An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
fuzzy logic system
  راژمان ِ گوییک ِ پرزوار   
râžmân-e guyik-e porzvâr

Fr.: système de logic flou   

An engineering system which uses → fuzzy logic. It generally consists of four main components: → fuzzification interface (fuzzifier), → fuzzy rule base, → fuzzy inferencing unit, and → defuzzification interface (difuzzifier). Also called → fuzzy inference system.

fuzzy; → logic; → system.

fuzzy rule base
  پایگاه ِ رزن ِ پرزوار   
pâygâh-e razan-e porzvâr

Fr.:   

A rule base in a → fuzzy logic system constructed to control the → output variable. A fuzzy rule is a simple if-then rule with a condition and a conclusion.

fuzzy; → rule; → base.

fuzzy set
  هنگرد ِ پرزوار   
hangard-e porzvâr

Fr.: ensemble flou   

A set of → truth values in → fuzzy logic that does not have sharp boundaries. Instead, set members have degrees of membership. If the value of 1 is assigned to objects entirely within the set and a 0 is assigned to objects outside of the set, then any object partially in the set will have a value between 0 and 1. This contrast with → crisp sets in → classical logic where members assume a precise value of 1 or 0. Fuzzy sets were first introduced by Lotfi A. Zadeh (1965) and defined as follows. Let X be a space of points, with a generic element of X denoted by x. Thus X = {x}. A fuzzy set A in X is characterized by a → membership function  fA(x) which associates with each point in X a real number in the interval [0,1], with the values of fA(x) at x representing the "grade of membership" of x in A. Thus, the nearer the value of fA(x) to unity, the higher the grade of membership of x in A. Generally, the intersection operations of fuzzy sets are the expansion of that operation on → nonfuzzy sets. In other words, operations on nonfuzzy sets are a particular case of operations on fuzzy sets.

fuzzy; → set.

G band
  باند ِ G   
bând-e G

Fr.: bande G   

A conspicuous band of molecular → CH (methylidine) at 4300 Å, which is present in the spectra of late-type G-K stars.

G refers to → G type stars in the spectra of which this feature is strong. → band.

g mode
  ترز ِ g، مُد ِ ~   
tarz-e g, mod-e ~

Fr.: mode g   

Waves trapped inside stars, whose restoring force is the → buoyancy. Same as → gravity mode. See also: → oscillation modes; → p mode; → f mode.

g referring to gravity; → mode.

G ring
  حلقه‌ی ِ G   
halqe-ye G

Fr.: anneau G   

The → Saturn's ring, with a width of 8,000 km, lying before the → F ring, at 164,000-172,000 km from the center of Saturn.

ring.

G star
  ستاره‌ی G   
setâre-ye G

Fr.: étoile G   

A member of a class of stars to which the Sun belongs. The G-type stars on the → main sequence have → surface temperatures of 5,300-6,000 K and therefore appear yellow in color. G type → giant stars (such as → Capella) are almost 100-500 K colder than the corresponding main sequence stars. G type → supergiants have temperatures of 4,500-5,500 K. The spectrum of early type G stars, such as the Sun (G2), is dominated by ionized lines of calcium (→ H and K lines, mainly) and neutral metals. In later type G stars the molecular bands of → CH molecules and → CN molecules become visible. The main sequence and giant stars have masses of ~ 1 solar mass, while the supergiants are of ~ 10 solar masses. The luminosities of G-type giants are almost 30-60 times greater than that of the Sun, whereas the supergiants are 10,000-30,000 times more luminous.

G, from the → Harvard classification; → star.

G type star
  ستاره‌ی ِ گونه‌ی ِ G   
setâre-ye gune-ye G

Fr.: étoile de type G   

A yellowish star whose surface temperature is about 6000 K and its spectrum is dominated by H and K lines of ionized calcium (Ca II 3968 Å and 3934 Å).

G from the alphabetical sequence of spectral types; → type; → star.

G-type asteroid
  سیارک ِ گونه‌ی ِ G   
sayyârak-e gune-ye G

Fr.: astéroïde de type G   

A relatively uncommon → carbonaceous carbonaceous asteroid whose spectrum contains a strong → ultraviolet  → absorption feature below 0.5 μm (→ Tholen classification). In the → SMASS classification it corresponds to the Cg and Chg types , depending on the presence or absence (respectively) of the absorption feature at 0.7 μm. The most remarkable "asteroid" in this type is → Ceres (now classified as a → dwarf planet).

type; → asteroid.

G-type star
  ستاره‌ی گونه‌ی ِ G   
setâre-ye gune-ye G

Fr.: étoile de type G   

Same as → G star.

G star; → type.

Gaia
  گایا   
Gaia (#)

Fr.: Gaia   

A → European Space Agency  → astrometry mission launched on 19 December 2013. Gaia's goal is to create the largest and most precise three-dimensional chart of the → Milky Way galaxy by providing unprecedented positional (position on the sky and distance to the Sun) and annual → proper motion measurements for about one billion stars in our Galaxy and throughout the → Local Group. Moreover, the third component of the velocity, the → radial velocity, will be obtained for all stars down to V = 17 mag. Similarly, multi-color photometry will be carried out on all stars down to V = 20 mag. Gaia will achieve the planned astrometric requirements by repeatedly measuring the positions of all objects down to V = 20 mag with final accuracies of about 20 microarcsec at 15 mag. It will provide distances accurate to 20% as far as the → Galactic Center. The satellite is expected to be launched in 2012 and be placed in a → Lissajous orbit around the Sun-Earth → Lagrangian point L2. Gaia is a much more advanced version of the → Hipparcos mission.

Initially, GAIA was the short for Global Astrometric Interferometer for Astrophysics. Although subsequently the interferometer option was abandoned, the acronym was maintained in lower case.

gain
  بهره   
bahré (#)

Fr.: gain   

1) A measure of the → amplification of an electronic device, usually expressed as the ratio of → output power to → input power.
2) → antenna gain.

From M.Fr. gain, from O.Fr. gaaigne, from guaaignier "to obtain," from Germanic *waidanjan "to hunt, plunder," also "to graze, pasture," from P.Gmc. *wartho "hunting ground" (cf. Ger. weide "pasture, pasturage"); PIE base *weiə- "to go after something, strive after."

Bahré, from bahr "part, portion, share, lot;" Av. baxəδra- "portion," from bag- "to attribute, allot," → division.

galactic
  کهکشانی   
kahkešâni (#)

Fr.: galactique   

1) Of or pertaining to a → galaxy.
2) Usually with capital G, pertaining to our galaxy, the → Milky Way.

Adjective of → galaxy.

Galactic anticenter
  پادمرکز ِ کهکشان   
pâdmarkaz-e kahkešân

Fr.: anticentre galactique   

The point in the → Galactic plane that lies directly opposite the → Galactic center. It lies in the constellation → Auriga at approximately R.A. 05h 46m, Dec. +28° 56'.

galactic; → anticenter.

galactic bar
  میله‌ی ِ کهکشانی   
mile-ye kahkešâni

Fr.: barre galactique   

An elongated bar-shaped structure composed of stars present in some spiral galaxies. About two-third of such galaxies contain bars that cross their centers. Bars, like → spiral arms, result from a → density wave in which stars take very elliptical orbits. They form when the → galactic disk dominates the → galactic bulge, → Ostriker-Peebles criterion. Bars play an extremely important role in a galaxy's evolution. The gravity from a bar is the mechanism that drives → interstellar gas from the outer parts of a → spiral galaxy inward toward the central regions, and into the galactic nucleus itself. This causes tremendous bursts of star formation. Therefore, a majority of massive stars are born in such starbursts in the nuclei of galaxies. Bars may also channel the material that falls into black holes within active galactic nuclei, releasing enormous power in radiation and particles from tiny regions at the centers of some galaxies. Bars disappear as galactic centers grow more massive (after some 2 to 8 Gyr).

galactic; → bar.

Galactic bulge
  کوژ ِ کهکشان   
kuž-e kakhašân

Fr.: bulbe de la Galaxie   

The central → galaxy bulge of the → Milky Way.

galactic; → bulge.

Galactic Center
  مرکز ِ کهکشان   
markaz-e kahkešân (#)

Fr.: centre galactique   

1) The rotational center of the → Milky Way galaxy located in the direction of the → Sagittarius constellation at a distance of 7.62 ± 0.32 kpc (2005, ApJ 628, 246). Its equatorial coordinates (J2000 epoch) are: R.A. 17h45m40.04s, Dec. -29° 00' 28.1''. The Sun orbits around the Galactic center once every 200 million years at a speed of 220 km per second. It is believed that there is a → supermassive black hole at the Galactic center.
2) The innermost region of a → spiral galaxy characterized by high number of stars per unit volume. The center may contain a → supermassive black hole.

galactic; → center.

Galactic center cluster
  خوشه‌ی ِ مرکز ِ کهکشان   
xuše-ye markaz-e kahkešân

Fr.: amas du centre galactique   

One of the three massive clusters located toward the → Galactic center: → Quintuplet cluster, → Arches cluster, → Central cluster. Heavily extinguished by the presence of dust clouds and only accessible at infrared (and longer) wavelengths or in X-rays, each of these clusters has a population of more than a hundred → massive stars. The three clusters are similar in most respects, each containing about 104 solar masses in stars. The Arches cluster is younger than the two others.

galactic; → center; → cluster.

galactic cluster
  خوشه‌ی ِ کهکشانی، ~ کهکشانها   
xuše-ye kahkešâni, ~ kahkešânhâ

Fr.: amas galactique   

1) Same as → open cluster.
2) same as → cluster of galaxies.

galactic; → cluster.

Galactic coordinates
  هماراهای ِ کهکشانی   
hamârâhâ-ye kahkešâni

Fr.: coordonnées galactiques   

A system of astronomical coordinates using → latitude (bII) measured north and south from the → Galactic equator and → longitude (lII), measured from the → Galactic Center in the sense of increasing → right ascension from 0 to 360 degrees. In the old system (lI,bI), the Galactic center was at lI = 327°41'. Same as → galactic system.

galactic; → coordinate.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>