An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- a p abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi ads aes Age Alb Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app app arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att Aur aut axi azi bac Bal Bar Bar Bay Bec Ber bet bic bij bin bio Bir bla Bla blu blu bol Boo bou bra Bre bro bug C r cal Cal can car Car Cas cat cau cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che cho cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- cod coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cop Cor cor cor cos cos Cou cou CP cre cri cro CSP cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec dee def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu doc doo dou dow Dru dus dwa dyn Dys Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ Era est eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext eye fac fal Far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fit fla flo flu fol for for Fou fra fre Fre ful fuz Gal gal Gal gam gas Gau gen gen geo geo geo gib glo gos gra gra gra gra Gre gri gui H I hal Ham har Haw hea hei hel Hel her het hie hig Hob hom Hor hot Hub hum Huy hyd hyd hyp hyp ico if ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins int int int int int int int int int inv ion iro ise iso iso Jab jet Jov Jur Kee Kep kil Kis kry Lag lam lan Lar lat law lea lem lep Li lig lim lin lin lin lit loc loc lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lym mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec meg Mer Mer met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod MOL mon mor mov mul mur N66 Nap nat nea neg Ner neu New New nic nod non non non nor nov nuc nul num O-t obl obs obt och off Ohm on- opa Oph opt opt ora orb ord Ori ort osc out ove ozo pal pan par par par par pat pec pen per per per per per Pfu pha pho pho pho phy pie pla Pla Pla pla pla Plo poi pol pol pol pol por pos pot pow pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro Pro pro Pru pul pul Pyt qua qua qua qua quo rad rad rad rad rad rad ram Ran rat re- rea rec rec red red ref ref reg Reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho rif Rin Rob Rom rot rot rul S D Sai san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky Slo sno sof sol sol sol sol sor sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr SS sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str stu sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swe syn syn tad Tau tel ten ter tet the the the thi Tho thr tid tim Tit top tot tra tra tra tra tre tri Tro tru tur TW Typ U G ult unb und uni uni uns ura use val vap vec Vel Ven Ver Vie Vir vir vis vol W V war wav wav wea Wei Wez wid win WN3 Wol Wro Y d YOR zen zir > >>

Number of Results: 12974 Search : far
European Space Agency (ESA)
  سازمان ِ فضایی ِ اروپا   
Sâzmân-e Fazâyi-ye Orupâ

Fr.: Agence spatiale européenne   

An intergovernmental organisation dedicated to space research and technology as well as peaceful exploration of space, founded in 1975. It is headquartered in Paris and currently comprises 18 member states and one associated state (Canada). ESA has developed the Ariane series of space launch vehicles, and supports a launch facility in French Guiana. Moreover, ESA has four major research centers: The European Space Research and Technology Center (ESTEC), located in Noordwijk, the Netherlands, is the primary research center and manages the satellite projects. The European Space Operations Center (ESOC), situated in Darmstadt, Germany, is responsible for satellite control, monitoring, and data retrieval. The European Space Research Institute (ESRIN), located in Frascati, Italy, supports the ESA documentation service and manages the data obtained from remote sensing satellites. The European Astronaut Center (EAC), located in Cologne, Germany, is responsible for the selection and training of astronauts for space station missions. The European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), located in Villafranca del Castillo, Madrid, Spain, which holds scientific operations centres as well as archives. Some of the past ESA missions are the following ones. The Giotto space probe, which enabled examination of the core of → Halley's Comet in 1986. ESA also developed the Ulysses spacecraft (launched 1990) to explore the Sun's polar regions. Similarly, ESA established a system of meteorological satellites known as Meteosat. In 2003 ESA launched the Mars Express orbiter and its lander, Beagle 2. In 2009 ESA launched → Planck Satellite, that is designed to study the → cosmic microwave background, and the → Herschel Satellite, an infrared observatory that is the largest telescope in space.

European; → space; agency, from M.L. agentia, from L. ag-, root of agere, → act + -entia noun suffix.

Sâzmân, → organization; fazâyi adj. of fazâ, → space; Orupâ, → Europa.

europium
  اروپیوم   
oropiom (#)

Fr.: europium   

A ductile silvery-white metallic → chemical element; symbol Eu. → Atomic number 63; → atomic weight 151.96; → melting point about 820°C; → boiling point about 1,600°C; → specific gravity 5.25 at 25°C. Europium occurs in monazite and bastnaesite and is used to dope → lasers and to absorb → neutrons in research. It was separated from the mineral samaria in magnesium-samarium nitrate by the French chemist Eugène-Anatole Demarçay (1852-1904) in 1901.

Named after the continent Europe, → Europa.

eutectic
  هوگداز   
hugodâz

Fr.: eutectique   

Mixture of two substances which solidifies as a whole when cooled, without change in composition. The eutectic point is the temperature at which the eutectic mixture solidifies.

From Gk. eutektos "easily melted," from → eu- + tektos "melted" + → -ic.

Hugodâz, from hu-, → eu-, + godâz, → melt.

euthanasia
  آسانمیری   
âsânmiri (#)

Fr.: euthanasie   

The act or practice of putting painlessly to death, or allowing to die, especially in cases of incurable suffering.

From Gk. euthanasia "an easy or happy death," from → eu- "good" + thanatos "death."

Âsânmiri, literally "easy dyind," from âsân, → easy, + miri "dying," from mordan "to die," → death.

evaluate
  ارزیابی کردن   
arzyâbi kardan (#)

Fr.: évaluer   

To determine or set the value or amount of; to judge or determine the significance, worth, or quality of.

Verbal form of → evaluation.

evaluation
  ارزیابی   
arzyâbi (#)

Fr.: évaluation   

An act or instance of evaluating; to examine and judge carefully.

From Fr. évaluer "to find the value of," from → ex- "out" + value "worth, value," p.p. of valoir "be worth," from L. valere "be strong, be of value;" PIE base *wal- "to be strong."

Arzyâbi, from arz "value" + yâbi "finding." The first component arz, present stem of arzidan "to be worth," arzân "worthy; of small value, cheap," arj "esteem, honour, price, worth;" Mid.Pers. arz "value, worth," arzidan "be worth," arzân "valuable;" Av. arəjaiti "is worth," arəja- "valuable," arəg- "to be worth;" cf. Skt. arh- "to be worth, to earn," árhant- "worthy person;" Gk. alphanein "to bring in as profit," alphein "to ear, obtain;" Lith. algà "salary, pay;" PIE base *algwh- "to earn; price, value." The second component yâbi, verbal noun of yâftan, yâbidan "to find, discover; to obtain, acquire;" Mid.Pers. ayâftan, ayâpênitan "to reach, attain;" Manichean Mid.Pers. 'y'b "to attain;" Parthian, Sogdian (+ *pati-) pty'b "to reach, obtain;" Av. ap- "to reach, overtake," apayeiti "achieved, reached;" Skt. âp- "to reach, gain," âpnoti "reaches, gains;" Gk. hapto, haptomai "to touch, cling to, adhere to;" L. apiscor "touch, reach;" PIE base *ap- "to take, reach."

evanesce
  ونیدن   
venidan

Fr.: évanouir, disparaître   

To disappear gradually.

vanish.

evanescent
  وننده   
venandé

Fr.: évanescent   

Tending to → vanish gradually.

Verbal adj. from → evanesce.

evanescent wave
  موج ِ وننده   
mowj-e venandé

Fr.: onde évanescente   

A wave whose → amplitude → decreases → exponentially with distance from the → interface at which it is formed. Evanescent waves are formed when → sinusoidal waves are internally reflected off an interface at an angle greater than the → critical angle so that → total internal reflection occurs.

evanescent; → wave.

evaporate
  بخاریدن؛ بخاراندن   
boxâridan; boxârândan

Fr.: évaporer   

(v.intr.) To change from liquid state into vapor; (v.tr.) To convert into a gaseous state or vapor.

Verbal form of → evaporation.

evaporation
  بخارش   
boxâreš

Fr.: évaporation   

The physical process by which a liquid is transformed to the gaseous state, usually by means of heat; the opposite of → condensation. Also called vaporization.

From L. evaporationem (nom. evaporatio), from evaporare "to disperse in vapor," from → ex- "out" + → vapor "steam."

Boxârš, verbal noun of boxâridan "to evaporate," from boxâr, → vapor.

evection
  اسبز   
osbaz

Fr.: évection   

A periodic perturbation in the motion of the → Moon caused by the variation in the gravitational pull of the Sun, which causes a change in the → eccentricity of the Moon's orbit during its monthly revolution. As a result, the Moon's → ecliptic longitude oscillates with a amplitude of ± 1°16' during a period of about 31.8 days.

From L. evection- "carrying away, going upwards, flight," from evect(us) p.p. of evehere "to carry forth, move forth," from e-, → ex- + vehere "to carry," cognate with Av. vaz- "to carry, move," as below.

Osbaz "carrying away," from os-, → ex-, + *baz "to carry," ultimately from Proto-Ir. *uaz- "to carry, drive;" from which Av. vaz- "to move, carry, drive (a chariot)," vazaiti "to lead;" Kurd. (Kurmanji) bazin/baz- "to run;" Mod./Mid.Pers. bazidan, vazidan "to blow (as the wind)," parvâz, → flight; cf. Skt. vah- "to ride, drive, transport;" Gk. oxos "carriage;" L. vehere "to carry;" Lith. veži "I ride;" O.H.G. wegan "to move, carry;" PIE base *wegh- "to go, carry, drive." See also: → advection; → convection.

even parity
  همالی ِ زوج   
hamâli-ye zowj

Fr.: parité paire   

A classical variable which does not change upon spatial inversion, such as time, energy, angular momentum and so on. → odd parity.

Even, from O.E. efen "level; equal," from P.Gmc. *ebnaz (cf. Ger. eben; Goth. ibns); → parity.

Hamâli, → parity; zowj "pair, couple; an even number," from Ar.

evening
  ایوار، شامگاه   
ivâr (#), šâmgâh (#)

Fr.: soir, soirée   

The latter part of the → day and early part of the → night. Not an astronomical term proper. → evening star.

From O.E. verb æfnung "to grow toward evening," from æfnian "to become evening," from æfen "evening," from P.Gmc. *æbando- (cf. O.H.G. aband, Ger. abend).

Ivâr "evening" (Lori, Laki êvâra; Borujerdi ivâra; Kurd. ewâra); Mid.Pers. êvârak "evening;" šâmgâh, from šâm "evening, evening meal" + gâh "time." The first component, šâm, from Mid.Pers. šâm "evening meal, supper," from Av. xšāfnya- "evening meal," from Av. xšap-, xšapā-, xšapan-, xšafn- "night" (O.Pers. xšap- "night;" Mid.Pers. šap; Mod.Pers. šab "night"); cf. Skt. ksap- "nigh, darkness;" Hitt. ispant- "night." The second component gâh "time;" Mid.Pers. gâh, gâs "time;" O.Pers. gāθu-; Av. gātav-, gātu- "place, throne, spot;" cf. Skt. gâtu- "going, motion; free space for moving; place of abode;" PIE *gwem- "to go, come."

evening star
  ستاره‌ی ِ شامگاه   
setâre-ye šâmgâh (#)

Fr.: étoile du soir   

Any bright → planet, often → Venus, seen low in the western sky after → sunset. → Hesperus.

evening; → star.

event
  رویداد   
ruydâd (#)

Fr.: événement   

1) General: Something that happens or is regarded as happening; an occurrence, especially one of some importance.
2) Einstein's relativity: An occurrence in the → space-time continuum referenced by three spatial coordinates and a complementary temporal ordinate. → world line; → space-time diagram.
3) Statistics: A subset of the → sample space.

From M.Fr. event, from L. eventus "occurrence, issue," from evenire "to come out, happen, result," from → ex- "out" + venire "to come," from PIE base *gwem- "to go, come;" cf. Mod/Mid.Pers. gâm "step, pace;" O.Pers. gam- "to come; to go;" Av. gam- "to come; to go," jamaiti "goes;" Mod.Pers. âmadan "to come;" Skt. gamati "goes;" Gk. bainein "to go, walk, step;" L. venire "to come;" Tocharian A käm- "to come;" O.H.G. queman "to come;" E. come.

Ruydâd, noun from ruy dâdan "to occur, happen," originally "to appear," from ruy "face; aspect; appearance" (Mid.Pers. rôy, rôdh "face;" Av. raoδa- "growth," in plural "appearance," from raod- "to grow, sprout, shoot;" cf. Skt. róha- "rising, height") + dâdan "to give; to command" (Mid.Pers. dâdan "to give;" O.Pers./Av. dā- "to give, grant, yield," dadāiti "he gives;" cf. Skt. dadáti "he gives;" Gk. didomi "I give;" L. dare "to give, offer," facere to make;" PIE base *do- to give").

event horizon
  افق ِ رویداد   
ofoq-e ruydâd (#)

Fr.: horizon d'événement   

1) The surface surrounding a → black hole with the property that any light ray emitted inside it cannot escape to the outer space because of the strength of the → gravitational field. The radius of the event horizon is called the → Schwarzschild radius. See also → photon sphere.
2) For an observer A at the instant t0, the surface in the → space-time that divides the collection of all events into two non-empty classes: those events that have been, are being, or will be observed by A, and those that A has never observed and will never be able to observe (J. Plebanski, A. Krasinski, 2006, An Introduction to General Relativity and Cosmology, Cambridge Univ. Press).

event; → horizon.

Event Horizon Telescope (EHT)
  تلسکوپ ِ افق ِ رویداد   
Teleskop-e Ofoq-e Ruydâd

Fr.: Télescope de l'horizon des évènements   

An international collaboration using a → very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) array comprising millimeter- and → submillimeter- wavelength telescopes separated by distances comparable to the diameter of the Earth. At a nominal operating wavelength of ~1.3 mm, the EHT → angular resolution (λ/D) is ~25 μas (→ micro- → arcseconds), which is sufficient to resolve nearby → supermassive black hole candidates on spatial and temporal scales that correspond to their → event horizons. EHT observations toward the elliptical → galaxy M87 succeeded in obtaining the first ever image of its supermassive black hole (EHT Collaboration, 2019, ApJL 875, L1-L6). The telescopes contributing to this result were ALMA, APEX, the IRAM 30-m telescope, the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, the Large Millimeter Telescope Alfonso Serrano, the Submillimeter Array, the Submillimeter Telescope, and the South Pole Telescope. Petabytes of raw data from the telescopes were combined by highly specialized supercomputers hosted by the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy and MIT Haystack Observatory. The construction of the EHT and the M87 black hole observation result from decades of observational, technical, and theoretical work in close collaboration by researchers from around the world. Thirteen partner institutions worked together to create the EHT, using both pre-existing infrastructure and support from a variety of agencies. Key funding was provided by the US National Science Foundation (NSF), the EU's European Research Council (ERC), and funding agencies in East Asia.

event; → horizon; → telescope.

ever-expanding Universe
  گیتی ِ هماره‌سپانا   
giti-ye hamâré sopânâ

Fr.: Univers en expansion continue   

Same as → accelerating Universe.

expand; → Universe.

evidence
  آویشه   
âvišé

Fr.: évidence, preuve   

That which tends to prove or disprove something; something that makes plain or clear.

Noun form of → evident.

Âvišé, from âviš, → evident + noun suffix , Mid.Pers. -ak/-ag.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- a p abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi ads aes Age Alb Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app app arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att Aur aut axi azi bac Bal Bar Bar Bay Bec Ber bet bic bij bin bio Bir bla Bla blu blu bol Boo bou bra Bre bro bug C r cal Cal can car Car Cas cat cau cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che cho cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- cod coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cop Cor cor cor cos cos Cou cou CP cre cri cro CSP cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec dee def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu doc doo dou dow Dru dus dwa dyn Dys Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ Era est eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext eye fac fal Far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fit fla flo flu fol for for Fou fra fre Fre ful fuz Gal gal Gal gam gas Gau gen gen geo geo geo gib glo gos gra gra gra gra Gre gri gui H I hal Ham har Haw hea hei hel Hel her het hie hig Hob hom Hor hot Hub hum Huy hyd hyd hyp hyp ico if ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins int int int int int int int int int inv ion iro ise iso iso Jab jet Jov Jur Kee Kep kil Kis kry Lag lam lan Lar lat law lea lem lep Li lig lim lin lin lin lit loc loc lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lym mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec meg Mer Mer met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod MOL mon mor mov mul mur N66 Nap nat nea neg Ner neu New New nic nod non non non nor nov nuc nul num O-t obl obs obt och off Ohm on- opa Oph opt opt ora orb ord Ori ort osc out ove ozo pal pan par par par par pat pec pen per per per per per Pfu pha pho pho pho phy pie pla Pla Pla pla pla Plo poi pol pol pol pol por pos pot pow pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro Pro pro Pru pul pul Pyt qua qua qua qua quo rad rad rad rad rad rad ram Ran rat re- rea rec rec red red ref ref reg Reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho rif Rin Rob Rom rot rot rul S D Sai san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky Slo sno sof sol sol sol sol sor sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr SS sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str stu sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swe syn syn tad Tau tel ten ter tet the the the thi Tho thr tid tim Tit top tot tra tra tra tra tre tri Tro tru tur TW Typ U G ult unb und uni uni uns ura use val vap vec Vel Ven Ver Vie Vir vir vis vol W V war wav wav wea Wei Wez wid win WN3 Wol Wro Y d YOR zen zir > >>