An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

   Homepage   
   


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- a p abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi ads aes Age Alb Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app app arb are ari art ass ast ast ast Atl ato ato Aug aut awa azi bac bal Bar Bar Bay bea Bep Bet BIC bij bin bio bir bla bla blu blu bol Boo bou Bq bre bri bub B[e cal cal can car car Cas cat cau cel cen Cer cha cha cha che chi CI cir cir cla cle clo clu co- cob coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos cou cov cra cri cro cry cum cur cyc d'A dar dat DC dea dec dec dec def def deh Del den dep des det deu dia dif dif dif dim dip Dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom dos dou dri Dum dus dyn dyn ear eas ecl Edd eff Ein eje ele ele ele ele eli emb emi Enc ene ens eph epo equ equ eru eth Eul eve evo exc exc exi exo exp exp ext ext Fab fai Fan fea fem fer fie fil fir fir fla flo flu foc For for fos fra fre fre fro fun g m Gal gal gal gas gau gel gen geo geo geo gho gla gno gra gra gra gra Gre Gre gro gyr had hal har Har HD hea hel hel Her Her Hic hig hip hol hor hos hov Hub hun hyd hyd Hyd hyp IC ide ill ima imp imp inc inc ind ind inf inf inf inf inj ins ins int int int int int int int int inv inv ion iro Isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur kel Kep kil Kle Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Mei Mer Mer met met Met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per pet pha Pho pho pho pho Pic Pis Pla pla pla pla Ple poa pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pra pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul puz qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea Rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret Rhe rid rig ris Roe Ros rot rub rut Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci sea sec sec see sel sem sen ser Sgr sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli smo soc sol sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spl spu sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str Str sub sub sub sul sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn sys Tam Tay tel ten Ter Tha the the the thi thr tib tid tim tok Tor tot tra tra tra tra Tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ ufo ult unc uni uni uni upl ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vil vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yea You zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 13009 Search : far
-tion
   -ش، -یی   
-eš, -yi

Fr.: -tion   

A suffix used to form abstract nouns from verbs to express action, state, or associated meanings.

From L. -tionem, accusative of noun suffix -tio (genitive -tionis).

-eš, from Mid.Pers. -išn.

-tor
   -گر، -گار، -آر، -نده   
-gar (#), -gâr (#), -âr (#), -andé (#)

Fr.: -teur   

A suffix forming personal agent nouns mainly from verbs, as in dictator, genitor, orator.

From L. -tor (examples), cf. Gk. -tor (examples), Av. -tar (astar "thrower," dātar- "giver," varštar- "producer"), Skt. -tr (datr- "giver," dartr- "breaker")

Agent suffix -gar, variant -gâr, from kar-, kardan "to do, to make" (Mid.Pers. kardan; O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build;" Av. kərənaoiti "makes;" cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make;" krnoti "makes," karma "act, deed;" PIE base kwer- "to do, to make"). Suffix -âr, as in parastâr, xaridâr, virâstâr. Agent suffix -andé, used with verbs.

-tron
   -ترون   
-tron (#)

Fr.: -tron   

A suffix used principally in the names of various devices and instruments (klystron; magnetron; cyclotron; synchrotron).

Perhaps a shortening of electron with accidental allusion to the Gk. instrumental suffix -tron, as in arotron "plough;" akin to O.E. -thor, suffix denoting an instrument; L. -trum; Skt. -tra.

-tropic
   -گرد   
-gard (#)

Fr.: -trope   

A suffix denoting "turned toward" that specified by the initial element; → barotropic, → isotropic, → polytropic.

From Gk. -tropos "a turn, way, manner," from tropein "to turn," from PIE base *trep- "to turn" (cf. L. trepit "he turns").

Gard "turning, changing," from gardidan "to turn, to change," Mid.Pers. vartitan, Av. varət- "to turn, revolve," Skt. vartati, L. vertere, O.H.G. werden "to become;" PIE *werto, *wer-.

-tropy
   -گردی   
-gardi (#)

Fr.: -tropie   

A suffix denoting the state of turning in a specified way.

From Gk. -tropia, from tropos "turn," trope "a turning."

Suffix form -gardi, from gardidan, gaštan "to turn, to change" (Mid.Pers. vartitan; Av. varət- "to turn, revolve;" Skt. vrt- "to turn, roll," vartate "it turns round, rolls;" L. vertere "to turn;" O.H.G. werden "to become;" PIE base *wer- "to turn, bend").

-ule
   -اول، -اوله   
-ul, -ulé

Fr.: -ule   

A suffix meaning "small, little," as in → formula, → globule, → module, capsule, nodule.

From Fr. -ule, from L. diminutive suffix -ulus (feminine -ula, neuter -ulum).

Pers. diminutive suffix -ul, ulé, as in:
zangulé, zangul "small bell;"
kutulé, kutul "dwarf;"
golulé, gullé "small ball; bullet;"
maškulé (Torbat Heydariye-yi) "small water-skin;"
kandulé "a small jar for holding grain;"
jâšulé = small donkey (Kurd.);
Ahmadulé = little Ahmad (Kurd.);
rulé = "little child" (Kurd., Tâleši, Borujerdi, Malâyeri, and other Western dialects of Iran) probably from *ruduleh, cf. rud "child" (in zâd-o-rud) and Gilaki rey "boy;"
digul (Šuštari), digulé (Qomi) "small casserole, little pot;"
This suffix occurs also as -ulu, -âlé, and -élé as, e.g., in kuculu, cangul, panjul, bozqâlé, dâsqâlé, kâselé (Farâhâni) "small bowl," and barfelé (Farâhâni) "little snow."
Examples of use in this dictionary: disul → formula; karpul → corpuscle. See also -al → -al

-ward
   -سو   
-su (#)

Fr.: vers   

A suffix denoting spatial or temporal direction, as specified by the initial element. Also -wards (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from O.E. -weard "toward," literally "turned toward;" PIE *wert- "to turn, wind," from *wer- "to turn, bend;" cf. Pers. gard-, gardidan "to turn, change," → revolve, → evolve.

-su, → direction.

10 Hygiea
   10 هوگیا   
10 Hugiyâ

Fr.: 10 Hygie   

The fourth largest → main belt asteroid and the only known → asteroid whose surface composition appears similar to that of the dwarf planet Ceres, suggesting a similar origin for these two objects. Hygiea suffered a giant impact more than 2 Gyr ago that is at the origin of one of the largest asteroid families. High angular resolution imaging observations of Hygiea with the VLT/SPHERE instrument (~20 mas at 600 nm) reveal a basin-free nearly spherical shape with semi-axes of 225 ± 5 km, 215 ± 5 km, and 212 ± 10 km and a volume equivalent radius of 217 ± 7 km. The shape and the best estimate of Hygiea's mass, (8.32 ± 0.80) × 1019 kg, yield a density of 1944 ± 250 kg m-3. Such density is compatible, within errors, with Ceres' density (2161.6 ± 2.5 kg m-3). These observations moreover, yield a new rotation period of ~ 13.8h for Hygiea, that is half of the currently accepted value. Numerical simulations of the family forming event show that Hygiea's spherical shape and family can be explained by a collision with a large projectile (Diameter ~ 75-150 km). By comparing Hygiea's sphericity with that of other solar system objects, it appears that Hygiea is nearly as spherical as Ceres, opening a possibility for this object to be reclassified as a dwarf planet (Vernazza et al., 2019, Nature Astronomy, 28 October).

in Greek mythology Hugieia / Hugeia was a daughter of the god of medicine, Asclepius, and Epione. She was the goddess, personification of health, cleanliness and sanitation. Her Roman name is Hygea/Hygia or Salus.

101955 Bennu
  ۱۰۱۹۵۵ بنو   
101955 Bennu

Fr.: (101955) Bénou   

A → Near-Earth Object (NEO) which is a → B-type asteroid with a ~ 500 m diameter. Bennu completes an orbit around the Sun every 436.604 days (1.2 years) and every 6 years comes very close to Earth, within 0.002 → astronomical units. Bennu's composition (primitive and carbon-rich), size and proximity to Earth make it the ideal target for the → OSIRIS-REx project. Bennu is officially classified as a potentially dangerous asteroid. In fact, there's an 0.037 percent (or 1-in-2,700) chance that it will strike Earth in the last quarter of the 22nd century.

Named after the Egyptian mythological bird Bennu.

1036 Ganymed
  ۱۰۳۶ گانیمد   
1036 Gânimed

Fr.: 1036 Ganymed   

The largest → near-Earth asteroid, which is about 32 km in size. It belongs to the group of → Amor asteroids and has a → rotation period of about 10.31h. Ganymed was discovered by Walter Baade on October 23, 1924.

German rendering of → Ganymede. Note that Jupiter's moon Ganymede is named after the same, but uses a different spelling.

109P/Swift-Tuttle
  ۱۰۹P/سوییفت-تاتل   
109P/Swift-Tuttle

Fr.: 109P/Swift-Tuttle   

The largest → comet orbiting periodically around the → Sun. Its nucleus is about 26 km across and its orbital period 133 years. Comet Swift-Tuttle is the parent body of the → meteor shower called the → Perseids. The comet was discovered in July 1862, when it was apparently as bright as → Polaris in the night sky. The comet's reappearance was predictaed for 1992, when it was rediscovered by Japanese amateur astronomer Tsuruhiko Kiuchi. In 2126 it will be a bright naked-eye comet when it will come within about 23 million km of Earth, or about 60 times the distance from Earth to the Moon. Its nearest approach to Earth is expected in 3044, when the comet will come within 1.6 million kilometres of the Earth's surface.

Named after the American astronomers who independently discovered the comet in 1862, Lewis Swift (1820-1913) on July 16, and Horace Parnell Tuttle (1837-1923) on July 19.

1221 Amor
     
1221 Amor

Fr.: 1221 Amor   

The prototype of the → Amor asteroids discovered by the Belgian astronomer Eugène Joseph Delporte (1882-1955) on 12 March 1932. It is about 1 km across, has an → orbital period of 2.66 years, an → aphelion distance of 2.754 → astronomical units, and a → perihelion distance of 1.086 AU.

After the Roman god of love, better known as Cupid.

162173 Ryugu
  ۱۶۲۱۷۳ ریوگو   
162173 Ryugu

Fr.: 162173 Ryugu   

A → potentially hazardous asteroid of the → Apollo group. It is approximately 900 m across and displays the characteristics of → C-type asteroids. It was discovered by astronomers with the Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research on May 10, 1999. Ryugu rotates every ~ 7.6 hours and revolves around the Sun in an elongated orbit with an → eccentricity of 0.1902 and a → semi-major axis of 1.1896 → astronomical units (au) in 1.30 years (474 days). Its → aphelion and → perihelion are at 1.4159 au and 0.9633 au, respectively. Ryugu was visited by the Japanese sample-return spacecraft → Hayabusa2 which arrived at the asteroid on June 27, 2018. It studied the asteroid with its several instruments and landers. It is expected to bring surface material to Earth in 2020.

Provisionally named 1999JU3, Ryugu was officially adopted by the Minor Planet Center on September 28, 2015. The name relates to the Japanese folk tale of the fisherman Urashima Taro. He rescues a turtle from a group of children. The turtle takes him to an underwater palace known as "Ryugu" or "Dragon's Palace." He falls in love with a princess who begs him to stay, but after three days Urashima wishes to return home. As a parting gift, the princess gives the fisherman a box that she tells him never to open. Upon returning home, Urashima is stunned to find that 300 years have passed and everyone he knew has died. In confusion, he opens the box and is encased in a cloud of white fog. When the fog clears, he finds he is an old man, as the box contained his age.

1862 Apollo
  آپولون   
1862 Apolon

Fr.: 1862 Apollon   

A → near-Earth asteroid (NEA) that is the prototype of the → Apollo asteroids. It was discovered by the German astronomer Karl Reinmuth (1892-1979) in 1932, but was then lost until 1973. It has an estimated average diameter of 1.4 km, an → orbital period of 652 days, a → perihelion distance of 0.647 AU, and an → aphelion distance of 2.294 AU. It can come as close to Earth as 0.028 AU. Apollo has a small satellite of size less than one-tenth of the primary. Apollo was one of the two first asteroids in which the → YORP effect was detected.

Apollo or Apollon in Greek mythology the god of music and also of prophecy, medicine, archery, poetry, dance, intellectual inquiry and the carer of herds and flocks.

1I/'Oumuamua
     
1I/'Oumuamua

Fr.: 1I/'Oumuamua   

The first known → interstellar object coming from beyond → Solar System. Detected on October 19, 2017 by the → Pan-STARRS sky survey, it was initially classified as an interstellar → asteroid. 'Oumuamua has a strongly → hyperbolic orbit (→ eccentricity 1.191 ± 0.007), with a very high average velocity with respect to the Sun (v = 26.32 km s-1), indicating that it likely originated from beyond our Solar System. Its → inclination with respect to the → ecliptic is 123°. 'Oumuamua would be approximately 160 m in diameter. This is the first known asteroid-like energetically unbound from the Sun. By comparison the → NASA Voyager 1 spacecraft travels about 17 km s-1 through → interstellar medium. When first detected, 'Oumuamua was 0.2 → astronomical units (au) from the Earth (30 × 106 km). Initially it was classified to be a → comet and was designated C/2017 U1. But further observations revealed no hint of → cometary activity. The object was therefore reclassified as an asteroid with designation A/2017 U1. According to orbit calculations, 'Oumuamua crossed under the → ecliptic plane just inside of Mercury's orbit and then went through → perihelion on September 9, 2017, at a distance of 0.25528 au (about 38 million km) from the Sun, speeding up to 87.71 km s-1. Pulled by the Sun's gravity, the object made a U turn below the ecliptic, passing under Earth's orbit on October 14 at a distance of about 24 million km, that is about 60 times the distance to the Moon. It has now risen above the plane of the planets and is travelling at 44 km s-1 with respect to the Sun. In 2197 it will be 1,000 au from the Sun. Recent → outgassing activity observed toward this object suggests that 'Oumuamua is most likely an interstellar comet and not an asteroid (Michelli et al., 2018, Nature 27 June).

The name 'Oumuamua approved by the IAU was submitted by the team at the Pan-STARRS telescope who discovered the object. It is a Hawaiian construct combining 'ou "to reach out" and mua "first" or "in advance of;" the second mua is for emphasis. 'Oumuamua is loosely translated as "scout" or "messenger." The 1I prefix indicates the interstellar nature of this first object.

2 Pallas
  ۲ پالاس   
2 Pâllâs (#)

Fr.: 2 Pallas   

The largest → asteroid and the second to be discovered, by Heinrich Olbers in 1802. Before the reclassification of → Ceres, Pallas was the second largest asteroid. Pallas is slightly irregular in shape with dimensions 570 x 525 x 482 km. It appears to have the same composition as → meteorites classed as low-grade → carbonaceous chondrites. Its → rotation period is 9 to 12 hours, and its → semi-major axis 2.773 → astronomical unints.

In Gk. mythology, Pallas was one of the Titans. The winged husband of Styx, he is the father of Nike and maybe Eos. Some legends claim that he is the father of Athena, possibly because of her nickname Pallas-Athena.

2015 RR245
     
2015 RR245

Fr.: 2015 RR245   

A new → dwarf planet found beyond Pluto's orbit, in the → Kuiper belt. It is roughly 700 km in size and has a highly elliptical orbit; it seems to come as close to the Sun as 34 → astronomical units (AU), and farther away than 120 AU. 2015 RR245 was discovered by an international team of astronomers using the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope on Maunakea.

A provisional name.

2015 TC25
     
2015 TC25

Fr.: 2015 TC25   

The smallest → near-Earth asteroid (NEA) ever characterized in detail. 2015 TC25 is also one of the brightest NEAs ever discovered, since the object reflects about 60% of the incident sunlight. 2015 TC25 was observed using ground-based optical, → near-infrared and radar techniques during a close → flyby 126,000 km from the Earth in Oct. 2015. The observations suggest that its surface composition is similar to → aubrites, a rare class of high albedo → differentiated meteorites. 2015 TC25 is also a very fast rotator with a → rotation period of 133 seconds. There are clues that 2015 TC25 was chipped off by another impacting rock from its parent, → (44) Nysa, a large and bright → main belt asteroid that measures about 80 km in diameter (Reddy et al., 2016, arXiv:1612.00113).

Provisional name for an → asteroid designation whose orbit is not know.

2062 Aten
  آتن   
2062 Aten

Fr.: 2062 Aten   

The first → asteroid found to have an orbital → semi-major axis of less than one → astronomical unit. Discovered by the American woman astronomer Eleanor F. Helin (1932-2009) in 1982, it is the prototype of the → Aten asteroids.

Named after Aten, the Egyptian god of the solar disk.

21 cm line
  خط ِ ۲۱ س.م.   
xatt-e 21-sântimetr (#)

Fr.: raie 21-cm   

The → emission line of → neutral hydrogen in → interstellar clouds. It lies in the → radio spectrum at → wavelength of about 21 cm, → frequency 1420 MHz. Its existence was predicted by Hendrik van de Hulst in 1944 and discovered by Harold Ewen and Edward Purcell in 1951.

Twenty-one (21); → twenty + → one; → centimeter; → line.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- a p abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi ads aes Age Alb Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app app arb are ari art ass ast ast ast Atl ato ato Aug aut awa azi bac bal Bar Bar Bay bea Bep Bet BIC bij bin bio bir bla bla blu blu bol Boo bou Bq bre bri bub B[e cal cal can car car Cas cat cau cel cen Cer cha cha cha che chi CI cir cir cla cle clo clu co- cob coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos cou cov cra cri cro cry cum cur cyc d'A dar dat DC dea dec dec dec def def deh Del den dep des det deu dia dif dif dif dim dip Dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom dos dou dri Dum dus dyn dyn ear eas ecl Edd eff Ein eje ele ele ele ele eli emb emi Enc ene ens eph epo equ equ eru eth Eul eve evo exc exc exi exo exp exp ext ext Fab fai Fan fea fem fer fie fil fir fir fla flo flu foc For for fos fra fre fre fro fun g m Gal gal gal gas gau gel gen geo geo geo gho gla gno gra gra gra gra Gre Gre gro gyr had hal har Har HD hea hel hel Her Her Hic hig hip hol hor hos hov Hub hun hyd hyd Hyd hyp IC ide ill ima imp imp inc inc ind ind inf inf inf inf inj ins ins int int int int int int int int inv inv ion iro Isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur kel Kep kil Kle Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Mei Mer Mer met met Met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per pet pha Pho pho pho pho Pic Pis Pla pla pla pla Ple poa pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pra pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul puz qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea Rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret Rhe rid rig ris Roe Ros rot rub rut Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci sea sec sec see sel sem sen ser Sgr sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli smo soc sol sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spl spu sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str Str sub sub sub sul sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn sys Tam Tay tel ten Ter Tha the the the thi thr tib tid tim tok Tor tot tra tra tra tra Tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ ufo ult unc uni uni uni upl ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vil vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yea You zer zod > >>