An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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 existence problem   پراسه‌ی ِ هستومندی، ~ هستی   parâse-ye hustumandi, ~ hastiFr.: problème d'existence   Math: The question of whether a → solution to a given → problem exists.→ existence; → problem. existence proof   آوین ِ هستومندی، ~ هستی   âvin-e hastumandi, ~ hastiFr.: preuve d'existence   Math.: An → argument that establishes an → existence theorem.→ existence; → proof. existence theorem   فربین ِ هستومندی، ~ هستی   farbin-e hastumandi, ~ hastiFr.: théorème d'existence   Math: A theorem that asserts the existence of at least one object, such as the → solution to a → problem or → equation.→ existence; → theorem. existent   هستومند   hastumand (#)Fr.: existant   Existing; having existence.→ exist. existential   هستیال   hastiyâlFr.: existentiel   1) Of or relating to → existence, especially  human existence. 2) Philo.:  Pertaining to what exists, and is thus known by experience rather  than reason; empirical as opposed to theoretical. 3) Logic: Denoting or relating to a → formula or → proposition asserting the existence of at least one object fulfilling a given condition; containing an → existential quantifier. 4) Of or relating to → existentialism (Dictionary.com).From L.L. existentialis, → existence, → -al.Hastiyâl, from hasti, → existence, + -al a suffix of attributes forming adjectives that often become nouns, in this case preferred to -i because hasti ends in -i, → -al. existential quantifier   چنداگر ِ هستیال   candâgar-e hastiyâlFr.: quantificateur existentiel   A symbol of → predicate logic which expresses that the statements within its scope are → true for at least one instance of something. The symbol ∃ is used as the existential quantifier. Existential quantifiers are normally used in logic in → conjunction with → predicate symbols, which say something about a → variable or → constant, in this case the variable being quantified (→ quantify, → quantification).→ existential; → quantifier. existentialism   هستیال‌باوری، هستیال‌گرایی   hastiyâl-bâvari, hastiyâl-gerâyiFr.: existentialisme   A philosophical attitude associated especially with Heidegger, Jaspers, Marcel, and  Sartre, and opposed to → rationalism and  → empiricism, that stresses the individual's  unique position as a self-determining agent responsible for the authenticity of his or  her choices (Dictionary.com).→ existential; → -ism. existentialist   هستیال‌باور، هستیال‌گرا   hastiyâl-bâvar, hastiyâl-gerâFr.: existentialiste   An advocate of → existentialism.→ existential; → -ist. exit   اسرفت   osraftFr.: sortie   A way or passage out.From L. exit "he or she goes out," from exire "to go out," from → ex- "out" + ire "to go;" cf. Gk ion " going," neut. pr.p. of ienai "to go;" Pers. ây-, â- present stem of âmadan "to come;" O.Pers. aitiy "goes;" Av. ay- "to go, to come," aēiti "goes;" Skt. e- "to come near," eti "arrival;" Goth. iddja "went," Lith. eiti "to go;" Russ. idti "to go."Osraft, from os-, → ex- "out," + raft, raftan "to go, walk," → entrance. exit pupil   مردمک ِ اسرفت   mardomak-e osraftFr.: pupille de sortie   In an → optical system, the → image of the → aperture stop formed by the elements following it. See also → entrance pupil.→ exit; → pupil. exo-   برون-   borun- (#)Fr.: exo-   Prefix meaning "outside; outer; external" used in the formation of compound words: exoplanet, exosphere, exocentric.From Gk. exo "outside," used in forming scientific terms, → ex-.Borun-, from borun "out, the outside" (Mid.Pers. bêron, from bê "outside, out, away" + rôn "side, direction;" Av. ravan- "(course of a) river"). exobiology   برون‌زیست‌شناسی   borun zistšenâsiFr.: exobiologie   The study of life beyond the Earth's atmosphere, as on other planets; also → astrobiology.→ exo-; → biology. exoEarth   برون‌زمین   borun-zaminFr.: exoterre   An → exoplanet similar to Earth.→ exo- + → earth. exolife   برونزیست   borunzistFr.: vie extraterrestre   → exo-; → life. ExoMars   اگزو-مارس   ExoMarsFr.: ExoMars   A → European Space Agency (ESA) program to investigate the Martian environment and to demonstrate new technologies paving the way for a future Mars sample return mission in the 2020's. Two missions are foreseen: one consisting of an Orbiter plus an Entry, Descent and Landing Demonstrator Module (EDM), launched in 2016, and the other, featuring a rover, with a launch date of 2018. Both missions will be carried out in cooperation with Russia's Roscosmos space agency. The ExoMars program will demonstrate a number of essential flight and in-situ enabling technologies that are necessary for future exploration missions, such as an international Mars Sample Return mission. At the same time, a number of important scientific investigations will be carried out. The 2016 mission included a Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) and an EDM. The Orbiter will carry scientific instruments to detect and study atmospheric trace gases, such as methane. The EDM will contain sensors to evaluate the lander's performance as it descends, and additional sensors to study the environment at the landing site. The 2018 mission includes a rover that will carry a drill and a suite of instruments dedicated to exobiology and geochemistry research.ExoMars, short for "→ exobiology on → Mars." exomoon   برونمانگ   borunmângFr.: exolune   A natural → satellite orbiting an → extrasolar planet.→ exo-; → moon. exoplanet   برون‌سیاره   borun-sayyârehFr.: exoplanète   Same as → extrasolar planet.→ exo- + → planet. exoplanetary   برون‌سیاره‌ای   borun-sayyâre-yiFr.: exoplanétaire   Of, relating to, or resembling an → exoplanet or exoplanets.→ exoplanet; → -ary. exoplanetary system   راژمان ِ برون‌سیاره‌ای   râſmân-e borun-sayyâre-yiFr.: système exoplanétaire   A → planetary system consisting of → exoplanets orbiting a star other than Sun.→ exoplanetary; → system. exoplanetary transit   گذر ِ برون‌سیاره‌ای   gozar-e borun-sayyâre-yiFr.: transit d'exoplanète   The passage of an → exoplanet across the face its star.→ exoplanetary; → transit.