# An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

## فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

### M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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 infinite   بیکران   bikarân (#)Fr.: infini   Unlimited or unmeasurable in extent of space, duration of time, etc. Math.: Not finite; an infinite quantity or magnitude; large beyond bound. Of a set, having elements that can be put into one-to-one correspondence with a subset that is not the given set.→ in- + → finite. infinite population   پرینش ِ بیکران   porineš-e bikarânFr.: population infinie   A → statistical population consisting of individuals or items which either possesses the infinite property through some limiting process or is non-enumerable. For example, the population of all → real numbers between 0 and 1 and the population of all → integers are examples of infinite population. In case of random sampling with replacement, any population is always infinite.→ infinite; → population. infinite series   سری ِ بیکران   seri-ye bikarân (#)Fr.: série infinie   A series with infinitely many terms, in other words a series that has no last term, such as 1 + 1/4 + 1/9 + 1/16 + · · · + 1/n2 + ... . The idea of infinite series is familiar from decimal expansions, for instance the expansion π = 3.14159265358979... can be written as π = 3 + 1/10 + 4/102 + 1/103 + 5/104 + 9/105 + 2/106 + 6/107 + 5/108 + 3/109 + 5/1010 + 8/1011 + ... , so π is an "infinite sum" of fractions. See also → finite series.→ infinite; → series. infinite set   هنگرد ِ بیکران   hangard-e bikarânFr.: ensemble infini   A set which can be put in a one-to-one correspondence with part of itself.→ infinite; → set. infinitesimal   بی‌کران‌خُرد   bikarânxordFr.: infinitésimal   General: Indefinitely or exceedingly small. Math.: A variable that approaches zero as a limit. A quantity decreasing indefinitely without actually becoming zero.Infinitesimal, coined by Ger. philosopher and mathematician Baron Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (1646-1716) from N.L. infinitesim(us) "infinite in rank," from infinit(us), → infinite, + -esimus suffix of ordinal numerals + → -al.Bikarânxord, from bikarân "unbounded, unlimited, infinite," from bi- "without" + karân "boundary, side, end" (variants karâné, kenâr, from Mid.Pers. karân, karânak, kenâr "edge, limit, boundary," Av. karana- "side, boundary, end") + xord "minute, little, small" (from Mid.Pers. xvart, xôrt "small, insignificant;" Av. ādra- "weak, dependent;" Skt. ādhrá- "small, weak, poor," nādh "to be oppressed;" Gk. nothros "sluggish;" PIE base *nhdhro-). infinitesimal calculus   افماریک ِ بی‌کران‌خُرد   afmârik-e bikarânxordFr.: calcul infinitésimal   The body of rules and processes by means of which continuously varying magnitudes are dealt with in → calculus. The combined methods of mathematical analysis of → differential calculus and → integral calculus. infinitive   کرپایه   karpâyéFr.: infinitif   The nominal form of the verb which expresses the idea of action or state without indicating person, number, or tense.Contraction of L. infinitivus modus "unlimited, indefinite mood," from L. infinitus, → infinite.Karpâyé, literally "action base," from kar-, → verb, + pâyé, → base. infinity   بی‌پایان، بی‌پایانی   bipâyân (#), bipâyâni (#)Fr.: infini, infinité   That quantity which is greater than any assignable quantity.Noun form of → infinite. infix   دروند   darvandFr.: infixe   An → affix that is inserted within a root or stem.From L. infixus p.p. of infigere "to fasten in," from in- + figere "fasten."Darvand, from dar- "in" + vand, → affix. inflate   پندامیدن   pandâmidanFr.: s'enfler   To become inflated; to increase, especially suddenly and substantially. → inflation, → inflatory model.Inflate, from L. inflatus p.p. of inflare "to blow into, puff up," from → in- "into" + flare "to blow."Pandâmidan "to swell," from pandâm [Mo'in] "swelling;" Borujerdi panâm, panam "swellig;" Malâyeri panomidan "to swell;" Laki penamiyen "to swell;" Hamadâni pandumidan "swelling of the eye or other parts of the body;" Kermâni padum kerdan "to swell," padum "swelled; fat, corpulent;" Tâleši pandâm, pandom "swelling;" Gilaki pandâm kudan "rising of river water caused by flood;" cf. Gk. pneuma "wind; breath," from pnein "to blow; to breathe;" PIE base *pneu- "to breathe." Related terms in other Indo-European languages: O.E. fnaeran "to breathe heavily," fneosan "to snort, sneeze;" M.H.G. pfnusen, pfnehen "to breathe, pant, sniff, snort, sneeze;" Norw. fnysa "to breeze;" M.Du. fniesen, Du. fniezen "to sneeze;" O.H.G. niosan, Ger. niesen "to sneeze." inflation   پندام   pandâmFr.: inflation   1) General: The act of inflating; the state of being inflated. 2) Cosmology: A brief exponential expansion of the Universe postulated to have occurred 10-35 seconds after the → Big Bang, in response to the separation of the → strong interaction from the → electroweak interaction. This idea aims at explaining the → flatness problem, the → horizon problem, and the → magnetic monopole problem. See also → inflaton field.Verbal noun of → inflate. inflationary model   مدل ِ پندامی   model-e pandâmiFr.: modèle d'inflation   A class of → Big Bang models of the Universe that include a finite period of accelerated expansion in their early histories. Such an event would have released enormous energy, stored until then in the vacuum of space-time. The horizon of the Universe expanded, temporarily, much faster than the speed of light. → inflaton field.Inflationary, adj. of → inflation; → model. inflaton   اینفلاتون   inflatonFr.: inflaton   The hypothetical → particle that mediates the hypothetical → inflaton field.From inflat-, from → inflaton field, + particle suffix → -on. inflaton field   میدان ِ اینفلاتون   meydân-e inflatonFr.: champ inflaton   A hypothetical → scalar field that provides a theoretical basis for → inflation in the early → Big Bang history of the → Universe. The inflaton field would fill space with the same energy at every point. In general, the scalar field can vary with time and space, though to a first approximation everywhere in the Universe will have the same value at any time. The field has a particle associated with it, called → inflaton, just as the → electromagnetic field is associated with the → photon. The inflaton field is characterized also by a → negative pressure that would yield a tremendous → repulsive gravity during a brief lapse of time. In the earliest moments of the Universe, space is uniformly filled with an inflaton field, whose value places it higher up on its → potential energy curve. The inflaton's → potential energy would drop in a tiny fraction of a second, on the order of 10-35 seconds. And yet, during that brief instant, space would expand by a colossal factor, of at least 1030.→ inflaton; → field. inflect   درچفتیدن   darcaftidanFr.: mettre une désinence à, fléchir   1) General: To bend in, to turn from a direct line or course. 2) Grammar: To change the ending or form of a word in accordance with other words in a sentence. To apply → inflection to.From M.E. inflecten, from L. inflectere "to bend in, bow, curve," figuratively, "to change," from → in- + flectere "to bend, to curve," of uncertain origin.Darcaftidan, from dar-, → in-, + caftidan, → flex. inflection   درچفتش   darcaftešFr.: inflexion   A change in the form of a word to indicate a change in such grammatical features as tense, person, gender, case, number, voice, or mood. A general term for → declension and → conjugation.Verbal noun of → inflect. inflection point   نقطه‌ی ِ درچفتش   noqte-ye darcaftešFr.: point d'inflexion   A point on a → curve at which the → tangent changes direction, from rotating in one sense to rotating in the opposite sense.→ inflection; → point. inflectional   درچفتشی   darcaftešiFr.: désinentiel, flexionnel   Of, relating to, or characterized by the use of → inflection, e.g. → inflectional affix.→ inflection + → -al. inflectional affix   وند ِ درچفتشی   vand-e darcaftešiFr.: affixe inflexionnelle   An → inflection that is added at the end of a root word. In English there are eight inflectional affixes, which are all suffixes. They always follow derivational suffixes and do not change the category of a word.→ inflectional + → affix. inflow   درتچان   dartacânFr.: afflux, débit entrant   1) The act or process of flowing in or into. Something that flows in or into. Opposite of → outflow. 2) Meteo: Flow of water into a stream, lake, reservoir, container, basin, aquifer system, etc.Inflow, from → in- + → flow.