# An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

## فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

### M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
 generalize   هروین کردن، هروینیدن   harvin kardan, harvinidanFr.: généraliser   To make general, to include under a general term; to reduce to a general form. To infer or form a general principle, opinion, conclusion, etc. from only a few facts, examples, or the like.→ general; → -ize. generalized   هروینیده   harvinidéFr.: généralisé   Made general. → generalized coordinates; → generalized velocities.P.p. of → generalize generalized coordinates   هماراهای ِ هروینیده   hamârâhâ-ye harvinidéFr.: coordonnées généralisées   In a material system, the independent parameters which completely specify the configuration of the system, i.e. the position of its particles with respect to the frame of reference. Usually each coordinate is designated by the letter q with a numerical subscript. A set of generalized coordinates would be written as q1, q2, ..., qn. Thus a particle moving in a plane may be described by two coordinates q1, q2, which may in special cases be the → Cartesian coordinates x, y, or the → polar coordinates r, θ, or any other suitable pair of coordinates. A particle moving in a space is located by three coordinates, which may be Cartesian coordinates x, y, z, or → spherical coordinates r, θ, φ, or in general q1, q2, q3. The generalized coordinates are normally a "minimal set" of coordinates. For example, in Cartesian coordinates the simple pendulum requires two coordinates (x and y), but in polar coordinates only one coordinate (θ) is required. So θ is the appropriate generalized coordinate for the pendulum problem. generalized forces   نیروهای ِ هروینیده   niruhâ-ye harvinidéFr.: forces généralisées   In → Lagrangian dynamics, forces related to → generalized coordinates. For any system with n generalized coordinates qi (i = 1, ..., n), generalized forces are expressed by Fi = ∂L/∂qi, where L is the → Lagrangian function.→ generalized; → force. generalized momenta   جنباک‌های ِ هروینیده   jonbâkhâ-ye harvinidéFr.: quantité de mouvement généralisée   In → Lagrangian dynamics, momenta related to → generalized coordinates. For any system with n generalized coordinates qi (i = 1, ..., n), generalized momenta are expressed by pi = ∂L/∂q.i, where L is the → Lagrangian function.→ generalized; → momentum. generalized velocities   تنداهای ِ هروینیده   tondâhâ-ye harvinidéFr.: vitesses généralisées   The time → derivatives of the → generalized coordinates of a system.→ generalized; → velocity. generate   آزانیدن   âzânidanFr.: générer   To bring into existence; create; produce. Math.: To trace (a figure) by the motion of a point, straight line, or curve.Generate, from M.E., from L. generatus "produce," p.p. of generare "to bring forth," from gener-, genus "descent, birth," akin to Pers. zâdan, Av. zan- "to give birth," as explained below.Âzânidan, from â- nuance/strengthening prefix + zân, from Av. zan- "to bear, give birth to a child, be born," infinitive zazāite, zāta- "born;" Mod.Pers. zâdan, present stem zā- "to bring forth, give birth" (Mid.Pers. zâtan; cf. Skt. jan- "to produce, create; to be born," janati "begets, bears;" Gk. gignomai "to happen, become, be born;" L. gignere "to beget;" PIE base *gen- "to give birth, beget") + -idan infinitive suffix. generation   آزانش   âzânešFr.: génération   1) A coming into being. 2) The → production of → energy (→ heat or → electricity).Verbal noun of → generate. generative   آزاننده، آزانشی   âzânandé, âzânešiFr.: génératif   1) Capable of producing or creating. 2) Pertaining to the production of offspring.→ generate; → -ive. generator   آزانگر   âzângarFr.: générateur   1) A machine for converting one form of energy into another. 2) Geometry: That which creates a line, a surface, a solid by its motion.From L. generator "producer," from genera(re)→ generate + -tor a suffix forming personal agent nouns from verbs and, less commonly, from nouns.Âzângar, from âzân the stem of âzânidan→ generate + -gar suffix of agent nouns, from kar-, kardan "to do, to make" (Mid.Pers. kardan; O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build," Av. kərənaoiti "makes;" cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "makes," karma "act, deed;" PIE base kwer- "to do, to make"). genetic   ژنتیک، ژنتیکی   ženetik (#), ženetiki (#)Fr.: génétique   Pertaining or according to → genetics or → genes.From Gk. genetikos, from genesis "origin," → gene; → -ic. genetics   ژنتیک   ženetik (#)Fr.: génétique   The study of heredity and inheritance, of the transmission of traits from one individual to another, of how genes are transmitted from generation to generation.From → genetic and → -ics. genitive case   کاته‌ی ِ دارشتی   kâte-ye dâreštiFr.: genetif   The → grammatical case that marks a noun or pronoun typically expressing "possession" or "origin." In English, the genitive case of a noun is shown in writing by adding an s together with an appropriately positioned apostrophe or creating it by using the pronoun of. For instance: "John's house," or "the house of John." A → synthetic language would express the same idea by putting the name "John" in the genitive case. Also called → possessive case.From O.Fr. genitif or directly from L. (casus) genitivus "case expressing possession, source, or origin," from genitivus "of or belonging to birth," from genitus, p.p. of gignere "to beget, produce," → generate; → case.Dârešti, → possessive; kâté, → case.. genius   ۱) فرهوش؛ ۲) فرهوشی   1) farhuš; 2) farhušiFr.: génie   1) An exceptionally intelligent person or one with exceptional skill in a particular area of activity. 2) Exceptional intellectual or creative power or other natural ability (Oxford Dictionaries).From L. genius "tutelary deity or genius of a person;" originally "generative power," from gignere "beget, produce," → generate.Farhuš, from far- intensive prefix "much, abundant; elegantly," → perfect, + huš, → intelligence. Farhuši, from farhuš + -i. genocide   نژادکشی   nežâdkoši (#)Fr.: génocide   The deliberate and systematic extermination of a national, racial, political, or cultural group (Dictionary.com).From Gk. genos "race, kind," → generate, + → -cide.Nežâdkoši, from nežâd, → race, + koši, → -cide. genus   سرده   sardé (#)Fr.: genre   1) Biology: The usual major subdivision of a family or subfamily in the classification of organisms, usually consisting of more than one species. 2) Logic: A class or group of individuals, or of species of individuals. 3) A kind; sort; class (Dictionary.com).From L. genus "race, stock, kind, gender;" cognate with Gk. genos "race, kind," and gonos "birth, offspring, stock," → generate.Sardé, from Mid.Pers. sardag "sort, kind;" Av. sarrəδa- "kind, type." geo-   زمین-   zamin- (#)Fr.: géo-   A combining form meaning "the earth," used in the formation of compound words.Geo-, form Gk. ge "earth, land, ground, soil."Zamin, zami "earth, ground," from Mid.Pers. zamig "earth;" Av. zam- "the earth;" cf. Skt. ksam; Gk. khthôn, khamai "on the ground;" L. homo "earthly being" and humus "the earth" (as in homo sapiens or homicide, humble, humus, exhume); PIE root *dh(e)ghom "earth." geocentric   زمین‌مرکزی   zamin-markazi (#)Fr.: géocentrique   1) Relating to, measured from, or with respect to the center of the Earth. 2) Having the earth as a center. → geocentric coordinate system, → Geocentric Coordinate Time, → geocentric cosmology, → geocentric parallax, → geocentric system.→ geo- + → center + -ic an adjective-forming suffix. geocentric coordinate system   راژمان ِ هماراها‌ی ِ زمین‌مرکزی   râžmân-e hamârâhâ-ye zamin-markaziFr.: système de coordonnées géocentriques   A coordinate system which has as its origin the center of the Earth.→ geocentric; → coordinate; → system. Geocentric Coordinate Time (TCG)   زمان ِ همارا‌ی ِ زمین‌مرکزی   zamân-e hamârâ-ye zamin-markaziFr.: Temps coordonné géocentrique   The proper time experienced by a clock at rest in a coordinate frame co-moving with the center of the Earth, i.e. a clock that performs exactly the same movements as the Earth but is outside the Earth's gravity well. TCG was defined in 1991 by the International Astronomical Union as one of the replacements for Barycentric Dynamical Time (TDB).→ geocentric; → coordinate; → time.