature.

From L. dualis, from duo "two."

Dogâné, from do "two," cognate with duo + -gân plurality suffix + nuance suffix.

dual supermassive black hole
  سیه‌چال ِ ابر-پرجرم ِ دوگانه   
siyah-câl-e abar-porjerm-e dogâné

Fr.: trou noir supermassif double   

The outcome of a → merger process between two galaxies, each with its own central → supermassive black hole (SMBH), resulting in a remnant galaxy hosting two SMBHs. Simulations of → galaxy mergers show there should be lots of dual → active galactic nuclei (AGN) visible at less than 10 kpc separations. As of 2015 more than 100 known dual supermassive black holes have been found. See also → binary supermassive black hole.

dual; → supermassive; → black; → hole.

dualism
  دوگانه‌باوری، دوگانه‌گرایی، دوگانگی   
dogânebâvari, dogânegerâyi, dogânegi

Fr.: dualisme   

1) Philo.: The doctrine, as opposed to idealism and materialism, that reality consists of two basic types of substance usually taken to be mind and matter or two basic types of entity, mental and physical.
2) The state of being twofold or double. → dualism, → pluralism (Dictionary.com).

dual; → -ism.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>