An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>

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alcohol
  الکل   
alkol (#)

Fr.: alcool   

An organic compound having a → hydroxyl (-OH) group attached to a carbon atom. Specifically the term is applied to ethyl alcohol or → ethanol (C2H5OH). Alcohol exists abundantly in the → interstellar medium in gaseous state also in the form of → methanol.

The discovery of alcohol is attributed to the Iranian physician and scientist Mohammad son of Zakariyâ Râzi (864-930 AD, known in Europe as Razes or Rhazes). He wrote in Ar., which was the scientific language of that period. However, he himself did not use a specific term for this substance as far as we know. Alcohol was first used in medicine about 1250 by two Italian physicians Valis de Furo and Thaddaeus of Florence. It was not yet called alcohol, but aqua ardens or aqua vini. The name alcohol, of Arabic origin, was introduced by the Swiss alchemist and physician Paracelsus (1493-1541) in the sixteenth century. It is composed of two parts, al-, a definite article (like "the"), plus a second component the origin of which is not clear. A broadly spread explanation for the second component is (kuHl) الکحل, originally the name of antimony reduced to a fine powder used especially to darken eyelids. The powder is prepared by sublimation of the natural mineral antimony sulfide (Sb2S3). According to this opinion, the meaning of alkuhl would have been first extended by European alchemists to distilled substances in general, and then narrowed to ethanol. Paracelsus indeed defines the terms alcohol and alcool as "the most subtle part of anything." It is in that sense that he calls the substance alcool vini, that is, the most subtle part of wine. Moreover, it is always as "alcool vini" or "alcohol vini" that he uses this term, never "alcohol" alone. Later chemists dropped the "vini" and let the alcohol stand alone for the name (see M. M. Pattison Muir, Story of Alchemy and the Beginning of Chemistry, 1902, p. 192). We note that the word used in current Ar. for this substance is الکحول (alkuHul) and not الکحل (alkuHl). That word may be the Ar. rendering of the European term (probably from the older Fr. form alcohol) loaned in modern times. Alternatively, the word alcohol would originate from another Ar. word, al-ghaul (الغول), meaning "an oppression of the mind, a loss of the senses (from drunkenness), a head-ache" also "spirit, demon." This derivation would be consistent with the use of "spirit" or "spirit of wine" as synonymous of "alcohol" in most Western languages. If this second etymology is correct, the popular etymology and the spelling "alcohol" would not be due to generalization of the meaning of al-kuhl, but rather to Western alchemists and authors confusing the two words al-kuhl and al-ghaul, because of the lack of the "gh" sound in European languages. The problem with this etymology is that no specific word is found in classical Ar. for designating "alcohol."

Alcor
  سها   
Sohâ (#)

Fr.: Alcor   

A 4th magnitude star lying in the constellation → Ursa Major (also called 80 Ursae Majoris) which forms a visual pair with the brighter star → Mizar (Zeta Ursae Majoris). Alcor is separated by about 11.5 minutes of arc from Mizar. It is a → main sequence star of type A5 with a mass of 1.8 Msun. Recent observations show that Alcor is a → spectroscopic binary, whose → companion has M-band (λ = 4.8 μm) magnitude 8.8 and projected separation 1''.11 (28 AU) from Alcor. The companion is most likely a low-mass (~ 0.3 Msun) active star which is responsible for Alcor's → X-ray emission detected by → ROSAT (LX ~ 1028.3 erg/s). Alcor is a nuclear member of the → Ursa Major star cluster (distance ~ 25 pc, age ~ 0.5 Gyr). The Alcor binary is probably → gravitationally bound to the Mizar star system, making them a → sextuplet with physical separation 0.36 pc, or 74,000 → astronomical units (Mamajek et al., 2010, AJ 139, 919).

Alcor, perhaps from Ar. al-khawr "the low ground."

Sohâ, from Ar. Suhâ.

Alcyone (η Tauri)
  الکویءون، نیر ِ ثریا، رخشان ِ پروین   
Alkuone, Nayyer-e Sorayyâ, Raxšân-e Parvin

Fr.: Alcyone   

The brightest star in the → Pleiades, located in the constellation → Taurus. → Apparent visual magnitude 2.87, → spectral type B7 III.

In Gk. mythology, a daughter of Aelous who, with her husband, Ceyx, was transformed into a kingfisher.

Nayyer-e Sorayyâ "the bight of the Pleiades," from Ar. nayyir "luminous" + Thorayyâ "the Pleiades".
Raxšân-e Parvin "the bight of the Pleiades," from Mod.Pers. raxšân "bright, luminous" + Parvin "the Pleiades".

Aldebaran (α Tauri)
  دَبَران، گاو‌چشم   
Dabarân, Gâvcašm

Fr.: Aldébaran   

The brightest star in the constellation → Taurus (visual magnitude about 0.9), Aldebaran is an orange K-type giant that lies 60 → light-years away. It has a faint M2 V companion. It is slowly and irregularly variable.

Ar. Aldebaran "the follower" (of the Pleiades, which rise shortly before it does), from al "the" + dabaran "follower," from dobur "to follow". Gâvcašm "the bull's eye," from Mod.Pers. Gâv "bull, cow" + cašm "eye," corresponding to the alternative Ar. name of the star Ayno 's Sowr.

aldehyde
  آلدهید   
âldehid (#)

Fr.: aldéhyde   

Any of a class of organic compounds containing the -CH=O group, that is a double-bonded oxygen and hydrogen bonded to the same terminal carbon atom.

From N.L. al(cohol) dehyd(rogenatum) "alcohol deprived of hydrogen."

Alderamin (α Cephei)
  ذراع ِ یمین   
Zerâ'-e Yamin

Fr.: Alderamin   

The brightest star in → Cepheus and a → subgiant star of apparent visual magnitude 2.44. Its → spectral type is A7 and distance 49 → light-years.

Alderamin, from Ar. al dhirâ' al-yamin "right arm" (of Cepheus), from Ar. dhirâ' "arm" + yamin "right".

Zerâ'-e Yamin, from Ar. al dhira al-yamin.

aleph
  الف   
alef (#)

Fr.: aleph   

1) The first letter of the Hebrew alphabet (ℵ).
2) A → cardinal number representing an uncountable set. For example, ℵ0 (pronounced aleph-null, aleph-nought, or aleph-zero) is the smallest infinite cardinal and ℵ1 is the smallest cadinal larger than ℵ0.

Hebrew and Phoenician letter, from Semitic languages.

Alexander's dark band
  نوار ِ سیاه ِ الکساندر   
navâr-e siyâh-e Aleksânder

Fr.: bande noire d'Alexandre   

A dark space or band between the primary and secondary rainbows when both are visible. This effect is due to the minimum refraction angle for the → primary rainbow and the maximum for the → secondary rainbow. The only light in the dark region is caused by (a small amount of) scattering, and not the refraction of light in water droplets.

Named for Alexander of Aphrodisias, Greek Peripatetic philosopher and commentator, who first described the effect in 200 AD.

Alfonsine Tables
  زیج ِ آلفونسو   
zij-e Alfonso

Fr.: Tables alfonsines   

A set of tables created in Toledo, under Alfonso X, el sabio, king of Castile and Léon (1252 to 1284) to correct the anomalies in the → Toledan Tables. The starting point of the Alfonsine Tables is January 1, 1252, the year of king's coronation (1 June). The original Spanish version of the tables is lost, but a set of canons (introductory instructions) for planetary tables are extant. They are written by Isaac ben Sid and Judah ben Moses ha-Cohen, two of the most active collaborators of Alfonso X. The Alfonsine Tables were the most widely used astronomical tables in the Middle Ages and had an enormous impact on the development of European astronomy from the 13th to 16th century. They were replaced by Erasmus Reinhold's → Prutenic Tables, based on Copernican models, that were first published in 1551.The Latin version of the Alfonsine Tables first appeared in Paris around 1320, where a revision was undertaken by John of Lignères and John of Murs, accompanied by a number of canons for their use written by John of Saxony. There is a controversy as to the exact relationship of these tables with the work commissioned by the Spanish king.

After the Spanish monarch Alfonso X (1221-1284); → table.

Alfvén Mach number
  عدد ِ ماخ ِ آلفونی   
adad-e Mach-e Alfvéni

Fr.: nombre de Mach alfvénique   

The ratio of the flow velocity to the → Alfvén speed in a medium.

Alfvén wave; → number.

Alfvén radius
  شعاع ِ آلفون   
šo'â'-e Alfvén

Fr.: rayon d'Alfvén   

1) In theories of magnetized → accretion disks, the distance from a non-rotating star where the → free fall of a spherical accretion flow is stopped, which occurs where the → ram pressure of the infalling matter equals the → magnetic pressure of the star.
2) The distance from an accreting or wind-blowing star where the → Alfvén Mach number of the flow (→ inflow or → outflow) is unity.

Alfvén wave; → radius.

Alfvén speed
  تندا‌ی ِ آلفون   
tondâ-ye Alfvén

Fr.: vitesse d'Alfvén   

The speed at which → Alfven waves are propagated along the magnetic field. It is a characteristic velocity at which perturbations of the lines of force travel. Alfvén speed is given by: vA = B/(μ0.ρ)1/2, where B is the → magnetic field strength, μ0 is the → magnetic permeability, and ρ is the density of the plasma. Alfvén speed plays a role analogous to the sound speed in non-magnetized fluid dynamics. Same as Alfvén velocity.

Alfvén wave; → speed.

Alfvén wave
  موج ِ آلفون   
mowj-e Alfvén

Fr.: onde d'Alfvén   

A → magnetohydrodynamic wave in a → magnetized plasma, arising as a result of restoring forces associated with the magnetic field. It is a → transverse wave which propagates in the direction of the magnetic field. Also called magnetohydrodynamic wave.

Named after Hannes Alfvén (1908-1995), Swedish physicist, who developed the theory of → magnetohydrodynamics, and was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1970; → wave.

Alfvénic
  آلفونیک   
Alfvenik

Fr.: alfvénicité   

Involving → Alfvén waves.

Alfvénic; → -ity.

Alfvénic fluctuation
  افتاخیز ِ آلفونیک   
oftâxiz-e Alfvenik

Fr.: fluctuation alfvénique   

Large amplitude fluctuations in the → solar wind with properties resembling those of → Alfvén waves. A fluctuation is said to be Alfvénic if the following relationship between the velocity fluctuations (Δv) and magnetic field fluctuations (ΔB) is satisfied: Δv = ± ΔB/(μ0ρ)1/2. Also called Alfvénicity.

Alfvénic; → fluctuation.

Alfvénicity
  آلفونیکی   
Alfveniki

Fr.: alfvénicité   

Alfvénic fluctuation.

Alfvénic; → -ity.

Alfven Mach number
  عدد ِ ماخ ِ آلفونی   
adad-e Mach-e Alfvéni

Fr.: nombre de Mach alfvénique   

The ratio of the flow velocity to the → Alfvén speed in a medium.

Alfvén wave; → number.

Alfven point
  نقطه‌ی ِ آلفون   
noqte-ye Alfvén

Fr.: point d'Alfvén   

In magnetized disk models, the point where the → poloidal velocity equals the → Alfven speed. Within this point, the magnetic energy density dominates, and the gas is forced to flow along the field lines. Well beyond this point, the kinetic energy acquired by the flowing gas prevails and the field is forced to follow the flow.

Alfven wave; → point.

Alfven radius
  شعاع ِ آلفون   
šo'â'-e Alfvén

Fr.: rayon d'Alfvén   

1) In theories of magnetized → accretion disks, the distance from a non-rotating star where the → free fall of a spherical accretion flow is stopped, which occurs where the → ram pressure of the infalling matter equals the → magnetic pressure of the star.
2) More generally, the distance from an accreting or wind-blowing star where the → Alfvén Mach number of the flow (→ inflow or → outflow) is unity.

Alfvén wave; → radius.

Alfven speed
  تندا‌ی ِ آلفون   
tondâ-ye Alfvén

Fr.: vitesse d'Alfvén   

The speed at which → Alfven waves are propagated along the magnetic field. It is a characteristic velocity at which perturbations of the lines of force travel. Alfvén speed is given by: vA = B/(μ0.ρ)1/2, where B is the → magnetic field strength, μ0 is the → magnetic permeability, and ρ is the density of the plasma. Alfvén speed plays a role analogous to the sound speed in non-magnetized fluid dynamics. Same as Alfvén velocity.

Alfvén wave; → speed.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>