An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
economize
  بومداتیدن   
bumdâtidan

Fr.: économiser   

1) To practice economy; avoid waste or extravagance.
2) To manage economically; use sparingly or frugally (Dictionary.com).

From econom(y), → economy, + → -ize.

economy
  بومدات   
bumdât

Fr.: économie   

1) Thrifty and efficient use of material resources of a community, society, or household; frugality in expenditures.
2) An act or means of thrifty saving; a saving.
3) The management of the resources of a community, country, etc., especially with a view to its productivity (Dictionary.com).

From M.Fr. economie, → economics.

Bumdât, back formation from bumdâti, → economic.

ecopoiesis
  بوم‌آفرینی   
bum-âfarini

Fr.: ecopoïèse   

The fabrication of a stable, enduring → ecosystem on a lifeless planet. It is the last stage of a → terraforming process.

From → eco- "house, dwelling place," + poiesis a combining form meaning "making, formation; poetry," from Gk. poesy, from poiein "to make, compose." Coined by Robert Hall Haynes (1931-1998), a Canadian geneticist and biophysicist.

Bum-âfarini, literally "creating environment," from bum "region, land," → eco- + âfarini "creation," from âfaridan, âfarin- "to create," from Mid.Pers. âfridan, âfrin- "to praise, bless; create," ultimately from Proto-Iranian āfrīta-, from prefixed frī- "to praise; to like;" cf. Av. frāy- "to satisfy, propitiate, pray;" Skt. prī- "to gladden, show favor to," prīta- "glad;" Gk. praus "gentle."

ecosphere
  بوم‌سپهر   
bumsepehr (#)

Fr.: écosphère   

The space around a star in which a planet would experience external conditions that are not incompatible with the existence of life.

Ecosphere, from eco-, → ecology, + → sphere.

Bumsepehr, from bum "eco-," → ecology, + sepehr, → sphere.

ecosystem
  بوم راژمان   
bumrâžmân

Fr.: écosystème   

Any geographic area that includes all of the organisms and nonliving parts of their physical environment.

ecology; → system.

Eddington limit
  حد ِ ادینگتون   
hadd-e Eddington (#)

Fr.: limite d'Eddington   

The theoretical upper limit of → luminosity at which the → radiation pressure of a light-emitting body would exceed the body's → gravitational attraction. A star emitting radiation at greater than the Eddington limit would break up. The Eddington luminosity for a non-rotating star is expressed as: LEdd = 4πGMmpcσT-1, where G is the → gravitational constant, M the star mass, mp the → proton mass, c the → speed of light, and σT the → Thomson cross section. It can also be written as LEdd = 4πGMcκ-1, where κ is the → opacity. In terms of solar mass, the Eddington limit can be expressed by: LEdd = 1.26 × 1038 (M/Msun) erg s-1. See also → rotational Eddington limit.

Named after Arthur Stanley Eddington (1882-1944), prominent British astrophysicist; → limit.

Eddington luminosity
  تابندگی ِ ادینگتون   
tâbandegi-ye Eddington

Fr.: luminosité d'Eddington   

Same as → Eddington limit.

Eddington limit; → luminosity.

Eddington parameter
  پارامون ِ ادینگتون   
pârâmun-e Eddington

Fr.: paramètre d'Eddington   

A → dimensionless parameter indicating the degree to which a star is close to the → Eddington limit. It is expressed as Γ = L / LEdd = κ L / (4πGMc), where L and M are the star luminosity and mass respectively, κ is the opacity, c the speed of light, and G the → gravitational constant. At the Eddington limit, Γ = 1, the star would become unbound. Because stellar luminosity generally scales with a high power of the stellar mass (LM3-4), → massive stars with M larger than 10 Msun generally have electron Eddington parameters of order Γ ≅ 0.1-1.

After Arthur Stanley Eddington (1882-1944), prominent British astrophysicist; → parameter.

Eddington-Lemaître Universe
  گیتی ِ ادینگتون-لومتر   
giti-ye Eddington-Lemaître (#)

Fr.: Univers d'Eddington-Lemaître   

A theoretical model in which the → cosmological constant plays a crucial role by allowing an initial phase that is identical to the Einstein static Universe. After an arbitrarily long time, the Universe begins to expand. The difficulty with this model is that the initiation of galaxy formation may actually cause a collapse rather than initiate an → expansion of the Universe.

Eddington limit; Lemaître in honor of Georges-Henri Lemaître (1894-1966), a Belgian Roman Catholic priest, who first proposed the Big Bang theory; → universe.

Eddington-Sweet time scale
  مرپل ِ زمانی ِ ادینگتون-سوییت   
marpel-e zamâni-ye Eddington-Sweet

Fr.: échelle de temps d'Eddington-Sweet   

The time required for the redistribution of → angular momentum due to → meridional circulation. The Eddington-Sweet time for a uniformly → rotating star is expressed as: τES = τKH . GM / (Ω2 R3), where τKH is the → Kelvin-Helmholtz time scale, R, M, and L designate the radius, mass, and luminosity respectively, Ω the → angular velocity, and G the → gravitational constant. The Eddington-Sweet time scale can be approximated by τES≅ τKH / χ, where χ is the ratio of the → centrifugal force to → gravity. For the Sun, χ ≅ 10-5 resulting in an Eddington-Sweet time scale which is too long (1012 years), i.e. unimportant. In contrast, for a rotating → massive star  χ is not so much less than 1. Hence the Eddington-Sweet circulation is very important in massive stars.

Named after the prominent British astrophysicist Arthur S. Eddington (1882-1944), who was the first to suggest these currents (in The Internal Constitution of the Stars, Dover Pub. Inc., New York, 1926) and P. A. Sweet who later quantified them (1950, MNRAS 110, 548); → time scale.

eddy
  گیژاو   
gižâv

Fr.: tourbillon   

A deviation in the steady flow of a fluid causing a vortex-like motion running contrary to the general flow.
Meteo.: A small disturbance of wind in a large wind flow, which can produce turbulent conditions or turbulence.

Late M.E., from O.E. ed- "turning" + ea "water;" akin to O.N. itha.

Gižâv, from dialectical Kurd. "whirlpool," from giž "turning," Pers. gij "giddy-headed, vertigio;" Laki géž "whirlpool," vagéža "whirlwind" + âv, variant âb "water" (Mid.Pers. âb "water;" O.Pers. ap- "water;" Av. ap- "water;" cf. Skt. áp- "water;" Hitt. happa- "water;" PIE āp-, ab- "water, river;" cf. Gk. Apidanos, proper noun, a river in Thessalia; L. amnis "stream, river" (from *abnis); O.Ir. ab "river," O.Prus. ape "stream," Lith. upé "stream;" Latv. upe "brook").

eddy current
  جریان ِ فوکو   
jarayân-e Foucault (#)

Fr.: courant de Foucault   

An induced current circulating in masses of metal moving in a magnetic field or located in a changing magnetic field. Also known as → Foucault current.

eddy; → current.

edge
  ۱) لبه؛ ۲) تیغه   
1) labé (#); 2) tiqé (#)

Fr.: 1) bord; 2) tranchant, fil   

1) A line or border at which a surface terminates.
2) The thin, sharp side of the blade of a cutting instrument or weapon (Dictionary.com).
3) In → graph theory, any line in a → graph that joins two distinct → nodes. Any pair of → vertices.

M.E. egge; O.E. ecg "corner, edge;" cf. Ger. Eck "corner;" PIE base *ak- "sharp, pointed" (cf. L. acies; Gk. akis "point").

1) Labé "limb, edge," from lab "lip;" Mid.Pers. lap; cognate with L. labium; E. lip; Ger. Lefze.
2) Tiqé "blade of a knife or sword," from tiq "blade," tiz "sharp," variants tig, tež, tej, tij; Mid.Pers. tigr, têz, têž "sharp," O.Pers. tigra- "pointed," tigra.xauda- "pointed helmet (epithet of Scythians);" Av. tiγra- "pointed," tiγray- "arrow," tiži.arštay- "with the pointed spear," cf. Skt. tikta- "sharp, pungent, bitter," tejas- "sharpness, edge, point or top of a flame;" PIE base *st(e)ig- "to stick; pointed." Cognates in other IE languages: Gk. stizein "to prick, puncture," stigma "mark made by a pointed instrument," L. in-stigare "to goad," O.H.G. stehhan, Ger. stechen "to stab, prick," Du. stecken, O.E. sticca "rod, twig, spoon," E. stick.

edge-on galaxy
  کهکشان ِ پهلونما   
kahkašân-e pahlunemâ

Fr.: galaxie vue par la tranche   

A → spiral galaxy oriented edge-on to our view. → face-on galaxy.

edge; on, from O.E. on, variant of an "in, on, into" (cf. Du. aan; Ger. an; Goth. ana "on, upon"), from PIE base *ano "on" (cf. Av. ana "on;" Gk. ana "on, upon;" L. an-); → galaxy.

Kahkašân, → galaxy; pahlunemâ "showing the side," from pahlu, → side, + nemâ, from nemudan "to show, display," → display.

edit
  ویراستن   
virâstan (#)

Fr.: mettre au point, préparer, éditer   

To modify or prepare for publication or public presentation by checking, improving, cutting, rearranging, etc.

Back formation from editor or from Fr. éditer, or from L. editus, p.p. of edere "bring forth, produce," from → ex- "out," + -dere, combining form of dare "to give," → datum.

Virâstan, from Mid.Pers. virâstan "to arrange, prepare, restore," from prefix vi- "apart, away from, out" (Av. vi-; O.Pers. viy- "apart, away;" cf. Skt. vi- "apart, asunder, away, out;" L. vitare "to avoid, turn aside") + râstan "to arrange, to set in order," → coordinate.

edition
  ۱) ویرایش؛ ۲) ویراست   
1) virâyeš (#); 2) virâst (#)

Fr.: édition   

1) The act or process of editing.
2) A version of anything, printed or not, presented to the public.

Verbal noun of → edit.

editor
  ویراستار   
virâstâr (#)

Fr.: rédacteur, éditeur   

1) A person who edits material for publication or public presentation.
2) A computer program that enables creating and editing text files.

Agent noun of → edit.

editorial
  ویراستال   
virâstâl

Fr.: rédaction, éditorial   

1) An article in a newspaper or other periodical or on a website presenting the opinion of the publisher, writer, or editor.
2) A statement broadcast on radio or television that presents the opinion of the owner, manager, or the like, of the program, station, or channel (Dictionary.com).

editor + -i- + → -al.

educate
  فرهیختن   
farhixtan (#)

Fr.: éduquer   

To give knowledge or develop the faculties and powers of somebody by teaching. instruction.

From L. educatus, p.p. of educare "bring up, rear, educate," from → ex- "out" + ducere "to lead."

Farhixtan, "educate," literally "drawing forward, pulling up;" from far- perfection prefix, → pro-, + hanjidan "to draw," → culture.

education
  فرهیزش   
farhizeš (#)

Fr.: éducation   

The act or process of educating.
The knowledge or abilities gained through being educated.

Verbal noun of → educate.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>