An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
graben
  فروزمین   
foruzamin (#)

Fr.: graben   

A block of the Earth's crust, bounded by two normal faults, that has dropped downward in relation to adjacent portions.

Graben, from Ger. Graben "ditch, trench;" O.H.G. graban "ditch," grab "grave, tomb;" Goth. graban "ditch;" P.Gmc. *graban; cf. O.E. græf "grave, ditch;" E. a grave; PIE base *ghrebh-/*ghrobh- "to dig, to scratch, to scrape."

Foruzamin, from foru- + zamin. The first component foru- "down, downward; below; beneath;" Mid.Pers. frôt "down, downward;" O.Pers. fravata "forward, downward;" cf. Skt. pravát- "a sloping path, the slope of a mountain." The second component zamin, variant zami "earth, ground," from Mid.Pers. zamig "earth;" Av. zam- "the earth;" cf. Skt. ksam; Gk. khthôn, khamai "on the ground;" L. homo "earthly being" and humus "the earth" (as in homo sapiens or homicide, humble, humus, exhume); PIE root *dh(e)ghom "earth."

grade
  ۱) پداک؛ ۲) پداکیدن   
1) padâk; 2) padâkidan

Fr.: 1) grade, échelon; 2) classer, noter, graduer   

1) A degree or step in a scale, as of rank, advancement, quality, value, or intensity.
2) To arrange in a series of grades; class; sort (Dictionary.com).

From Fr. grade "grade, degree," from L. gradus "step, pace, gait, walk;" figuratively "a step, stage, degree," related to gradi "to walk, step, go," and second element in congress, progress, etc.; from PIE *ghredh-; cf. Lith. gridiju "to go, wander," O.C.S. gredo "to come," O.Ir. in-greinn "he pursues."

Padâk, from Baluci padâk "step, stair, ladder" (ultimately from Proto-Ir. *padaka-), older form of Pers. pâyé "step, base," from Mid.Pers. pâd, pây; Av. pad-, cf. Skt. pat: Gk. pos, genitive podos; L. pes; PIE *pod-/*ped-.

gradient
  زینه   
ziné (#)

Fr.: gradient   

1) General: Degree of slope.
2) Physics: Change in the value of a quantity (as temperature, pressure) with change in a given variable.
3) Math.: A differential → operator (symbol → nabla, ∇) that, operating upon a function (f) of several variables, creates a → vector whose coordinates are the → partial derivatives of the function: ∇f = (∂f/∂x)i + (∂f/∂y)j + (∂f/∂z)k. The gradient of a → scalar function is a vector function.

From L. gradient-, gradiens, pr.p. of gradi "to walk, go," from grad- "walk" + -i- thematic vowel + -ent suffix of conjugation.

Ziné "ladder, steps, stair," may be related to ciné, from cidan "to place (something) above/upon (another similar thing);" cf. Lori râ-zina, Yazdi râ-cina "stairs," Nâyini orcen "stairs, ladder;" the phoneme change -c- into -z-, as in gozidan, gozin-/cidan, cin- both deriving from Proto-Ir. *cai- "to heap up, gather, collect."

gradual
  پداکوار، پای‌پایه   
padâkvâr, pâypâyé

Fr.: graduel   

Proceeding, taking place, changing by small degrees.

From M.L. gradualis, from L. gradus "step."

Padâkvâr, from padâk "grade," + -vâr a suffix which denotes "suiting, befitting, resembling, in the manner of, possession."
Pâypâyé "step by step," from pây, pâ "foot, step," → foot.

gradual burst
  بلک ِ پداکوار، ~ پای‌پایه   
belk-e padâkvâr, ~ pâypâyé

Fr.: sursaut graduel   

A burst that happens gradually, in contrast to a sudden burst.

gradual; → burst.

graduate
  ۱) پداک دادن، پداکیدن؛ ۲) پداک گرفتن، پداکیده شدن؛ ۳) پداک دادن، پداکیدن؛ ۴) پداکمند، پداکیده   
1) padâk dâdan, padâkidan; 2) padâk gereftan, padâkidé šodan; 3) padâk dâdan, padâkidan; 4) padâkmand, padâkidé

Fr.: 1) graduer; 2) obtenir son diplôme; 3) conférer un diplôme; 4) licencié, diplômé   

1) To divide into or mark with degrees or other divisions, as the scale of a thermometer.
2) To receive a degree or diploma on completing a course of study (often followed by from).
3) To confer a degree upon, or to grant a diploma to, at the close of a course of study, as in a university, college, or school.
4) A person who has received a degree or diploma on completing a course of study, as in a university, college, or school (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from M.L. graduatus, p.pa. of graduari "to take a degree," from L. gradus "step, → grade."

1, 3) Padâk dâdan, compound infinitive, padâkidan simple infinitive, both from padâk, → grade, + dâdan "to give, grant," → datum, and -idan, → -fy.
2) Padâk gereftan, from padâk + gereftan "→ take, hold."
4) Padâkmand, from padâk + -mand suffix of possession and ability, → -al; padâkidé, p.p. of padâkidan, as above.

graduation
  پداکش، پداک‌دهی، پداک‌گیری   
padâkeš, padâk dehi, padâk giri

Fr.: graduation   

1) Marking the scale of an instrument, e.g. the stem of a thermometer is graduated in degrees.
2) An act of graduating; the state of being graduated.

Verbal noun of → graduate.

grain
  دانه   
dâné (#)

Fr.: grain   

1) A small, hard seed of plants, especially the seed of cereals.
2) A tiny portion or particle of something such as sand or salt; → dust grain.

M.E. grain, grein, from O.Fr. grein, from L. granum "seed;" akin to corn.

Dâné "grain, seed;" Mid.Pers. dân, dânag "seed, corn;" Av. dānô- in dānô.karš- "carrying grains; an ant;" cf. Skt. dhânâ- "corn, grain;" Tokharian B tāno "grain;" Lith. duona "corn, bread."

grain coagulation
  ماسش ِ دانه   
mâseš-e dâné

Fr.: coagulation des grains   

Sticking together of micron- to centimetre-sized grains occurring in the interstellar and protoplanetary environments to form larger grain agglomerates.

grain; → coagulation.

grain evaporation
  بخارش ِ دانه   
boxâreš-e dâné

Fr.: évaporation des grains   

Conversion of dust grains into smaller grains due to high environmental temperatures.

grain; → evaporation.

grain formation
  دیسش ِ دانه   
diseš-e dâné

Fr.: formation des grains   

The process by which dust grains are assembled or produced.

grain; → formation.

grain growth
  رویش ِ دانه   
ruyeš-e dâné (#)

Fr.: croissance des grains   

The increase of dust grains to micron sizes in the interstellar environments due to various physical processes, for example mutual collisions and accumulation of ice mantles.

grain; → growth.

grain mantle
  روپوش ِ دانه   
rupuš-e dâné (#)

Fr.: manteau de grain   

A layer of icy molecules covering interstellar dust grains.

grain; mantle, from O.E. mentel "loose, sleeveless cloak," from L. mantellum "cloak," perhaps from a Celtic source.

Rupuš "overgarment, cloak," from ru "surface, face; aspect; appearance" (Mid.Pers. rôy, rôdh "face;" Av. raoδa- "growth," in plural form "appearance," from raod- "to grow, sprout, shoot;" cf. Skt. róha- "rising, height") + puš "covering, mantle," from pušidan "to cover; to put on" (Mid.Pers. pôšidan, pôš- "to cover; to wear;" cf. Mid.Pers. pôst; Mod.Pers. pust "skin, hide;" O.Pers. pavastā- "thin clay envelope used to protect unbaked clay tablets;" Skt. pavásta- "cover," Proto-Indo-Iranian *pauastā- "cloth").

grain sputtering
  ا ُسپرانی ِ دانه   
osparâni-ye dâné

Fr.: érosion des grains par pulvérisation   

The ejection of atoms from interstellar dust grains due to impact by gas ions, which leads to grain destruction.

grain; sputtering, from sputter "to spit with explosive sounds," cognate with Du. sputteren.

Osparâni, verbal noun of osparândan, from os- "out of, outside," → ex- + parândan "to eject," transitive of paridan "to fly" (from Mid./Mod.Pers. par(r) "feather, wing," Av. parəna- "feather, wing;" cp. Skt. parna "feather," E. fern; PIE *porno- "feather").

gram
  گرم   
geram (#)

Fr.: gramme   

A unit of mass equal to one thousandth of a kilogram.

From Fr. gramme, from L.L. gramma "small weight," from Gk. gramma "small weight," originally "letter of the alphabet," from stem of graphein "to draw, write."

Geram, loanword from Fr. gramme, as above.

grammar
  دستور ِ زبان، زبان-دستور   
dastur-e zabân, zabân-dastur

Fr.: grammaire   

1) The study of the way the sentences of a language are constructed; → morphology and → syntax.
2) These features or constructions themselves (Dictionary.com).

M.E. gramarye, from O.Fr. gramaire "grammar; learning," especially Latin and philology, an "irregular semi-popular adoption" of L. grammatica, from Gk. grammatike (tekhne) "(art) of letters" with a sense of both philology and literature, from grammatikos "pertaining to or versed in letters or learning," from gramma "letter," → -gram.

Dastur-e zabân, literally "language rule," from dastur "rule; mandate, command; religious authority (of the Zoroastrians);" Mid.Pers. dast "able, capable;" Av. danh- "to teach, instruct;" cf. Skt. dams- "to show or teach wonderful skills, perform wise;" Gk. didasko "I learn;" PIE *dens- "to become skilfull; to teach, instruct" (Cheung 2007); + zabân, → language.

grammarian
  زبان-دستوردان   
zabân-dasturdân

Fr.: grammarien   

A specialist or expert in grammar.

From O.Fr. gramairien "learned man, person who knows Latin," agent noun from grammaire, → grammar.

Zabân-dasturdân, literally "knower of grammar," from zabân-dasturgrammar + dân agent noun and present stem of dânestan, → know.

grammatical
  دستور ِ زبانی، زبان-دستوری   
dastur-e zabâni, zabân-dasturi

Fr.: grammatical   

Of or relating to → grammar; conforming to standard usage.

From M.Fr. grammatical and directly from L. grammaticalis "of a scholar," from grammaticus "pertaining to → grammar."

Dastur-e zabâni, zabân-dasturidastur-e zabân, zabân-dastur, → grammar.

grammatical case
  کاته‌ی ِ زبان-دستوری   
kâte-ye zabân-dasturi

Fr.: cas grammatical   

An inflectional category, basically pertaing to nouns and pronoun, which marks their relationship with other parts of the sentence. sentence. → accusative case, → nominative case, → genitive case, → dative case, → ablative case, → vocative case, → imperative case.

grammatical; → case.

grand design spiral galaxy
  کهکشان ِ مارپیچ ِ فرساز   
kahkešân-e mârpic-e farsâz

Fr.: galaxie spirale parfaite   

A galaxy with prominent → arms that are clearly attached to the central → bulge or → bar spiraling continuously outward until they reach the edge of the visible disk. Some examples are: → Whirlpool galaxy (M51), M74 (NGC 628), and NGC 2997.

M.E. graunt, from O.Fr. grant, grand, from L. grandis "big, great," also "full-grown;" design, from M.E. designen, from L. designare "mark out, designate, appoint," from → de- "out" + signare "to mark," from signumsign; → spiral; → galaxy.

Kahkešân, → galaxy; mârpicspiral; farsâz, → perfect.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>