An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13070 Search : far
fractionate
  برخاندن   
barxândan

Fr.: fractionner   

1) To break something up into smaller parts.
2) To separate a mixture into ingredients or portions having different properties, as by distillation or otherwise.

From → fraction + -ate a suffix forming verbs or nouns, from L. -atus, -ata, -atum.

Barxândan, from barx, barxé, → fraction, + -ândan suffix of transitive verbs.

fractionation
  برخانش   
barxâneš

Fr.: fractionnement   

1) Any of various methods of separating the components of a mixture into fractions of different properties.
2) → isotope fractionation

Verbal noun from → fractionate.

fragment
  ۱) لته، لت، پاره؛ ۲) لتپار شدن؛ ۳) لتپاریدن   
1) latté (#), latt (#), pâré (#); 2) latpâr šodan (#); 3) latpâridan

Fr.: 1) fragment; 2) se fragmenter; 3) fragmenter   

1) (n.) A part broken off or detached.
2) (v.intr.) To collapse or break into pieces.
3) (v.tr.) To break something into pieces.

From L. fragmentum, from frangere "to break."

1) Latté, lat, variant laxt, laxté "piece, part;" pâré "piece, part, portion, fragment;" Mid.Pers. pârag "piece, part, portion; gift, offering, bribe;" Av. pāra- "debt," from par- "to remunerate, equalize; to condemn;" PIE *per- "to sell, hand over, distribute; to assigne;" cf. L. pars "part, piece, side, share," portio "share, portion;" Gk. peprotai "it has been granted;" Skt. purti- "reward;" Hitt. pars-, parsiya- "to break, crumble."
2) and 3) Verbal forms.

fragmentation
  لتپارش   
latpâreš

Fr.: fragmentation   

Generally, the process of breaking up into smaller parts. In particular, the splitting of a large molecular cloud into smaller, denser clumps. → cloud fragmentation.

From → fragmenta + -ation, a combination of -ate and -ion, used to form nouns from stems in -ate.

Latpâreš, verbal noun from latpâridan, → fragment.

fragmentation process
  فراروند ِ لتپارش   
farâravand-e latpâreš

Fr.: processus de fragmentation   

The succession of physical events that results in the breaking of a → molecular cloud into several → fragments.

fragmentation; → process.

frame
  ۱) چارچوب؛ ۲)، ۳) تصویرک   
1) cârcub (#); 2), 3) tasvirak

Fr.: 1) cadre; 2), 3) image   

1) A border or case for enclosing a picture, mirror, etc.; a structure for admitting or enclosing something.
2) One of the successive pictures on a roll of movie film or videotape.
3) In computers, the information or image on a screen or monitor at any one time.

Frame, from M.E. verb framen "to prepare (timber)," from O.E. framian "to avail, profit."; cf. O.H.G. (gi)framon "to do."

1) Cârcub "frame," from câr, contraction of cahâr "four" (→ four) + cub "stick, satff, beam," Mid.Pers. côp "wood, stick." 2) Tasvirak from Ar. tasvir "image" + -ak suffix of relation and similarity (as in poštak, dastak, nâxonak), → fibril.

frame dragging
  کرّه‌ی ِ چارچوب، چارچوب-کرّه   
kerre-ye cârcub, cârcub-kerré

Fr.: entraînement des repères, effet Lense-Thirring   

The alteration in the → free fall motion of a test → mass in the presence of a massive → rotating object, as compared to the identical case of a non-rotating object. This dragging of → inertial frames is predicted by → general relativity. Also called → Lense-Thirring effect.

frame; → drag.

frame frequency
  بسامد ِ تصویر   
basâmad-e tasvir

Fr.: fréquence image   

The number of times per second that the frame is scanned in television. Also known as picture frequency.

frame; → frequency.

frame of reference
  چارچوب ِ بازبرد   
câcub-e bâzbord

Fr.: système de référence   

A set of axes to which positions and motions in a system can be referred.

frame; → reference.

framing
  چارچوبش   
cârcubeš

Fr.: cadrage   

The process of adjusting a television picture to a desired position in the direction of progression.

From → frame + → -ing.

Cârcubeš, verbal noun of cârcubidan, from cârcubframe.

francium
  فرانسیوم   
frânsiom (#)

Fr.: francium   

An extremely rare radioactive chemical element; symbol Fr. Atomic number 87; atomic weight of most stable isotope 223; melting point about 27°C; boiling point about 677°C. Its most stable isotope (half-life about 22 minutes) occurs naturally, to a very limited extent, in uranium minerals. More than 30 other isotopes of francium are known; some are prepared by bombarding thorium with protons, deuterons, or alpha particles.

From France, where the French physicist Marguerite Perey (1919-1975) discovered it in 1939 in the alpha particle decay of actinium.

Fraunhofer line
  خط ِ فراؤنهوفر   
xatt-e Fraunhofer

Fr.: raie de Fraunhofer   

One of many absorption lines and bands in the spectrum of the Sun. The most prominent features are labeled with capital letters A to K, starting at the red end. The A and B bands are now known to be caused by absorption in Earth's atmosphere, while the rest are due to absorption in the Sun's → photosphere. C and F are now better known as H-alpha and H-beta (→ Balmer series); the → D lines are of sodium, the → H and K lines of calcium, and the G band of neutral iron and the interstellar → CH (methylidine) molecule.

Named after Joseph von Fraunhofer (1787-1826), German optician and physicist, who discovered these lines in 1814; → line.

Fraunhofer's refractor
  شکست‌گر ِ فراؤنهوفر   
šekastgar-e Fraunhofer

Fr.: réfracteur de Fraunhofer   

The first modern refracting telescope which had an outstanding quality. It was built in 1824 by Fraunhofer for the Russian Imperial Observatory in Dorpat, now Tartu in Estonia. It had a 23-cm → achromatic lens and a German-type → equatorial mounting driven by a clockwork. Wilhelm Struve (1793-1864) used the refractor to observe many → visual binaries, and attempted to measure the distances of stars through their visual → parallaxes. He also obtaibned accurate values for the diameters of the → Galilean satellites of → Jupiter.

Named after Joseph von Fraunhofer (1787-1826), German optician and physicist; → refractor.

free
  آزاد   
âzâd (#)

Fr.: libre   

Not physically bound by something.
free atmosphere, → free body, → free charge, → free electron, → free expansion phase, → free fall, → free flow, → free occurrence, → free oscillation, → free radical, → free system, → free-bound emission, → free-fall time, → free-floating object, → free-free emission, → freedom, → bound-free transition, → force-free magnetic field, → Gibbs free energy, → Helmholtz free energy, → mean free path, → universality of free fall.

From M.E. fre, O.E. freo "free, exempt from," also "noble, joyful;" cf. Ger. frei, Du. vrij; ultimately from PIE *prijos "dear, beloved;" cf. Av. frāy- "to satisfy, propitiate," friθa- "beloved; dear," friθô.tara- "more beloved," Mod.Pers. fari "happy, fortunate, blessed; pleasing, good," Skt. priyá- "beloved, wished for;" Gk. praos "mild, gentle."

Âzâd "free," from Mid.Pers. âzât "free, noble;" Av. āzāta- "high-born, noble," from zan- "to bear, give birth to a child, be born," infinitive zazāite, zāta- "born," āsna- "innate, natural;" cf. Skt. janati "begets, bears;" Gk. gignesthai "to become, happen," genes "born;" L. gignere "to beget;" PIE base *gen- "to give birth, beget."

free atmosphere
  جو ِ آزاد، هواسپهر ِ ~   
javv-e âzâd, havâsepehr-e ~

Fr.: atmosphère libre   

That part of the atmosphere where the effects of the ground on the → turbulence conditions are negligible.

free, → atmosphere.

free body
  جسم ِ آزاد   
jesm-e âzâd (#)

Fr.: corps libre   

A → rigid body not constrained with other bodies and which from any given position can be displaced in any direction in space. Opposite of → constrained body.

free; → body.

free charge
  بارِ آزاد   
bâr-e âzâd

Fr.: charge libre   

An electric charge which is not held by another charge, in contrast to a → bound charge.

free; → charge.

free electron
  الکترون ِ آزاد   
elektron-e âzâd (#)

Fr.: électron libre   

An electron that is not attached to an → atom, → molecule, or → ion and is free to move under the influence of a present electric or magnetic field.

free; → electron.

free expansion phase
  فاز ِ سپانش ِ آزاد   
fâz-e sopâneš-e âzâd

Fr.: phase d'expansion libre   

The first phase of → supernova remnant (SNR) evolution in which the surrounding → interstellar medium (ISM) has no influence on the expansion of the → shock wave, and the pressure of the interstellar gas is negligible. The shock wave created by the → supernova explosion moves outward into the interstellar gas at highly → supersonic speed. Assuming that most of the → supernova energy  ESN is transformed into → kinetic energy of the ejected gas, the ejection velocity ve can be estimated from ESN by using ESN = (1/2) Meve2, which leads to ve = (2ESN / Me)(1/2), where Me is the ejected mass. The schematic structure of the SNR at this phase can be described as follows: behind the strong → shock front which moves outward into the ISM, compressed interstellar gas accumulates forming a → shell of interstellar gas. This shell of swept-up material in front of shock does not represent a significant increase in the mass of the system. After some time the accumulated mass equals the ejected mass of stellar material, and it will start to affect the expansion of the SNR. By definition, this is the end of the free expansion phase, and the corresponding radius of the SNR, called → sweep-up radius, RSW, is defined by Me = (4π/3) RSW3ρ0, that is RSW = (3Me / 4πρ0)(1/3), where ρ0 is the initial density of the ISM. This radius is reached at the sweep-up time tSW = RSW/ve. The free expansion phase lasts some 100-200 years until the mass of the material swept up by the shock wave exceeds the mass of the ejected material. Then the following → snowplow phase starts.

free; → expansion; → phase.

free fall
  افت ِ آزاد   
oft-e âzâd (#)

Fr.: chute libre   

The motion of a body under the influence of → gravity alone. See also → free-fall time.

free; → fall.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut aut axi Baa bal Bal bar bar bea beh Bes bia big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo Cal cal Can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CGS cha cha che che chr cir cir cis cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos Cou cou cov cre cri cro cry cur cut Cyg DA dar dat de deb dec dec ded def def dei dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dig Dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis div dom dou dow dri dur dus dyn dyn ear eav ecl Edd eff Ein Ekm ele ele ele ele ell emb emi enc ene ent eph equ equ equ eru eth eup eve EX exc exe exi exo exp ext ext ext fab fai far Fec fem fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu foc for for Fou fra fre fre fro fun G r Gal gal gam gas Gau gel gen geo geo geo Gho gla goa gra gra gra gra gre Gre gro gyr had hal har har HD Hea Hel hel Her her hid hig hip hol hor hos hov Hub Hun hyd hyd hyd hyp IC ide ill ima imp imp inc inc ind ind inf inf inf inf inj InS ins int int int int int int int int int inv ion iro ise iso iso ite jet Jou Jup kap Kep kil Kip Kra Lag Lam Lan Lar las law lea Leg Leo lev lig lim lin lin lin lit loc loc log Lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea med men mer Mes met met mic Mic Mie Mil min mis mJy mod mol mon moo mot mul mul mut nad nas nat neb neg net neu New New nig Noe non non non Nor nov nuc nul num OB obl obs occ Ock off Ohm on- ope opi opt opt orb orb ord Ori ort osm out ove ozo pal pan par par par par pat pec pen per per per per per Pfu pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran Ras Ray rea rec rec rec red red ref reg reg rel rel rel rep res res res res Reu rhe Rie rig ris Roe Ros rot Rud ryd Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci Sea sec sec see sel sem sen ser Sey Sha she sho sid sig sim sim sin ske sle smo Sob sof sol sol sol sol sou Sou spa Sp spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver ver vin vir vis Vog von wal wat wav wax wea wei Whi wil win WN7 wor X-r Yar You zer zod > >>