An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12929 Search : far
ferromagnet
  آهن‌مغنات   
âhanmeqnât

Fr.: ferro-aimant   

A ferroamagnetic substance, which possesses → ferromagnetism.

ferro-; → magnet.

ferromagnetic
  آهن‌مغناتی   
âhanmeqnâti

Fr.: ferromagnétique   

Relative to or characterized by → ferromagnetism.

ferro-; → magnetic.

ferromagnetism
  آهن‌مغنات‌مندی   
âhanmegnâtmandi

Fr.: ferromagnétisme   

A property of certain substances which are enormously more magnetic than any other known substance. Ferromagnetic substances, such as the chemical elements iron, nickel, cobalt, some of the rare earths, and ceratin alloys, achieve maximum → magnetization at relatively low magnetic field strengths. Their large → magnetic permeabilityies (greater than unity) vary with the strength of the applied field. When the temperature of a ferromagnet is increased the property vanishes gradually due to randomizing effects of thermal agitation. Beyond a definite temperature for each substance ( → Curie temperature) it ceases to behave as a ferromagnet and becomes a → paramagnet. Ferromagnetism is due to the alignment of the → magnetic moments of uncompensated electrons in the crystal lattice. Under the influence of an external magnetizing field, all of the uncompensated electrons line up with their → spins in the direction of the field. In contrast with paramagnetic substances, in which spins interact only with an external magnetic field, in ferromagnets the spins interact with each others, each of them trying to align the others in its own direction. This coupling gives rise to a spontaneous alignment of the moments over macroscopic regions called domains. The domains undergo further alignment when the substance is subjected to an applied field. Ferromagnets retain their magnetisation even when the external magnetic field has been removed. See also → antiferromagnetism ; → diamagnetism; → magnetism.

ferro-; → magnetism.

ferrous
  فرور   
fervar

Fr.: ferreux   

Of or containing → iron, especially in the bivalent state. More specifically, iron with → oxidation number of +2, denoted iron(II) or Fe2+.

From L. ferrum "iron," + -ous a suffix forming adjectives that have the general sense "possessing, full of" a given quality.

Fervar, from fer, loan from Fr., + -var adj. suffix.

ferrous iron
  آهن ِ فرور   
âhan-e fervar

Fr.: fer ferreux, fer bivalent   

Iron in a plus-2 → oxidation state.

ferrous; → iron.

fertile
  بارور   
bârvar (#)

Fr.: fertile   

Physics: (of nuclear material) Able to become → fissile by → neutron capture.

M.E., from M.Fr. fertil, from L. fertilis "bearing in abundance, fruitful, productive," from ferre "to bear," from PIE root *bher- "to carry," also "to bear children," cognate with Pers. bordan "to carry, bear," → refer.

Bârvar, literally "fruitful," from bâr "fruit; flower; load; charge" + possession suffix -var, related to bordan "to bear, carry," as above.

fertile isotope
  ایزوتوپ ِ بارور   
izotop-e bârvar

Fr.: isotope fertile   

An → isotope not itself → fissile but that is converted into a fissile isotope, either directly or after a short → decay process following absorption of a → neutron. Example: U-238 can capture a neutron to give U-239. U-239 then decays to Np-239 which in turn decays to fissile Pu-239. The most important fertile isotope is U-238. This is by far the most abundant isotope of natural uranium, making up 99.28%. The important transformation chain is: 92U238 + 0n193Np239 + β- (23.5 minutes) → 94Pu239 + β- (2.36 days).

fertile; → isotope .

Feynman diagram
  نمودار ِ فاینمن   
nemudâr-e Feynman

Fr.: diagramme de Feynman   

A schematic representation, in quantum electrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics, of the way elementary particles like electrons and protons interact with each other by exchanging photons. Use of Feynman diagrams can greatly reduce the amount of computation involved in calculating a rate or cross section of a physical process.

After the American physicist Richard P. Feynman (1918-1988), Nobel prize 1965; → diagram.

FHB star
  ستاره‌ی ِ FHB   
setâre-ye FHB

Fr.: étoile FHB   

Same as → field horizontal branch star.

field; → horizontal; → branch; → star.

fiber
  فیبر   
fibr (#)

Fr.: fibre   

optical fiber.

From Fr. fibre, from O.Fr. fibre, from L. fibra "a fiber, filament," of uncertain origin, perhaps related to L. filum "thread."

Fibr, loan from Fr., as above.

Fibonacci number
  عدد ِ فیبوناچی   
'adad-e Fibonacci

Fr.: nombre de Fobonacci   

One of the numbers in the → Fibonacci sequence.

Fibonacci sequence; → number.

Fibonacci sequence
  پی‌آیه‌ی ِ فیبوناچی   
peyâye-ye Fibonacci

Fr.: suite de Fibonacci   

An infinite sequence of integers, starting with 0 and 1, where each element is the sum of the two previous numbers. For example: 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, ... As the sequence develops, the ratio of the consecutive terms converges to the → golden ratio, about 1.618.

Leonardo Pisano Fibonacci (1170-1250), medieval Italian mathematician who wrote Liber abaci (1202; Book of the Abacus), the first European work on Indian and Arabian mathematics, which introduced "Arabic" numerals in Europe; → sequence.

fibril
  تارچه   
târcé (#)

Fr.: fibrille   

A linear pattern in the → chromosphere of the → Sun, as seen through an → H-alpha filter, occurring near strong → sunspots and → plages or in → filament channels. They are magnetically confined tubes of hot → plasma. Individually, they are about 10,000 km long and last for 10 to 20 minutes.

From Mod.L. fibrilla, from fibr(a) "fiber" + -illa diminutive suffix.

Târcé, from târ "thread, warp, → string" + diminutive suffix -cé, from Mid.Pers. -cak, variants -êžak (as in kanicak "little girl," sangcak "small stone," xôkcak "small pig"), also Mod.Pers. -ak.

fibula
  نازک-نی   
nâzok-ney

Fr.: péroné   

Anatomy: The outer and thinner of the two bones of the human leg, extending from the knee to the ankle.

Fom L. fibula "clasp, brooch; bolt, peg, pin," related to figere "to drive in, insert, fasten," → fix.

Nâzok-ney, literally "fine reed," from nâzok "→ fine" + ney "reed, pipe, flute."

fiction
  دیزن   
dizan

Fr.: fiction   

1) Literary works invented by the imagination, such as novels or short stories.
2) An invented story or explanation; lie.
3) The act of inventing a story or explanation.
4) Law: Something assumed to be true for the sake of convenience, though probably false (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from O.Fr. ficcion "dissimulation, ruse; invention, fabrication" and directly from L. fictionem "a fashioning or feigning," noun of action from p.p. stem of fingere "to shape, form, devise, feign," originally "to knead, form out of clay," from PIE *dheigh- "to build, form, knead;" akin to Skt. dehah "body," literally "that which is formed," dih- "to besmear;" Gk. teikhos "wall;" L. fingere "to form, fashion," Gothic deigan "to smear;" O.Irish digen "firm, solid."

Formed on the model of fiction, as above, from diz- "to build, to form;" (related to Pers. dež, dez "fortress"); cf. Mid.Pers. dys-/dēs- "to build;" Sogd. dys "to build;" Av. (+ *pari-) daēz- "to build (around);" Proto-Ir. *daiz- "to build, form;" from PIE *dheigh- "to build, form," as above, + suffix -an.

field
  میدان   
meydân (#)

Fr.: champ   

1) General: An expanse of anything.
2) Physics: A region or space defined by the presence of a physical force, such as electric, magnetic, or gravitational.
3) Math.: A mathematical entity for which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are well-defined.

M.E., from O.E. feld "plain, open land," probably related to O.E. folde "earth, land," from P.Gmc. *felthuz "flat land" (cf. Ger. Feld), from PIE *pel(e)-tu-,from base *pele- "flat, to sprea;" cf. L. planus "flat, level," → plane.

Meydân "field, field of battle, arena, extensive plain," from Mid.Pers. mêdân "arena, field." This term is loaned into Ar. from Pers. or Mid.Pers.

field curvature
  خمیدگی ِ میدان   
xamidegi-ye meydân (#)

Fr.: courbure de champ   

An aberration in an optical instrument, common in Schmidt telescopes, in which the focus changes from the center to the edge of the field of view. Owing to this aberration, a straight object looks curved in the image.

field; → curvature.

field equation
  هموگش ِ میدان   
hamugeš-e meydân

Fr.: équation de champ   

In a physical theory, an equation that describe how a fundamental force interacts with matter. Einstein's equations of → general relativity are called field equations since they describe the → gravitational field. Similarly, → Maxwell's equations describe the electromagnetic field.

field; → equation.

field galaxy
  کهکشان ِ میدان   
kahkešân-e meydân

Fr.: galaxie de champ   

A galaxy that lies in the direction of a → cluster of galaxies, but is not a member of the cluster. Field galaxies are rare, less than about 5% of all galaxies.

field; → galaxy.

field horizontal branch star
  ستاره‌ی ِ شاخه‌ی ِ افقی ِ میدانی   
setâre-ye šâxe-ye ofoqi-ye meydâni

Fr.: étoile de la branche horizontal du champ   

A → horizontal branch star with high velocity.

field; → horizontal; → branch; → star.

<< < -es -iv -ti 217 a- abe abs abs acc acc ach act act ada adi adv aff agg Alc Alf ali all alp alt Ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc arg arm art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B-t bai Bal bar bar Be bee Bes bi- bif bin bin bio bis bla bli blu Boe Bol bor bou bra bri Bro bum CAI cal Can cap car car cat cat CCD Cel cen CGS cha cha che che chr cir cir civ cla clo clo CMB coa coe coh col col col Com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos cou cov cra cri cro cry cum cur cyc d'A dar dat DC dea dec dec dec def def deh Del den dep des det dev dia dif dif dif dim dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom dou dou dri dup dus dyn dyn ear eas ecl Edd eff Ein Ekm ele ele ele ele ell emb emi enc ene ent eph equ equ equ eru eth eup eve EX exc exe exi exo exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre Fre Fro fus G-t gal gal Gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia gla gol gra gra gra gra Gre Gre gui H a haf Hal har har He- hea hel Hel her Her hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyl hyp ice ide ima imp imp imp inc ind ind ine inf inf Inf inj InS ins int int int int int int int int inv inv ion iro Isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil kly L d Lag lam Lap lar lat law Lea len lep lib lig lin lin lin liq lit loc log lon Los low lum lun Lut Lyr mac mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat mea mec mem mer mes met met met mic mid mil min Mir Miz mod mol mon moo MOS mul mul mut nai nas nat neb neg Neu neu New New Nih noi non non non nor nuc nuc nul nut obj obl obs occ oct off old one ope opp opt opt orb ord org Ori osc oth ove oxi pac Pal par par Par par pas Pau Pel per per per per per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pip Pla pla pla pla pla Plu Poi pol pol pol pop pos pos pot Pra pre pre pre Pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul puz qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran Ras Ray rea rec rec rec red red ref reg reg rel rel rel rep res res res res rev rhe Rie Rig Rit roe Ros rot Ruf Ryd Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set sha SHB sho sib sie sil sim sin sit sky slo sno sod sol sol sol sol sor sou Spa spa spe spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste Ste sto str str sub sub sub suf sun sup sup sup sup sur swo syn sys tak Tay Tel ten ter tet the the the thi Tho thu tid tim toa top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro Tru tur twi Typ UBV ult unb uni uni uni up ura uti val var vec Vel ver ver vig vir vis VLT vol wad was wav wav wea wei Whe Wie win WN5 Wol X-r yea You zer zod > >>