An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
gauge invariance
  ناورتایی ِ گز   
nâvartâyi-ye gaz

Fr.: invariance de jauge   

The invariance of any field theory under gauge transformation.

gauge; → invariance.

gauge symmetry
  همامونی ِ گز   
hamâmuni-ye gaz

Fr.: symétrie de jauge   

A principle underlying the quantum-mechanical description of the three non-gravitational forces. It allows a system to behave in the same way even though it has undergone various transformations. The earliest physical theory which had a gauge symmetry was Maxwell's electrodynamics.

gauge; → symmetry.

gauge theory
  نگره‌ی ِ گز   
negare-ye gaz (#)

Fr.: théorie de jauge   

A field theory in which it is possible to perform a transformation without altering any measurable physical quantity.

gauge; → theory.

gauge transformation
  ترادیس ِ گز   
tarâdis-e gaz (#)

Fr.: transformation de jauge   

A change of the fields of a gauge theory that does not change the value of any measurable quantity.

gauge; → transformation.

gauging
  گزکرد   
gazkard

Fr.:   

A technique in which the thickness, density, or quantity of a material is determined by the amount of radiation it absorbs.

Gauging, from → gauge + → -ing, suffix of nouns formed from verbs, expressing the action of the verb or its result.

Gazkard, from gaz, → gauge, + kard past stem of kardan "to do, make," → gauge.

Gaunt factor
  کروند ِ گاؤنت   
karvand-e Gaunt

Fr.: facteur de Gaunt   

In the atomic theory of spectral line formation, a quantum mechanical correction factor applied to the absorption coefficient in the transition of an electron from a bound or free state to a free state.

Gaunt, after John Arthur Gaunt (1904-1944), English physicist born in China, who significantly contributed to the calculation of continuous absorption using quantum mechanics; → factor

gauss
  گاؤس   
gauss (#)

Fr.: gauss   

The c.s.g. unit of magnetic flux density (or magnetic induction), equal to 1 maxwell per square centimeter, or 10-4 tesla.

Named after the German mathematician and physicist Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855).

Gauss's law for electricity
  قانون ِ گاؤس در برق   
qânun-e Gauss dar barq

Fr.: loi de Gauss en électricité   

The total electric flux ψ out of an arbitrary closed surface in free space is equal to the net charge within the surface divided by the → permittivity. In differential form: ∇ . E = ρ/ε0, where ρ is the → charge density and ε0 the permittivity. The integral form of the law: ∫E . dS = Q0 (closed surface integral). This is one of the four → Maxwell's equations.

gauss; → law; → electricity.

Gauss's law for magnetism
  قانون ِ گاؤس در مغنات‌مندی   
qânun-e Gauss dar meqnâtmandi

Fr.: loi de Gauss en magnétisme   

The → magnetic flux through an arbitrary closed surface equals zero. Mathematically, in differential form: ∇ . B = 0 and in integral form: ΦB = ∫B.dS = 0 (closed surface integral). This is one of the four → Maxwell's equations. This law expresses the fact that there are no free magnetic poles (→ monopoles) in nature and that all the lines of force of a magnetic field are closed curves.

gauss; → law; → magnetism.

Gauss's lemma
  نهک ِ گاؤس   
nehak-e Gauss

Fr.: lemme de Gauss   

If a → polynomial with → integer coefficients can be → factorized into polynomials with → rational number coefficients, it can be factorized using only integers.

Gaussian; → lemma.

Gauss's theorem
  فربین ِ گاؤس   
farbin-e Gauss

Fr.: théorème de Gauss   

The total normal induction over any closed surface drawn in an electric field is equal to 4π times the total charge of electricity inside the closed surface. Gauss's theorem applies also to other vector fields such as magnetic, gravitational, and fluid velocity fields. The theorem can more generally be stated as: the total flux of a vector field through a closed surface is equal to the volume → integral of the vector taken over the enclosed volume. Also known as → divergence theorem, Ostrogradsky's theorem, and Gauss-Ostrogradsky theorem.

gauss; → theorem.

Gaussian
  گاؤسی   
Gaussi (#)

Fr.: gaussien   

Of or relating to Carl Friedrich Gauss or his mathematical theories of magnetism, electricity, astronomy, or probability. → Gaussian distribution; → Gaussian profile.

gauss.

Gaussian distribution
  واباژش ِ گاؤسی   
vâbâžeš-e Gaussi (#)

Fr.: distribution gaussienne   

A theoretical frequency distribution for a set of variable data, usually represented by a bell-shaped curve with a mean at the center of the curve and tail widths proportional to the standard deviation of the data about the mean.

Gaussian; → distribution.

Gaussian elimination
  اسانش ِ گاؤسی   
osâneš-e Gaussi

Fr.: élimination de Gauss   

A method of solving a matrix equation of the form A x = b, where A is a matrix and x and b are vectors. The process consists of two steps, first reducing the elements below the diagonal to 0 and second, back substituting to find the solutions.

Gaussian; → elimination.

Gaussian function
  کریای ِ گاؤس   
karyâ-ye Gauss

Fr.: fonction de Gauss   

The function e-x2, whose integral in the interval -∞ to +∞ gives the → square root of the → number pi: ∫e-x2dx = √π. It is the function that describes the → normal distribution.

Gaussian; → function.

Gaussian gravitational constant
  پایای ِ گرانشی ِ گاؤس   
pâyâ-ye gerâneši-ye Gauss

Fr.: constante gravitationnelle de Gauss   

The constant, denoted k, defining the astronomical system of units of length (→ astronomical unit), mass (→ solar mass), and time (→ day), by means of → Kepler's third law. The dimensions of k2 are those of Newton's constant of gravitation: L 3M -1T -2. Its value is: k = 0.01720209895.

Gaussian; → gravitational; → constant.

Gaussian integer
  درسته‌ی ِ گاؤس   
doroste-ye Gauss

Fr.: entier de Gauss   

A → complex number whose → real and → imaginary parts are both integers.

Gaussian; → integer.

Gaussian profile
  فراپال ِ گاؤسی   
farâpâl-e Gaussi

Fr.: profile gaussien   

The shape of a curve representing a normal distribution.

Gaussian; → profile.

Gaussianity
  گاؤسیگی   
Gaussigi

Fr.: gaussienité   

Math.: The condition of having → Gaussian distribution. The extent to which something is Gaussian.

Gaussian + → -ity.

Gay-Lussac's law
  قانون ِ گی-لوساک   
qânun-e Gay-Lussac (#)

Fr.: loi de Gay-Lussac   

1) Law of combining volumes. The volumes of gases used and produced in a chemical reaction, are in the ratio of small whole numbers when measured at constant temperature and pressure.
2) For a gas held at constant volume, there is a direct correlation between temperature and pressure: P1/T1 = P2/T2. Gay-Lussac's law, → Boyle-Mariotte law, and → Charles' law were later unified into the → ideal gas law.

Named after Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (1778-1850), a French chemist and physicist; → law.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>