An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>

Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
extrinsic semiconductor
  نیم‌هازا‌ی ِ برونگین   
nimhâzâ-ye borungin

Fr.: semiconducteur extrinsèque   

A semiconductor, such as silicon, whose responsive properties can be altered by the addition of impurities. Copper- and mercury-doped germanium are both examples of this semiconductor material.

extrinsic; → semiconductor.

extrinsic variable star
  ستاره‌ی ِ ورتنده‌ی ِ برونگین   
setâre-ye vartande-ye borungin

Fr.: étoile variable extrinsèque   

A star whose variation in apparent brightness is not due to changes in the star itself but to some external cause, such as eclipsing by a companion.

extrinsic; → variable; → star.

eye
  چشم   
cašm (#)

Fr.: œil   

The organ of vision that detects light.

O.E. ege (Mercian), eage (W. Saxon), from P.Gmc. *augon, from PIE *okw- "to see;" cf. Av. aši- "(both) eyes;" Skt. áksi- "eye;" Gk. osse "(both) eyes;" Goth. augo; O.C.S. oko; Lith. akis; L. oculus; Arm. ac-kh "eye."

Cašm, from Mid.Pers. cašm, Av. cašman- "eye," ākas- "to look," from prefix ā- + Proto-Iranian *kas- "to look, appear," cf. Skt. cáksus- "seeing."

eye relief
  چشم‌نهاد   
cašm nehâd

Fr.: dégagement oculaire   

The distance between the eyepiece of a telescope and the location of the exit pupil. This is where the observer's eye should be positioned to see the entire field of view of the eyepiece. Also termed eye distance.

eye; relief, from M.E. relef, from O.Fr. relief "assistance," from relever "to raise," from L. relevare "to raise, alleviate," from re- intensive prefix, + levare "to lift up, lighten."

Cašm nehâd "eye position," from cašm, → eye, + nehâd "position, placing, posture," contracted form of nehâdan "to place, put;" Mid.Pers. nihâtan; Av. ni- "down; into," → ni-, + dā- "to put; to establish; to give," dadāiti "he gives;" cf. Skt. dadāti "he gives;" Gk. didomi "I give;" L. do "I give;" PIE base *do- "to give."

eye safety
  گزند ِ چشم، زیلگی ِ ~   
gazand-e cašm, zilegi-ye ~

Fr.: sécurité oculaire   

The necessary precautions that must be taken in order to avoid damaging the eyes when watching a → solar eclipse. The only time that the Sun can be viewed safely with the naked eye is during a → total eclipse, when the Moon completely covers the disk of the Sun. It is never safe to look at a → partial eclipse or → annular eclipse, or the partial phases of a total solar eclipse, without the proper equipment and techniques. Even when 99% of the Sun's surface (the → photosphere) is obscured during the partial phases of a solar eclipse, the remaining crescent Sun is still intense enough to cause permanent retinal damage, especially when viewed through binoculars or other optical aids (F. Espenak, NASA).

eye; safety, M.E. sauvete, from O.Fr. salvetet, from M.L. salvitatem "safety," from L. salvus, cognate with Pers. har "all, each, every," → holo-.

Gazand "damage, injury," Mid.Pers. wizend, ultimately from *ui-jan-, from *ui- "apart, away from," → expand, + *jan- "to beat, strike," cf. Pers. zan-, zadan "to beat, strike," → beat; cašm, → eye
Zilegi, → security.

eyeglasses
  عینک   
eynak (#)

Fr.: lunettes   

A device consisting of a pair of glass or plastic lenses worn in a frame in front of the eyes to help correct imperfect vision or protect the eyes from light, dust, and the like. Also called glasses, spectacles.

eye; → glass.

Eynak, probably related to âyené "mirror," âbginé "glass" (Mid.Pers. êwênag "mirror," from *âdênak, from Proto-Iranian *ādayanaka-, from prefix ā- + the root of Av. dā(y)- "to see," didāti "sees" (cf. Mod.Pers. didan "to see," Mid.Pers. ditan "to see, regard, catch sight of, contemplate, experience;" O.Pers. dī- "to see;" Skt. dhī- "to perceive, think, ponder; thought, reflection, meditation," dādhye; Gk. dedorka "have seen") + suffix -ak). Other obsolete Pers. equivalents for eyeglasses are cešm-e farangi "Frank/European eye" and âyene-ye farangi "Frank/European glass." And it seems that the oldest mention of eyeglasses in Pers. is by the poet Jâmi (1414-1492), who calls it farangi šišé "Frank/European glass." These paradigms support the relation between eynak and âyené. As for the more recent term sam'ak "hearing aid," which is invoked to relate eynak to eyn (Ar. 'ayn "eye"), it may have been coined on the model of eynak supposing that eyn means "eye."

eyepiece
  چشمی   
cašmi (#)

Fr.: oculaire   

A → lens system, also known as an → ocular, used to → magnify the → image formed by the → objective of a → telescope.

eye; → piece.

Cašmi "ocular," adj. of cašmeye + -i adj. suffix.

F corona
  تاج ِ F   
tâj-e F

Fr.: couronne F   

The exterior part of the → solar corona, illuminated by solar light scattered or reflected by dust particles. The same phenomenon also produces the → zodiacal light, much farther away from the Sun. The dust particles are at most several microns in size and make up a disk stretching over almost 1 solar radius (700,000 km) from the Sun's surface. Unlike electrons, which are responsible for the → K corona, the dust particles move relatively slowly. Thus, the light scattered by them has the same spectrum as the → photosphere and shows the → Fraunhofer lines. The F corona is the most luminous part of the corona at 1.5 solar radii from the Sun's surface (M.S.: SDE).

F referring to the Fraunhofer lines; → corona.

f mode
  ترز ِ f، مُد ِ ~   
tarz-e f, mod-e ~

Fr.: mode f   

Waves that propagate only on the stellar surface. See also: → oscillation mode; → g mode; → p mode.

f referring to → fundamental; → mode.

F ring
  حلقه‌ی ِ F   
halqe-ye F

Fr.: anneau F   

The → Saturn's ring, with a width of 30-500 km, lying just outside of the → A ring, at 140,210 km from the center of Saturn.

ring.

f(R) gravity
  گرانی ِ (R)f   
gerâni-ye f(R)

Fr.: gravité f(r)   

An extension of Einstein's → general relativity derived from relaxing the hypothesis that the → Hilbert-Einstein action for the → gravitational field is strictly linear. This was done by replacing the → Ricci scalar, R, with a non-linear function of R:
S = (1/2κ)∫d4x (-g)1/2f(R) + Sm,
where κ ≡ 8πG and Sm is the matter part of the action. The case of f(R) = R represents the simplest type of f(R) gravity theories. The discovery of → dark energy in 1998 stimulated the idea that → cosmic acceleration today may originate from some modification of gravity to general relativity. Dark energy models based on f(R) theories have been extensively studied as the simplest modified gravity scenario to realize the late-time acceleration. There are three versions of f(R) modified gravity: metric (or second order) formalism, Palatini (or first order) formalism, and metric-affine gravity.

f(R), function of the → Ricci scalar; → gravity.

f-number
  عدد ِ کانونی   
adad-e kânuni (#)

Fr.: nombre d'ouverture   

Same as → focal ratio.

f, from → focal; → number.

F-type star
  ستاره‌ی ِ گونه‌ی ِ F   
setâre-ye gune-ye F

Fr.: étoile de type F   

A star whose spectrum is characterized by strong → absorption lines of ionized → calcium, Ca II (→ H and K lines), which become much stronger than the hydrogen lines of the → Balmer series. A multitude of fainter metallic lines are also present. Ca II lines strengthen to later types. → Main sequence F stars, of which → Procyon is an example, have a → surface temperature of 6,000 to 7,400°C and a mass of 1.1 to 1.4 → solar masses (Habets & Heintze, 1981, AASS 46, 193).

B, letter of alphabet used in the → Harvard classification; → type; → star.

Faber-Jackson relation
  بازانش فیبر-جکسون   
bâzâneš-e Faber-Jackson

Fr.: relation Faber-Jackson   

An empirical power-law correlation between the luminosity (L) and the velocity dispersion of stars (σ) in the center of a elliptical galaxies. The original relation can be expressed mathematically as: L ∝ σγ, where the index γ is observed to be approximately equal to 4, but depends on the range of galaxy luminosities that is fitted. → Tully-Fisher relation.

After the astronomers Sandra M. Faber and Robert Earl Jackson, who first noted this relation in 1976 (ApJ 204, 668); → relation.

fable
  افسانه   
afsâné (#)

Fr.: fable   

1) A short tale to teach a moral lesson, often with animals or inanimate objects as characters.
2) A story not founded on fact.
3) A story about supernatural or extraordinary persons or incidents; legend (Dictionary.com).

M.E. able, fabel, fabul, from O.Fr. fable "story, fable, tale; drama, play, fiction; lie, falsehood," from L. fabula "story, story with a lesson, tale, narrative, account; the common talk, news," literally "that which is told," from fari "speak, tell," from PIE root *bha- "speak."

Afsâné, from Proto-Ir. *abi-sanhana-, from *sanh- "to declare, explain;" cf. O.Pers. θanh- "to declare, say;" Av. səngh- "to declare;" → speech.

Fabry-Perot interferometer
  اندرزنش‌سنج ِ فابری-پرو   
andarzaneš-sanj-e Fabry-Perot

Fr.: interféromètre Fabry-Pérot   

A type of interferometer wherein the beam of light undergoes multiple reflections between two closely spaced partially silvered surfaces. Part of the light is transmitted each time the light reaches the second surface, resulting in multiple offset beams which can interfere with each other. The large number of interfering rays produces an interferometer with extremely high resolution, somewhat like the multiple slits of a diffraction grating increase its resolution.

The design was conceived by French physicists Charles Fabry (1867-1945) and Alfred Pérot (1863-1925) in the late nineteenth century; → interferometer.

fabulate
  افسانه‌بافتن   
afsâné-bâftan (#)

Fr.: affabuler, inventer   

1) To tell invented stories; create fables or stories filled with fantasy.
2) To relate an event as a fable.

From L. fabulatus perfect passive participle of fabulor, from fabula, → fable.

Afsâne-bâftan "to forge fables, stories," from afsâné, → fable, + bâftan "to weave, twist, plait," → texture.

fabulation
  افسانه‌بافی   
afsâné-bâfi (#)

Fr.: fabulation, affabulation   

1) To tell invented stories; create fables or stories filled with fantasy.
2) To relate an event as a fable.

fabulate; → -tion.

fabulous
  افسانه‌ای، افسانه‌گون   
afsâne-yi, afsânegun

Fr.: fabuleux, extraordinaire, légendaire   

1) Almost impossible to believe; incredible.
2) Exceptionally good or unusual; marvelous; superb.

fable; → -ous.

face
  دیم، رو، رخ، رخسار   
dim, ru, rox, roxsâr

Fr.: face   

1) The front part of the head, from the forehead to the chin.
2) A plane surface of a geometric solid. The front of something having more than two sides. → interface.

M.E., from O.Fr. face, from L. facies "appearance, form; visage, countenance."

Dim "face," from Av. daēman- "eye," from dā(y)- "to see," didāti "sees" (cf. Mod.Pers. didan "to see," Mid.Pers. ditan "to see, regard, catch sight of, contemplate, experience;" O.Pers. dī- "to see;" Skt. dhī- "to perceive, think, ponder; thought, reflection, meditation," dādhye; Gk. dedorka "have seen").
Ru(y), variant rox "face, surface; aspect; appearance" (Mid.Pers. rôy, rôdh "face;" Av. raoδa- "growth," in plural form "appearance," from raod- "to grow, sprout, shoot;" cf. Skt. róha- "rising, height").

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>