An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12955 Search : far
facula
  پریسک   
perisk

Fr.: facule   

A bright area of the → photosphere of the Sun visible in white light and best seen near the solar limb, although they occur all across the Sun. Faculae raise several hundred kilometers above the photosphere and are associated with → sunspots. They often appear immediately before the formation of a sunspot group and remain visible for several days or weeks after the disappearance of the spots. Faculae are formed when a strong magnetic field heats a region of the photosphere to higher temperatures than the surrounding area.

Facula, from L. fac-, fax "torch" + -ula, → -ule.

Perisk, periska, biriske in Lori, Laki, and Kurd. dialects "spark" (Lârestâni pelita), probably related to Lori porpor "blazing charcoal," Gilaki bur, biur "smokeless red fire;" cf. Tokharian por, puwar "fire;" Gk. pyr "fire;" Hitt. pahhur "fire;" Skt. pū- "to cleanse;" E. fire; O..E. fyr, from P.Gmc. *fuir (cf. O.N. fürr, M.Du. vuur, Ger. Feuer); PIE base *paewr- "fire."

Fahrenheit scale
  مرپل ِ فارنهایت   
marpel-e Fahrenhait

Fr.: échelle de Fahrenheit   

A temperature scale (°F) in which the → freezing point of → water is 32 degrees and the → boiling point is 212 degrees; the points are placed 180 degrees apart. It converts to the → Celsius scale by the formula: C = (5/9)(F - 32). See also → Kelvin scale, → Rankine scale, → Reaumur scale.

Developed by the German physicist Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736); → scale.

fail
  غاویدن   
qâvidan

Fr.: échouer, faillir   

1) To be unsuccessful in achieving something expected, attempted, or desired.
2) To neglect to do something.
3) To be e unsuccessful in an examination.

M.E. failen, from O.Fr. falir "be lacking, miss, not succeed; come to an end; make a mistake; be dying," from Vulgar L. *fallire, from L. fallere "to trip, cause to fall;" figuratively "to deceive, trick, dupe, cheat; fail, be lacking or defective."

Qâvidan, from Choresmian γaw "to fail, to commit a fault;" cf. Av. gau- "to commit a sin;" Parthian (+*fra-) pargaw- "to owe, to lack;" Ossetian qaewyn/qyd "to be in need of something, to lack;" Proto-Ir. *gaHu- "to be faulty, wanting; to need;" PIE *gheHu- "to be faulty, lacking, insufficient;" cf. Old L. hauelod "insufficient, false," L. hau(d) "not;" O.Irish gáu, gó; Welsh gau "lie" (Cheung 2007).

failure
  غاوش   
qâveš

Fr.: échec, défaillance   

1) An act or instance of failing; lack of success.
2) A state of inability to perform a normal function.

Verbal noun from → fail.

faint
  نزار، کمتاب، کمنور   
nazâr, kamtâb (#), kamnur (#)

Fr.: faible   

Lacking brightness, clearness, loudness, strength, etc.

From O.Fr. faint "soft, weak, sluggish," p.p. of feindre "to avoid one's duty by pretending, pretend," from L. fingere "to devise, fabricate," originally "to shape, invent, to form," from PIE base *dheigh- "to form, shape."

Nazâr, from Mid.Pers. nizâr "weak, feeble" (variant zâr), zarmân "old man, deterioration;" Av. zairina- "exhausting, slackening," zaurura- "weak through old age, decrepit;" cf. Skt. jára- "wearing out, exhaustion," jaranā- "old, decayed," jarimán- "weakness through old age," Gk. geron "old man," L. granum "grain;" PIE base *ger- "wear away."
Kamtâb, from kam "little, few; deficient, wanting; scarce," from Mid.Pers. kam "little, small, few," O.Pers./Av. kamna- "small, few" + tâb "light; heat, warmth; illuminating," from tâbidan, tâftan "to shine," tafsidan "to become hot;" Av. tāp-, taf- "to warm up, heat," tafsat "became hot," tāpaiieiti "to create warmth;" cf. Skt. tap- "to spoil, injure, damage; to suffer; to heat, be/become hot," tapati "burns;" L. tepere "to be warm," tepidus "warm;" PIE base *tep- "warm."
Kamnur, from kam, as above, + nur, → light.

faint early Sun paradox
  پارادخش ِ خورشید ِ کمتاب ِ آغازین   
pârâdaxš-e xoršid-e kamtâb-e âqâzin

Fr.: paradoxe du Soleil jeune faible   

The contradiction between a colder Sun (about 30% less luminous) some 4 billion years ago, as predicted by models, and the warm ancient Terrestrial and Martian climates derived from geological evidence.

faint; → early; → sun; → paradox.

faint star
  ستاره‌ی ِ کمنور، ~ نزار   
setâre-ye kamnur (#), ~ nazâr

Fr.: étoile faible   

For unaided eye, a star of visual magnitude around 5-6. Otherwise, on an image, a star that has a lesser brightness compared to others of the same field.

faint; → star.

faith
  ایمان   
imân (#)

Fr.: foi   

1) Confidence or trust in a person or thing.
2) Belief that is not based on proof.
3) A system of religious belief (Dictionary.com).

M.E. feith fei, fai "faithfulness to a trust or promise; loyalty to a person; honesty, truthfulness," from Anglo-Fr. and O.Fr. feid, foi "faith, belief, trust, confidence; pledge," from L. fides "trust, faith, confidence, reliance, credence, belief," from root of fidere "to trust,"from PIE root *bheidh- "to trust, confide, persuade."

Imân, loan from Ar. al-imân "faith, belief, trust."

fall
  افت   
oft (#)

Fr.: chute   

A collected meteorite whose arrival on Earth is witnessed, as opposed to a → find.

M.E. fallen, from O.E. feallan, from P.Gmc. *fallanan (cf. O.N. falla, O.H.G. fallan), from PIE base *phol- "to fall" (cf. Arm. p'ul "downfall;" Lith. puola "to fall").

Oft, stem of oftâdan "to fall;" Mid.Pers. opastan "to fall," patet "falls;" Av. pat- " to fly, fall, rush," patarəta- "winged;" cf. Skt. patati "he flies, falls," pátra- "wing, feather, leaf;" Gk. piptein "to fall," pterux "wing;" L. penna "feather, wing;" O.E. feðer "feather;" PIE base *pet- "to fly, rush."

fallacy
  تیتال   
titâl

Fr.: erreur, illusion, faux raisonnement   

Logic: An → error in → reasoning that renders an → argument logically → invalid such as affirming the → consequent and → denying the → antecedent.

From L. fallacia "deception," from fallere "to deceive, trick, cheat; fail, be defective."

Titâl (Dehxodâ) "deceit; deceiving speech, fallacious words;" cf. Tabari titâl hâ kərdan "to deceive (somebody) wheedlingly," Pashtu titâl "duplicity, guile, deceit, fraud."

false
  زیف   
zif (#)

Fr.: faux   

1) Not true or correct; erroneous.
2) Not properly, accurately, or honestly made, done, or adjusted.
false color, → false dawn, → false nucleus, → false vacuum.

From O.Fr. fals, faus, from L. falsus "deceived, erroneous, mistaken," p.p. of fallere "to deceive, disappoint."

Zif, from Tâleši saf "wrong," from Mid.Pers. zêfân, zaspân "wrong, vile;" in classical Pers. dictionaries zif "churlishness; sin."

false color
  رنگ ِ زیف   
rang-e zif

Fr.: fausse couleur   

In imaging technique, assigning color to black and white images to differentiate features or convey information. → true color.

false; → color.

false dawn
  بامداد ِ زیف، ~ دروغین   
bâmdâd-e zif, ~ doruqin

Fr.: aube trompeuse   

An unusually early glow of the horizon near the rising sun during certain times of the year. This early glow does not originate directly from the Sun, but is rather caused by → zodiacal light. It may be mistaken for a sunrise.

false; → dawn.

false nucleus
  هسته‌ی ِ زیف   
haste-ye zif

Fr.: faux noyau   

An especially concentrated region in the → coma of some → comets, representing the dense cloud of inner coma rather than the much smaller true nucleus. Also called apparent nucleus and → pseudo-nucleus.

false; → nucleus.

false vacuum
  خلاء ِ زیف   
xala'-e zif

Fr.: faux vide   

A peculiar, hypothetical state of matter which is predicted to exist by current theories of → elementary particles, including the → grand unified theories. Unlike the ordinary vacuum, a false vacuum has a large → energy density and a large → negative pressure. A false vacuum is the driving force behind the rapid expansion in the → inflationary model of the → Universe.

false; → vacuum.

falsifiability
  زیفیدنیگی، زیفش‌پذیری   
zifidanigi, zifešpaziri

Fr.: falsifiabilité   

Philosophy of science: The concept according to which a proposition or theory cannot be scientific if it does not admit consideration of the possibility of its being false. According to Karl Popper (1902-1994), falsifiability is the crucial feature of scientific hypotheses. Any theory not falsifiable is said to be unscientific.

falsifiable; → -ity.

falsifiable
  زیفیدنی، زیفش‌پذیر   
zifidani, zifešpazir

Fr.: falsifiable   

The quality of something that can be falsified. → falsifiability.

falsify; → -able.

falsify
  زیفیدن   
zifidan

Fr.: falsifier   

1) To show or prove that a theory is incorrect or false.
2) To alter something in order to deceive.

Verb from → false.

falsity
  زیفی   
zifi

Fr.:   

The quality or condition of being → false. Opposite of → truth.

false; → -ity.

family
  خانواده   
xânevâdé (#)

Fr.: famille   

A group of entities with similar properties and common origin. → family of curves, → family of distributions, → family of sets, → comet family.

From L. familia "household, the slaves of a household," from famulus "servant," of unknown origin.

Xânevâdé "family," from xâné "house, home, houshold" + vâdé "root, foundation, origin." Xâné, from Mid.Pers. xânak, xân, xôn; cf. L. cunae "cradle;" Gk. kome "village;" Pers. Aftari dialect kiye "house, home;" PIE base *kei- "bed; to lie, to settle; beloved" (other cognates: P.Gmc. *khaim-; O.E. ham "dwelling, house, village;" E. home; Ger. Heim; L. civis "townsman;" Fr. cité; E. city; Skt. śiva- "auspicious, dear").

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dog Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn e-f Ear ecl eco edu eig Ein ela ele ele ele Ele elo emi emp ene Enl env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh Exo exp exp ext ext f(R fac fam fat fee Fer Fib fig fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre Fre fri fun fuz Gal gal gal Gam gau Gay gen Geo geo geo geo gim glo gov gra gra gra gra gre gro Gun hab hal han Har haz hea hel hel Hen Her het Hig hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind Ind inf inf inf inf inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv ion ion Irr iso iso iso jan jit Jul jus Kel ker kin kni La lam lan Lap las lat Lay Led Len let lif lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou low lum lun Lym M d Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man mar mas mas mat mea mea mec mem mer Mes met met mho mic Mie Mil min mis MKS MOd mol Mon moo mot mul mul myo nak Nas nat neb neg neu neu New New nit noi non non nor nor nuc nuc nul nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi pai Pan par par Par par pas Pav Pel per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy Pip Pla pla PLA pla ple plu pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pot Pra pre pre pre Pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul pur qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret RHB rid rig ris roc Ros rot rub Rut Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci Sea sec sec see sel sem sen set Sha sha shi shu sid sil sim sin SIS ski Slo smo Soc sol sol sol sol son sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi Spo squ sta sta sta sta Ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur Swa syn syn tab tar tel tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tit top tot tra tra TRA tra tre tri tri tru Tun Tus tym Typ ult unb und uni uni uns upp Urs vac van var Vei Ven ver vic Vir vir vis vol W 4 war wat wav wea wed wet wid win WN2 Wol wri xen yok zen zin > >>