An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>

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e-mail
  پَیِل   
payel

Fr.: mél, courriel   

1) A system for sending → messages from one individual to another via telecommunications links between → computers or → terminals using dedicated → software.
2) A message sent by email (Dictionary.com).

From electronic, → electronic, + mail, from M.E. male, from O.Fr. male "wallet, bag," of Germanic source; cf. O.H.G. malaha "wallet, bag," M.Du. male "bag;") from PIE *molko- "skin, bag."

Payel, contraction of payâm-e elelktronik "electronic message," from payâm, → message, + elektronik, → electronic; cf. Fr. mél "e-mail," from message + électronique, or courriel "e-mail," from courrier + électronique.

E-mode polarization
  قطبش ِ ترز ِ E   
qotbeš-e tarz-e E

Fr.: polarisation en mode E   

A → polarization component in the → cosmic microwave background radiation that depends only on → gradient, is independent of → curl and does not have → handedness. In contrast to the → B-mode, the E-mode may be due to both the → scalar perturbations and → tensor perturbations.

E, indicating electric-field like; → mode; → polarization.

e-term of aberration
  بیراهش ِ ترم ِ e   
birâheš-e tarm-e e

Fr.: aberration elliptique   

The same as → elliptic aberration.

e, → elliptic; → term; → aberration.

E-type chondrite
  کوندریت ِ گونه‌ی ِ E   
kondrit-e gune-ye E

Fr.: chondrite de type E   

Same as → enstatite chondrite.

enstatite; → type; → chondrite.

Eagle Nebula (IC 4703)
  میغ ِ شاهین   
Miq-e Šâhin

Fr.: Nébuleuse de l'Aigle   

A prominent → H II region in the constellation → Serpens lying about 2 kpc away from the Sun. It measures about 30' across and surrounds the open cluster → M16 (NGC 6611), which contains at least 20 stars of spectral type B0.5 or earlier, including one 05V. At a projected distance from the cluster of about 2 pc, where the H II region has expanded into surrounding → molecular cloud, a striking → elephant trunk morphology or → pillar results. The nebula is the site of ongoing → star formation, especially in these pillar structures. The Eagle Nebula is often erroneously given the cluster's designation (M16).

Eagle, because the nebula's shape is vaguely reminiscent of an eagle in flight; from M.E. egle, from O.Fr. egle, from O.Prov. aigla, from L. → aquila "black eagle;" → nebula.

Miq, → nebula; Šâhin, → aquila.

ear
  گوش   
guš (#)

Fr.: oreille   

The vertebrate organ of hearing, which is also responsible for maintaining equilibrium. It is usually composed of three parts: the outer ear, middle ear, and inner ear.

M.E. ere, O.E. eare "ear" (O.N. eyra, Dan. øre, M.Du. ore, Du. oor, O.H.G. ora, Ger. Ohr); cf. Gk. aus; L. auris; Av. usi "both ears;" Lith. ausis; O.C.S. ucho; O.Ir. au; PIE *ous-.

Guš "ear" (gušidan "to hear," niyušidan "to listen"); Mid.Pers. gôš "ear," gôšidan "to hear, listen;" O.Pers. gauša-; Av. gaoša- "ear," gaoš- "to hear;" cf. Skt. ghosa- "noise, tumult," ghus- "to sound, cry or proclaim aloud;" PIE *ghous-.

early
  آغازین   
âqâzin (#)

Fr.: précoce; jeune   

Occurring at or near the beginning of a period of time, process, or sequence of events.

M.E. erlich (adj.), erliche (adv.); O.E. ærlice, from ær "soon, ere" (from P.Gmc. *airiz, from PIE *āier- "day, morning," cf. Av. ayar- "day, day time," ayarə.drājah- "duration of one day," ayarə.bara- "day's ride," Mid/Mod.Pers. parēr "the day before yesterday," from *parā.ayer- "the day before") + -lice "-ly," adverbial suffix.

Âqâzin adj. of âqâz "beginning," from Proto-Iranian *āgaHz-, from prefix ā- + *gaHz- "to run, start," cf. Sogdian āγāz "beginning, start" (Cheung 2007).

early AGB phase
  فاز ِ AGBی ِ آغازین   
fâz-e AGB-ye âqâzin

Fr.: phase initiale de l'AGB   

A fairly long-lived step in the evolution of → low-mass and → intermediate-mass stars when helium burning shifts from the center to a shell around the core. At this phase the stellar luminosity is provided almost entirely by → helium shell burning. The He-shell burning generally adds mass to the growing carbon/oxygen core, resulting in → degenerate matter due to its increasing density.

early; → AGB; → phase.

early solar system
  راژمان ِ خورشیدی ِ آغازین   
râžmân-e xoršidi-ye âqâzin

Fr.: système solaire primordial   

A period in the evolution of the → solar system when the planets and satellites were in the process of formation.

early; → solar; → system.

early spectral class star
  ستاره با رده‌ی ِ بینابی ِ آغازین   
setâré bâ rade-ye binâbi-ye âqâzin

Fr.: étoile de type spectral précoce   

A star near the beginning of the → spectral classification sequence. A star of → spectral type O, B, A, or F0 to F5. Same as → early-type star.

early; → spectral; → class; → star.

early Universe
  گیتی ِ آغازین   
giti-ye âqâzin (#)

Fr.: Univers jeune   

A qualitative term used to describe a phase in the history of the Universe, from the → Big Bang event to the apparition of the first structures (seeds of future galaxies), at a → redshift around 30.

early; → universe.

early-type galaxy (ETG)
  کهکشان ِ گونه‌ی ِ آغازین   
kahkešân-e gune-ye âqâzin

Fr.: galaxie de type précoce   

In the → Hubble classification, galaxies on the left part of the → Hubble sequence. Early-type galaxies tend to have redder colors, higher average surface brightnesses, and lower → neutral hydrogen content than → late-type galaxies. This terminology is based on the obsolete and erroneous idea that → elliptical and → lenticular galaxies might be evolutionary precursors to → spiral and → barred spiral galaxies.

early; → type; → galaxy.

early-type star
  ستاره‌ی ِ گونه‌ی ِ آغازین   
setâre-ye gun-ye âqâzin (#)

Fr.: étoile de type précoce   

Hot, luminous stars of → spectral type O, B, A, and F0 to F5. They were originally thought, wrongly, to be at an earlier stage of evolution than → late-type stars. See also → spectral classification.

early; → type; → star.

Earth
  زمین   
zamin (#)

Fr.: terre   

The third planet from the Sun. At → perihelion, it is 147,099,590 km from the Sun, and at → aphelion it is 152,096.150 km, whereas its mean distance from the Sun (→ astronomical unit) is 149,598 × 106 km. Its orbital period is 365.2563 days (→ sidereal year) and its → eccentricity 0.017. Other characteristics: → axial inclination 23.44°; rotation period 23.934 h (→ sidereal day); mean density 5.52 g/cm3; mass 5.974 × 1024 kg; → escape velocity 11.18 km/s; average → albedo 0.37.
The Earth's atmosphere consists of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and 0.9% argon, plus carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and other gases in much smaller quantities. The atmospheric pressure at sea level is about 1,000 mbar. The surface average temperature is 15° C, but it varies, on the average, between -50° C (winter, Siberia) and up to + 40° C (summer, Sahara).
Liquid water covers 71% of the surface. Over 5,000 active volcanoes have been registered throughout man's known history. The outer layer of the planet, the → lithosphere, is covered with the → crust. In the → upper mantle and beneath the lithosphere, lies → asthenosphere. Convection in the asthenosphere has caused → plate tectonics motions and continent drifts. The densest layer of the Earth is its → core, about 3000 km to 6400 km beneath the surface, consisting primarily of iron and nickel. This core is believed to be at the origin of the magnetic field, which reaches about 3 × 10-5 tesla near the equator. It has only one natural satellite, the Moon (M.S.: SDE).

M.E. erthe, from O.E. eorðe "ground, soil, dry land;" cf. O.N. jörð, M.Du. eerde, O.H.G. erda, Goth. airþa; from PIE base *er-.

Zamin, variant zami "earth, floor, land," Mid.Pers. zamig, Av. zam- "the earth;" cf. Skt. ksam- "the ground, earth;" Gk. khthôn, khamai "on the ground;" L. homo "earthly being" (as in homo sapiens, homicide, humble, humus, exhume), humus "the earth;" O.Russ. zemi "land, earth;" PIE root *dh(e)ghom "earth".

Earth mass
  جرم ِ زمین   
jerm-e zamin (#)

Fr.: masse de la Terre   

The mass of our planet Earth, which is 5.9736 × 1024 kg (3 × 10-6 → solar masses), 317.83 times smaller than the → Jupiter mass. The Earth mass is in particular used to describe the mass of → super-Earth  → extrasolar planets.

Earth; → mass.

Earth radius
  شعاع ِ زمین   
šo'â'-e zamin (#)

Fr.: rayon terrestre   

The distance from the Earth's center to its surface, about 6,371 km.

earth; → radius.

Earth's core
  مغزه‌ی ِ زمین   
maqze-ye Zamin

Fr.: noyau terrestre   

The innermost part of the Earth consisting of a solid → inner core, mainly composed of → iron, and a → liquid → outer core. The → pressure and → temperature are so extreme that the molten iron solidifies. The temperature at the inner core boundary is expected to be close to the → melting point of iron at 330 gigapascal (GPa). From static laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments up to 200 GPa, using synchrotron-based fast → X-ray diffraction as a primary melting diagnostic, S. Anzellini et al. (2013, Science 340, 484) conclude that the melting temperature of iron at the inner core boundary is 6230 ± 500 K. This estimation favors a high heat flux at the core-mantle boundary with a possible partial melting of the → mantle. The inner core, 2,400 km in diameter, is suspended in the molten metal of the → outer core, which is about 2,240 km thick. The temperature difference between the mantle and the core is the main engine for large-scale thermal movements, which coupled with the → Earth's rotation, function as a generator for the planet's → magnetic field.

Earth; → core.

Earth's crust
  پوسته‌ی ِ زمین   
puste-ye Zamin (#)

Fr.: croûte terrestre   

The rocky outermost layer of the Earth, ranging from about 10 to 65 km in thickness. It is distinguished from the underlying the → Earth's mantle layer by its more → silicon- and → aluminium-rich composition, lower density, and the lower velocity at which it conducts seismic energy. It includes → continental crust (about 40 km thick) and → oceanic crust (about 7 km thick). The crust and the topmost layer of the mantle form the → lithosphere. The five most abundant → chemical elements in the Earth's crust are, in percentage by weight of the Earth's crust: → oxygen (O) 46%, silicon (Si) 28%, aluminium (Al) 8%, → iron (Fe) 5%, and → calcium (Ca) 4%.

Earth; → crust.

Earth's mantle
  گوشته‌ی ِ زمین   
gušte-ye Zamin

Fr.: manteau terrestre   

A major subdivision of Earth's internal structure, located beneath the → Earth's crust and above the central → core. On average, the mantle begins 35 km below the surface and ends at a depth of about 2,900 km. See also → upper mantle and → lower mantle, → asthenosphere, → lithosphere.

Earth; → mantle.

Earth's rotation
  چرخش ِ زمین   
carxeš-e zamin (#)

Fr.: rotation de la Terre   

The natural motion of the Earth around its own axis, which takes place once in a → sidereal day. The Earth rotates toward the → east, in the same direction as it revolves around the Sun. If viewed from the north celestial pole, the Earth turns → counterclockwise. The opposite is true when the Earth is viewed from the south celestial pole. The Earth's rotation is responsible for the diurnal cycles of day and night, and also causes the apparent movement of the Sun across the sky. The Earth's rotation velocity at the → equator is 1,673 km h-1 or about 465 m s-1. More generally, at the → latitude  φ it is given by: vφ = veq cos φ, where veq is the rotation velocity at the equator. The Earth's rotation is gradually slowing down under the action of the → tides, which are generated by the → gravitational attraction of the → Moon. As the result of this → tidal friction, the day is becoming longer at a rate of about 2 milliseconds, or 0.002 seconds, per century (or one second every 50,000 years). Moreover, the loss of the Earth's → rotational angular momentum increases the Moon's → orbital angular momentum, because the angular momentum of the → Earth-Moon system is conserved. In consequence, the Moon slowly recedes from the Earth by about 4 cm per year, which leads to increasing its orbital period and the length of a month as well.

Earth; → rotation.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>