An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
empty
  تهی   
tohi (#)

Fr.: vide   

Containing nothing; having none of the usual or appropriate contents (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from O.E. æmettig "vacant, not occupied," from æmetta "a leisure," from æ "not" + -metta, from motan "to have."

Tohi "empty," → void.

empty graph
  نگاره‌ی ِ تهی   
negâre-ye tohi

Fr.: graphe vide   

In → graph theory, a graph with any number of → vertices which do not have → edges.

empty; → graph.

empty set
  هنگرد ِ تهی   
hangard-e tohi

Fr.: ensemble vide   

A set containing no → elements.

empty; → set.

empty Universe
  گیتی ِ تهی   
giti-ye tohi

Fr.: Univers vide   

A → cosmological model based on → Einstein's field equations in which the → Universe is devoid of → matter and → radiation. There are two types of empty Universes: the → de Sitter Universe and the → Milne Universe.

empty; → Universe.

Enceladus (Saturn II)
  انکلادوس   
Enkelâdos (#)

Fr.: Encelade   

The eighth of → Saturn's known → satellites, discovered by Herschel in 1789. It is about 500 km in diameter and orbits Saturn at a mean distance of 238,000 km with a period of 1.37 days. Enceladus has the highest → albedo (> 0.9) of any body in the → Solar System. Its surface is dominated by clean ice. Geophysical data from the → Cassini-Huygens spacecraft imply the presence of a global → ocean below an ice shell with an average thickness of 20-25 km, thinning to just 1-5 km over the south polar region. There, → jets of → water vapor and icy grains are launched through fissures in the → ice. The composition of the ejected material measured by Cassini includes salts and silica dust. In order to explain these observations, an abnormally high heat power is required, about 100 times more than is expected to be generated by the natural → decay of → radioactive elements in rocks in its core, as well as a means of focusing activity at the south pole. According to simulations, the core is made of unconsolidated, easily deformable, porous rock that water can easily permeate. The → tidal friction from Saturn is thought to be at the origin of the eruptions deforming the icy shell by push-pull motions as the moon follows an elliptical path around the giant planet. But the energy produced by tidal friction in the ice, by itself, would be too weak to counterbalance the heat loss seen from the ocean; the globe would freeze within 30 million years. More than 10 GW of heat can be generated by tidal friction inside the rocky core. Water transport in the tidally heated permeable core results in hot narrow upwellings with temperatures exceeding 90 °C, characterized by powerful (1-5 GW) hotspots at the seafloor, particularly at the south pole. The release of heat in narrow regions favors intense interaction between water and rock, and the transport of hydrothermal products from the core to the plume sources (Choblet et al., 2017, Nature Astronomy, doi:10.1038/s41550-017-0289-8)

In Gk. mythology Enceladus was a Titan who battled Athene in their war against the gods. When he fled the battlefield, Athene crushed him beneath the Sicilian Mount Etna.

Enkelâdos, from the original Gk. pronunciation of the name.

Encke gap
  گاف ِ انکه   
gâf-e Enke

Fr.: division de Encke   

A region of decreased brightness within the A ring of Saturn.

In honor of Johann Franz Encke, → Encke's comet. Gap, from O.N. gap "chasm," related to gapa "to gape."

Gâf, variant kâf "split, slit," stem of kâftan, kâvidan "to split; to dig," Mid./Mod.Pers. škâf- škâftan "to split, burst," Proto-Iranian *kap-, *kaf- "to split;" cf. Gk. skaptein "to dig;" L. scabere "to scratch, scrape," P.Gmc. *skabanan (Goth. skaban; Ger. schaben; E. shave). PIE base *(s)kep- "to cut, to scrape, to hack."

Encke's comet
  دنباله دار ِ انکه   
donbâledâr-e Enké (#)

Fr.: comète de Encke   

A faint comet with the shortest known period (about 3.30 years). Its semimajor axis is 2.21 AU and aphelion 4.1 AU. it is the parent body of the Taurids meteor shower. The comet was first observed in 1786 by the French astronomer Pierre Méchain.

Named after the German astronomer Johann Franz Encke (1791-1865), who in 1819 computed its orbit and proved that sightings of apparently different comets in 1786, 1795, 1805, and 1818 were in fact appearances of the same comet. → comet.

encode
  رمزاندن، رمز‌گذاشتن   
ramzândan, ramz gozâštan

Fr.: codage   

To convert (data, information) into another format by → encoding. See also → decode and → encrypt.

From en- "in; into" + → code.

Ramzândan, infinitive from ramz, → code. Ramz gozâštan, from ramz + gozâštan "to place, put," → nomenclature.

encoder
  رمزانشگر   
ramzânešgar

Fr.: encodeur   

An electronic device or software program used to convert (a message, information, data) into a specialized digital format for efficient transmission or transfer.

encode; → -er.

encoding
  رمزانش، رمز‌گذاری   
ramzâneš, ramz gozâri

Fr.: coder   

A process used for transforming data into another format by means of a scheme that is publicly available so that it can easily be reversed. See also → decoding and → encryption.

encode; → -ing.

encounter
  رویارویی   
ruyâruyi (#)

Fr.: rencontre   

General: A meeting, especially one that is unplanned, unexpected, or brief. An often violent meeting; a clash.
Coming across of two bodies (as two stars in a cluster) which results in the deviation from original directions of motion. → close encounter; → strong encounter; → weak encounter.

From O.Fr. encountrer "confront," from encontre "against, counter to," from L.L. incontra "in front of," from L. in- "in" + contra "against."

Ruyâruyi "being face to face," from ru, ruy "face, countenance," variant rox (Mid.Pers. rôy, rôdh "face," Av. raoδa- "growth," in plural "appearance," from raod- "to grow, sprout, shoot," cf. Skt. róha- "rising, height") + euphonic interfix -â- + ruy + noun suffix -i.

encrypt
  درنهاندن   
darnahândan

Fr.: crypter   

To convert (information or data) into a system of symbols, especially to prevent unauthorized access. See also → decrypt and → encode.

From en- "in; into" + L. crypt, from Gk. kryptos "hidden, concealed, secret" + → -tion.

Darnahândan, from dar-, → in- + nahândan "to hide, conceal," from nahân "concealed, hid; clandestine;" Mid.Pers. nihân "secrecy, a secret place, a hiding place," nihânik "concealed;" Av. niδāti- "deposing, deposit."

encryption
  درنهانش   
darnehâneš (#)

Fr.: cryptage   

A process that transforms data into another format in such a way that only specific individual(s) can reverse the transformation. Encryption is for maintaining data confidentiality. See also → decryption and → encoding.

encrypt; → -tion.

endo-
  درون-   
darun-

Fr.: endo-   

A combining form meaning "within, inside" used in the formation of compound terms such as → endomorphism and → endothermic.

From Fr., from Gk. endon "in, within, at home," from en "in" + -don, base of domos "house," → domain.

Darun "in, into, within;" Mid.Pers. andarôn "inside," from andar, → inter- + rôn "side, direction;" Av. ravan- "(course of a) river."

endoergic process
  فراروند ِ کاروژگیر   
farâravand-e kâružgir

Fr.: processus endoénergétique   

A nuclear or molecular process in which some of the energy of the incoming particle is absorbed by, or transferred to, the other particle.

endo- + -ergic, a combining form with the meanings "activated by, sensitive to, releasing, resembling the effect produced by the substance or phenomenon specified by the initial element," from → erg, → energy + → -ic; → process.

Farâravand, → process; kâružgir, from kâruž, → energy, + gir present stem of gereftan "to take, seize, catch" (Mid.Pers. griftan, Av./O.Pers. grab- "to take, seize," cf. Skt. grah-, grabh- "to seize, take," graha "seizing, holding, perceiving," M.L.G. grabben "to grab," from P.Gmc. *grab, E. grab "to take or grasp suddenly;" PIE base *ghrebh- "to seize").

endomorphism
  درون-ریخت‌مندی   
darun-rixtmandi

Fr.: endomorphisme   

A → morphism from an → object to itself.

endo-; → morphism.

endothermic process
  فراروند ِ گرماگیر   
farâravand-e garmâgir (#)

Fr.: processus endothermique   

Process during which heat is absorbed by the system from outside.

endo- + -therm, from Gk. therme "heat," from PIE *ghwerm-/*ghworm- "warm;" cf. Pers. garm "warm," L. fornax "an oven," O.E. wearm "warm" + → -ic.

From garmâ "heat, warmth" (Mid.Pers. garm, O.Pers./Av. garəma- "hot, warm," cf. Skt. gharmah "heat," Gk. thermos "warm," L. formus "warm," P.Gmc. *warmaz, O.E. wearm, O.H.G., Ger. warm, PIE *ghworm-/*ghwerm-, as above) + gir present tense stem of gereftan "to take, seize, catch" (Mid.Pers. griftan, Av./O.Pers. grab- "to take, seize," cf. Skt. grah-, grabh- "to seize, take," graha "seizing, holding, perceiving," M.L.G. grabben "to grab," from P.Gmc. *grab, E. grab "to take or grasp suddenly;" PIE base *ghrebh- "to seize").

endure
  ۱) پاییدن؛ ۲) تاب آوردن   
1) pâyidan; 2) tâb âvardan

Fr.: 1) durer; 2) supporter, endurer, tolérer   

1) Remain in existence; last.
2) Suffer (something painful or difficult) patiently (OxfordDictionaries.com).

From L. indurare "make hard," from in- + durare "to harden," from durus "hard," → duration.

Pâyidan, → last (v.);
Tâb âvardan b"endure," from tâb "toleration, patience," related to tavân, tavânestan "to be able," → conserve, + âvardan "to bring, to cause, produce," → production.

energetic
  ۱) کاروژمند؛ ۲) کاروژی   
1) kâružmand; 2) kâruži

Fr.: 1) de grande énergie, énergique; 2) énergétique   

1) Having a relatively high amount of energy.
2) Of or relating to energy.

energy + -t + → -ic.

energetic solar particles
  ذره‌های ِ خورشیدی ِ کاروژمند   
zarrehâ-ye xoršidi-ye kâružmand

Fr.: particules solaires énergétiques   

Electrons and atomic nuclei ejected by solar flares, travelling with velocities amounting to a fraction of the velocity of light, and energies mostly in the range 1-100 million → electronvolts (eV), but occasionally as high as 15 billion eVs. Also known as solar → cosmic rays.

Energetic, from Gk. energetikos, from energe-, → energy, + -tikos a suffix, equivalent in meaning to → -ic, occurring in adjectives; → solar; → particle.

Zarrehâ plural of zarré, → particle; xoršidi, → solar; kâružmand from kâruž, → energy, + -mand possession suffix.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>