An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
iris
  ۱) تیتک؛ ۲) ایریس؛ ۳) زنبق   
1) titak; 2) Iris; 3) zanbaq

Fr.: iris   

1a) The circular diaphragm forming the colored portion of the eye and perforated by the pupil in its center. → pupil.
1b) A diaphragm forming an adjustable opening over a lens in an optical instrument.
2) Asteroid 7, discovered in 1847 by E. astronomer John Russell Hind (1823-1895).
3) Botany: A plant having showy flowers, typically of purple, yellow, or white, and long thin leaves.

Iris, M.E., from L. irid-, iris "colored part of the eye, rainbow, iris plant, a precious stone," from Gk. iris, iridos "rainbow, iris plant, iris of the eye," initially "a messenger of the gods, regarded as the goddess of the rainbow." The eye portion was so called for being the colored part.

Titak, from Kermâni, Tâleši, variants Lori tiya, Dehxodâ dictionary tuk, probably from didan "to see," Mid.Pers. ditan "to see, regard, catch sight of, contemplate, experience;" O.Pers. dī- "to see;" Av. dā(y)- "to see," didāti "sees;" cf. Skt. dhī- "to perceive, think, ponder; thought, reflection, meditation," dādhye; Gk. dedorka "have seen."
Zanbaq, from Pers. zanba "white rose."

iris diaphragm
  میان‌بند ِ تیتکی، ~ تیتک‌وار   
miyânband-e titaki, ~ titakvâr

Fr.: diaphragme iris   

A mechanical device, consisting of thin overlapping plates, designed to smoothly vary the effective diameter of a lens, thereby controlling the amount of light allowed through.

iris; → diaphragm.

Iris Nebula
  میغ ِ زنبق   
miq-e zanbaq

Fr.: nébuleuse de l'Iris   

Same as → NGC 7023.

iris; → nebula.

iron
  آهن   
âhan (#)

Fr.: fer   

A metallic → chemical element occurring abundantly in combined forms and used alloyed in a wide range of important tools and structural materials; symbol Fe. → Atomic number 26; → atomic weight 55.845; → melting point about 1,535°C; → boiling point about 2,750°C; → specific gravity 7.87 at 20°C; → valence +2, +3, +4, or +6. Iron is of critical importance to life, i.e. plants, humans, and animals. It occurs in hemoglobin, a molecule that carries → oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and then transports → carbon dioxide (CO2) back from the tissues to the lungs.
Iron has the highest nuclear → binding energy of all elements, and is therefore the most stable element. It is synthesized in → massive stars, and its occurrence ends the process of → thermonuclear reaction in stars. The resulting energy crisis leads to the destruction of the star through a → supernova explosion. It has several → radioactive isotopes with half-lives from 6 min (61Fe) to about 3 x 105 years (60Fe).

Iron, from O.E. isærn, from P.Gmc. *isarnan (cf. O.S. isarn, O.N. isarn, M.Du. iser, O.H.G. isarn, Ger. Eisen) "holy metal" or "strong metal," probably an early borrowing of Celt. *isarnon (cf. O.Ir. iarn, Welsh haiarn), from PIE *is-(e)ro- "powerful, holy," from PIE *eis "strong" (cf. Skt. isirah "vigorous, strong," Gk. ieros "strong").
The chemical symbol Fe, from L. ferrum "iron."

Âhan, Kurd. âsan, Mid.Pers. âhan; Av. aiianhaēna- "made of metal," from aiiah- "metal;" cf. Skt. áyas- "iron, metal;"  L. aes "brass;" Goth. aiz "bronze;" O.H.G. ēr "ore" (Ger. Erz "oar"); O.E. ora "ore, unworked metal," ar "brass, copper, bronze."

Iron Age
  عصر ِ آهن   
asr-e âhan (#)

Fr.: âge du fer   

The period generally occurring after the → Bronze Age, marked by the widespread use of iron. Its date and context vary depending on the country or geographical region. The Indo-European Hittites are the first people to work iron, in the Asia Minor, from about 1500 BC.

iron; → age.

iron convection zone (FeCZ)
  زنار ِ همبز ِ آهن   
zonâr-e hambaz-e âhan

Fr.: zone convective du fer   

A → convective zone close to the surface of → hot stars caused by a peak in the → opacity due to iron recombination. A physical connection may exist between → microturbulence in hot star atmospheres and a subsurface FeCZ. The strength of the FeCZ is predicted to increase with → metallicity and → luminosity, but decrease with → effective temperature. The FeCZ in hot stars might also produce localized surface magnetic fields. The consequence of the FeCZ might be strongest in → Wolf-Rayet stars. These stars are so hot that the → iron opacity peak, and therefore FeCZ, can be directly at the stellar surface or, better said, at the → sonic point of the wind flow. This may relate to the very strong → clumping found observationally in Wolf-Rayet winds, and may be required for an understanding of the very high → mass loss rates of Wolf-Rayet stars (See Cantiello et al. 2009, A&A 499, 279).

iron; → convection; → zone.

iron core
  مغزه‌ی ِ آهن   
maqze-ye âhan

Fr.: cœur de fer   

1) Electromagnetism: A bar of → soft iron that passes through a coil and serves to increase the → inductance of the coil.
2) The innermost part of some planets, such as Mercury, Venus, and Earth, which have a molten iron-rich core.
3) The end point in the evolution of stars with a mass above ~ 10 → solar masses. Such a star evolves in several stages over millions of years during which various → thermonuclear reactions take place in the star core. Each stage results in a core composed of heavier elements. The process ends when → silicon burning produces a core of iron-nickel. Since iron has the maximum → binding energy per → nucleon, the → nuclear fusion cannot proceed further. The iron core shrinks and heats up. It is maintained against → gravitational collapse by → electron degeneracy pressure, but it continues to grow as Si burning adds more iron. When the core reaches its → Chandrasekhar limit, it becomes unstable and undergoes the → core collapse.

iron; → core.

iron meteorite
  شخانه‌ی ِ آهنی   
šaxâne-ye âhani (#)

Fr.: météorite ferreux   

A meteorite which is composed mainly of iron mixed with smaller amounts of → nickel. Iron meteorites make up about 4.4% of all meteorites. See also → stony meteorite, → stony-iron meteorite.

iron; → meteorite.

iron opacity peak
  ستیغ ِ کدری ِ آهن   
setiq-e kederi-ye âhan

Fr.: pic d'opacité du fer   

A bump appearing in the plot of stellar → opacity versus temperature. The ionization of the heaviest → chemical elements, especially → iron, which is the most abundant heavy metal, produces a large number of weak spectral → absorption lines. These lines dominate the stellar opacity in the temperature range 105-106 K and furnish two local opacity peaks: a large peak around 2 × 105 K and a smaller one around 1.5 × 106 K (Rogers & Iglesias, 1992, ApJS 79, 507; Iglesias et al. 1992, ApJ, 397, 717).

iron; → opacity; → peak.

iron peak
  ستیغ ِ آهن   
setiq-e âhan

Fr.: pic du fer   

A maximum on the element-abundance curve in the vicinity of the iron → atomic number 26. The relative higher abundance of the → iron peak elements results from their being the end products of → nucleosynthesis in the interiors of → massive stars.

iron; → peak.

iron peak element
  بن‌پار ِ ستیغ ِ آهن   
bonpâr-e setiq-e âhan

Fr.: élémént du pic du fer   

A member of a group of elements with → atomic masses A about 40 to 60 that are synthesized by the → silicon burning process and appear in the → iron peak. They are mainly: → titanium (Ti), → chromium (Cr), → manganese (Mn), → iron (Fe), → cobalt (Co), and → nickel (Ni).

iron; → peak; → element.

ironic
  گواژیک   
govâžik

Fr.: ironique   

1) Using words to convey a meaning that is the opposite of its literal meaning; containing or exemplifying irony: an ironic novel; an ironic remark.
2) Of, pertaining to, or tending to use irony or mockery; ironical (Dictionary.com).

irony; → -ic.

irony
  گواژه   
govâžé (#)

Fr.: 1) ironie; 2) ironiser   

1) The humorous or mildly sarcastic use of words to imply the opposite of what they normally mean. → ironic.
2) An instance of this, used to draw attention to some incongruity or irrationality (Dictionary.com).

From L. ironia, from Gk. eironeia "dissimulation, assumed ignorance," from eiron "dissembler," perhaps related to eirein "to speak."

Govâžé, ultimately from Proto-Ir. *ui-vac-, from *ui- prefix denoting "apart, away, out," cf. Av. vi-, O.Pers. viy-, Skt. vi- (Mod.Pers., e.g., gozidan, → select, gozaštan "to cross," → passage) + *uac- "to say, speak," → word; also govâžidan "to make irony of, to say ironically."

Irr I galaxy
  کهکشان ِ بی‌سامان ِ گونه‌ی ِ I   
kahkašân-e bisâmân-e gune-ye I

Fr.: galaxie irrégulière de type I   

An → irregular galaxy that shows a hint of a spiral arm or bar, and can be placed at the far end of spirals in the → Hubble sequence.

irregular; → galaxy.

Irr II galaxy
  کهکشان ِ بی‌سامان ِ گونه‌ی ِ II   
kahkašân-e bisâmân-e gune-ye I

Fr.: galaxie irrégulière de type II   

An amorphous, → irregular galaxy that does not appear to show any structure that can place it into the → Hubble sequence.

irregular; → galaxy.

irradiance
  تابشداری   
tâbešdâri

Fr.: éclairement énergétique   

The → energy at all → wavelengths that is incident on unit area of surface in unit time. It is measured in Watts per square meter.

Irradiance, from ir- variant of → in- (by assimilation) before r + radi(ant), → radiation, + -ance a suffix used to form nouns either from adjectives in -ant or from verbs.

Tâbešdâri, from tâbeš, → radiation, + dâri, verbal noun from dâštan "to have, hold," → property.

irradiate
  تابش دادن   
tâbeš dâdan

Fr.: irradier   

To expose something to → radiation.

irradiance.

Tâbeš, → radiation, dâdan "to give," → irradiation.

irradiation
  ۱) تابش‌دهی، تابش‌گیری؛ ۲) نورگسترد   
1) tâbešdehi, tâbešgiri; 2) nurgostard

Fr.: irradiation   

1) Exposure to any kind of radiation or atomic particles.
2) An optical effect that makes a bright object appear larger than it really is when viewed against a darker background.

Irradiation, from ir- variant of → in- (by assimilation) before r + → radiation.

1) Tâbešdehi, tâbešgiri;, from tâbešradiation + giri verbal noun of gereftan "to take, seize" (Mid.Pers. griftan, Av./O.Pers. grab- "to take, seize," cf. Skt. grah-, grabh- "to seize, take," graha "seizing, holding, perceiving," M.L.G. grabben "to grab," from P.Gmc. *grab, E. grab "to take or grasp suddenly;" PIE base *ghrebh- "to seize"); dahi verbal noun of dâdan "to give," Mid.Pers. dâdan "to give" (O.Pers./Av. dā- "to give, grant, yield," dadāiti "he gives;" Skt. dadáti "he gives;" Gk. tithenai "to place, put, set," didomi "I give;" L. dare "to give, offer," facere "to do, to make;" Rus. delat' "to do;" O.H.G. tuon, Ger. tun, O.E. don "to do;" PIE base *dhe- "to put, to do").
2) Nurgostard, from nur, → light, + gostard past stem of gostardan "to expand; to spread; to diffuse" (Mid.Pers. wistardan "to extend; to spread;" Proto-Iranian *ui.star-; Av. vi- "apart, away from, out" (O.Pers. viy- "apart, away;" cf. Skt. vi- "apart, asunder, away, out;" L. vitare "to avoid, turn aside") + Av. star- "to spread," starati "spreads;" cf. Skt. star- "to spread out, extend, strew," strnati "spreads;" Gk. stornumi "I spread out," strotos "spread, laid out;" L. sternere "to spread;" Ger. Strahlung "radiation," from strahlen "to radiate," from Strahl "ray;" from M.H.G. strāle; from O.H.G. strāla "arrow," stripe; PIE base *ster- "to spread").

irrational number
  عدد ِ ناوابری   
adad-e nâvâbari

Fr.: nombre irrationnel   

A → real number which cannot be exactly expressed as a ratio a/b of two integers. Irrational numbers have decimal expansions that neither terminate nor become periodic. Every → transcendental number is irrational. The most famous irrational number is √ 2.

From ir- a prefix meaning "not," a variant of → in-, + → rational; → number.

irregular
  ۱) بی‌سامان؛ ۲) نارزن‌مند   
1) bisâmân (#); 2) nârazan-mand

Fr.: irrégulier   

1) Lacking symmetry, even shape, formal arrangement, etc. → irregular galaxy; → irregular variable.
2) Not according to rule, or to the accepted principle, method, course, order, etc.

From O.Fr. irregulier, from M.L. irregularis, from → in- "not" + L. regularis from regula "rule," from PIE *reg- "move in a straight line," hence, "to direct, rule" (cf. Pers. râst "right, straight;" O.Pers. rāsta- "straight, true," rās- "to be right, straight, true;" Av. rāz- "to direct, put in line, set," razan- "order;" Skt. raj- "to direct, stretch," rjuyant- "walking straight;" Gk. orektos "stretched out;" L. regere "to lead straight, guide, rule," p.p. rectus "right, straight;" Ger. recht; E. right).

Bisâmân, from bi- "not, without" + sâmân "order, arrangement, disposition; boundary, limit," Lârestâni sâmon "sign or mark separating one field from another," Gilaki, Tabari šalmân "a straight peace of wood or beam, post;" Mid.Pers. sâmânak, sahmân "limit;" loaned into Arm. sahmân; cf. Skt. sīmān-, sīmā- "boundary, border, limit."

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>