An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
habitable zone (HZ)
  زُنار ِ زیست‌پذیر   
zonâr-e zistpazir

Fr.: zone habitable   

A zone around a → star where the → temperature would be in the range 0-100 °C to sustain → liquid water on the surface of rocky planets (or sufficiently large moons). Water is thought to be a necessary component to the → formation and evolution of Earth-type life. This zone depends on the parent star's luminosity and distance; it will be farther from hotter stars. A more accurate definition of HZ needs to include other factors, such as orbital → eccentricity, heat sources other than stellar irradiation, and atmospheric properties. Same as → circumstellar habitable zone; → ecosphere.

habitable; → zone.

haboob
  هبوب   
habub

Fr.: haboub   

A type of intense dust storm that blows in the deserts of North Africa and Arabia, particularly severe in areas of drought.

Haboob, from Ar. habub (هبوب) "a wind which blows hard and raises the dust."

Hadar (Beta Centauri)
  حضار   
Hazâr

Fr.: Hadar (β Centauri)   

A blue-white → giant star of → spectral type B1 III with a visual magnitude of V = 0.61 lying in the constellation → Centaurus. It lies at a distance of 350 → light-years and is the eleventh brightest star of the night sky. Also called → Agena

Hadar, from Ar. haZâr (حضار) "white camel."

hadron
  هادرون   
hâdron (#)

Fr.: hadron   

Any elementary particle which experiences the strong nuclear force. There are two sorts of hadrons: mesons, which have zero spin, and baryons, which have spin 1/2 or 3/2.

Hadron, from Gk. hadr(os) "thick, bulky" + -on a suffix used in the names of subatomic particles (gluon, meson, neutron), quanta (photon, graviton), and other minimal entities or components (magneton).

hadron era
  دوران ِ هادرونی   
dowrân-e hâdroni

Fr.: ère hadronique   

The interval lasting until some 10-5 seconds after the Big Bang when the Universe was dominated by radiation and its temperature was around 1015 kelvins. It is preceded by → Planck era and followed by → lepton era.

hadron; → era.

hadronic
  هادرونی   
hâdroni (#)

Fr.: hadronique   

Of or related to → hadrons.

hadron; → -ic.

hadronic matter
  ماده‌ی ِ هادرونی   
mâde-ye hâdroni (#)

Fr.: matière hadronique   

Ordinary matter composed of → hadrons.

hadronic; → matter.

Hafele-Keating experiment
  آزمایش ِ هافل-کیتینگ   
âzmâyeš-e Hafele-Keating

Fr.: expérience de Hafele-Keating   

An experiment performed in 1971 using four atomic → cesium clocks transported in jet airplanes eastward and westward around the Earth to verify the → time dilation predicted by the theory of → special relativity.

J.C. Hafele and R. E. Keating, 1972, Science 177, 166; → experiment.

hafnium
  هافنیوم   
hâfnium (#)

Fr.: hafnium   

A transition metal found in zirconium ores. This silvery, ductile metal is used in control rods for nuclear reactors and in tungsten filaments and electrodes. Symbol: Hf; Atomic mass: 178.49; Atomic number: 72; melting point 2230°C; boiling point 4602°C.

Hafnium, from N.L. Hafn(ia) "Copenhagen" + -ium. Hafnium was first observed by the French chemist Georges Urbain in 1911 in rare earth samples. Subsequently, the Danish physicist Nils Bohr predicted hafnium's properties using his theory of electronic configuration of the elements.

Hagen number (Hg)
  عدد ِ هاگن   
adad-e Hagen

Fr.: nombre de Hagen   

A dimensionless number characterizing the importance of → viscous force in a → forced flow.

named after the German hydraulic engineer Gotthilf H. L. Hagen (1797-1884); → number.

Haidinger fringes
  فریز‌های ِ هایدینگر   
farizhâ-ye Haydinger (#)

Fr.: franges d'Haidinger   

The interference fringes seen with thick plates near normal incidence.

W. K. von Haidinger (1798-1871), Austrian mineralogist and geologist; → fringe.

hail
  تگرگ   
tagarg (#)

Fr.: grêle   

A showery precipitation in the form of nearly spherical or irregular → pellets of ice having a diameter of up to 50 mm or more. Hail is associated with → thunderstorm cells that have strong currents of rising air and relatively great → humidity content. Hail can only form in cumulonimbus clouds. Water droplets, after the formation, freeze and begin to fall downward through the cloud, but the wind blows them back upward. As the droplets begin to fall back down again, they collect more water which also freezes, so the drop becomes bigger. Then the wind blows them back up again. This occurs several times, but eventually the frozen droplets become too big and heavy and fall as hail. See also → sleet.

From M.E. haghel, hayl; O.E. hægl, hagol; cf. O.H.G. hagal, Ger. Hagel "hail;" probably from PIE *haghlo- "pebble"; cf. Gk. kakhlex "round pebble;" Pers. Lori hogela "(big) stone."

Tagarg, dialectal variants (Aftari) tirek, (Tabari) terik, (Sangesari) tirak, Kurd. terze, Mid.Pers. tagarg "hail," probably from Proto-Iranian *tigraka- literally "fast (rain)," from *tigri- "sharp, fast, arrow," cf. Mid.Pers. tigr "arrow" (Mod.Pers. tir "arrow; bullet"); O.Pers. tigra- "pointed;" Av. tiγra- "pointed;" Gk. tigris "tiger," literally "fast (animal)," probably loan from Iranian; Tigris (river) "fast (river)," from Iranian. Alternatively, from Proto-Iranian *pati-garj-, from *garj- "to thunder, roar."

hair
  مو، گیس، گیسو   
mu (#), gis (#), gisu (#)

Fr.: cheveux, chevelure   

1) Any of the numerous fine filaments growing from the skin of humans or animals.
2) A mass or aggregate of hairs covering the human head. The mean diameter of human hair is about 100 μm (from 17 to 181 μm)
3) An outgrowth of the epidermis of a plant.
crosshairs; → no hair theorem; → Berenice's Hair.

M.E. heer; O.E. hær; cf. O.H.G. har, Du. haar, Ger. Haar "hair;" PIE base *kaisaro- "hair," from *ker(s)- "to bristle;" cf. Skt. kesara- "hair, mane (of a horse or lion)."

Mu(y) "hair;" Mid.Pers. môy "hair."
Gis, gisu, from Mid.Pers. ges, gesuk "hair, lock, tress," Av. gaêsa- "curly hair," gaêsav-, gaêθav- "curly, curly-haired," cf. Gk. kaite "bushy hair, mane," O.Ir. gaiset, PIE *ghaites "curly hair."

halation
  هاله‌گیری   
hâlegiri

Fr.: halo   

1) In a cathode-ray tube, the glow surrounding a bright spot that appears on the fluorescent screen as the result of the screen's light being reflected by the front and rear surfaces of the tube's face.
2) The effect in which a halo appears around the image of a bright object recorded on a photographic film or plate. It is produced by the fan-like pattern of light reflected through the emulsion by the medium's backing material.

Halation, from hal(o), → halo + -ation a combination of -ate and -ion, used to form nouns from stems in -ate.

Hâlegiri, from hâlé, → halo + giri, verbal noun of gereftan "to take, seize" (Mid.Pers. griftan, Av./O.Pers. grab- "to take, seize," cf. Skt. grah-, grabh- "to seize, take," graha "seizing, holding, perceiving," M.L.G. grabben "to grab," from P.Gmc. *grab, E. grab "to take or grasp suddenly;" PIE base *ghrebh- "to seize").

Hale's law
  قانون ِ هیل   
qânun-e Hale

Fr.: loi de Hale   

The leader and → follower spots have opposite polarities on either side of the equator. This reverses after the ~11 year → solar cycle. Also called Hale-Nicholson's law.

Named after George Ellery Hale (1868-1938), American astronomer; → law.

half
  نیم   
nim (#)

Fr.: moitié, mi-, demi-   

One of two equal or approximately equal parts of a divisible whole.

M.E., from O.E. h(e)alf "side, part," from P.Gmc. *khalbas "something divided" (cf. M.Du. half, Ger. halb, Goth. halbs "half").

Nim, nimé "half," from Mid.Pers. nêm, nêmag "half;" Av. naēma- "half;" cf. Skt.. néma- "half."

half moon
  نیمه‌ماه   
nimé mâh (#)

Fr.: demi-lune   

The moon when, at either quadrature, half its disk is illuminated.

half; → moon.

half-life
  نیم‌زیست   
nim-zist

Fr.: demi-vie   

The length of time required for half of a given quantity of → radioactive material to → decay.

half; → life.

half-power beamwidth (HPBW)
  پهنای ِ تابه در نیم‌توان   
pahnâ-ye tâbé dar nim-tavân

Fr.: largeur à mi-hauteur   

The angle between extreme points of the main lobe of an antenna pattern where the sensitivity of the antenna is half the value at the center of the lobe. This is the nominal resolving power of the antenna system.

half; → power; → beam; → width.

half-value layer (HVL)
  لایه‌ی ِ نیم-تنکش   
lâye-ye nim-tonokeš

Fr.: couche de demi-atténuation   

The thickness of material required to reduce the intensity of an → X-ray beam to one half of its initial value. The HVL is an indirect measure of the photon energies of a beam.

half; → value; → layer; → attenuation.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>